Health and Wellness

Health and Wellness

  • Bonnie J Kaplan added an answer:
    Is there a short, 5-minute set of questions that family doctors could use to screen patients to determine who needs dietary counselling?

    There are tons of apps and web-based questionnaires, but I am looking for one that helps a family doc determine if the patient drinks sugary drinks, eats processed foods, or needs to be nudged toward better cooking.

    Bonnie J Kaplan · The University of Calgary

    Thanks --- it's quite long, but I may pass it along to some people.

  • Jan Gunneweg added an answer:
    Are there any studies showing the relationship between health-related self-efficacy/ behaviour change and wellness?

    Does improved self efficacy/ health related behaviour improve perception of wellness?

    Jan Gunneweg · Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    Dear Ankur, Learned answers from scientists in the psycho-professions have been already given and they are the official answer to your question regarding " health-related self-efficacy/ behaviour change and wellness".

    I can only provide my personal account without any prior visit to any psychologist or psychoanalyst. First of all I am 76 and healthy with a quite rich self-efficacy behaviour and success in my profession that consists of a well-meant handshake between the domains of Humanities and Sciences. In fact, I have made of what started out as a hobby at young age into a profession that has required lots of time, patience, respect and internal wellness when I was finally able to combine the various aspects of my cognitive and emotional life.

    I enjoy what I do on a daily basis and try to influence others--who have the ears to listen--to see life as I have tried to see it. Yes, internal peace that is based on "mens sana in corpore sano" can defeat almost any obstacle that each of us will encounter in her/his short or long life. Change in lifestyles have happened as they come and go, but when health and inner peace are present--as I believe--chenges can be overcome without leaving deep sorrow or anxieties. I listen to my inner voice and try to eradiate it to my environment. So far it has succeeded.

  • Mohammed Nadeem added an answer:
    Are there any studies that analyse the relation between psychological well being at work and career satisfaction?

    I'm looking for studies (empirical and theoretical) that show that there is a link/correlation between psychological well being and career satisfaction. 

    I'm also interested in studies that show that career satisfaction is a component of psychological well being (at work). 

    Mohammed Nadeem · National University (California)

    Hi, Valerie:

    Interesting question. In a recent research---two studies examined the relationship between the experience of flow at work and indicators of satisfaction, engagement and psychological well-being. Data were collected from 211 journalists working in Norway and 224 staff nurses working in Turkish hospitals using anonymously completed questionnaires. This emphasis on flow was consistent with emerging trends in both psychology and organizational studies, termed positive psychology or Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS), respectively, to focus on strengths and excellence rather than dissatisfaction and pathology.

    Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling both personal demographic and work situation characteristics, indicated that flow accounted for significant increments in explained variance on most work outcome measures.

    Journalists indicating higher levels of flow also reported more enjoyment of work, positive effect and feelings of efficacy; nurses reporting higher levels of flow also indicated three more efficacies, vigor, dedication, absorption and higher self-rated job performance. Levels of flow however were unrelated to absenteeism and to most measures of psychological well-being in the journalist sample and to psychological well-being in the nursing sample!

    • Burke, R. J. (2010). Flow, Work Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being at the Workplace. IUP Journal Of Soft Skills, 4(1/2), 37-48.

    Hope this helps!

    Nadeem

  • Closed account added an answer:
    Are there any examples of measuring how energy development impacts human well-being?

    Indicators for human well-being exist in many forms especially at national level, but it seems that few exist for measuring impacts of energy development in particular.  Are there any examples of studies of this type on the community level, using indicators?  I am thinking beyond the traditional social indicators of health etc and more of the qualitative aspects of human well-being such as those laid out by Max-Neef. 

    Deleted

    While these are not pure measurement techniques, they do give a good grounding 

    Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability  Andrew K. Jorgensona,  Alina Alekseykoa, Vincentas Giedraitisb, Energy Policy Volume 66, March 2014, Pages 419–427 

    Sustainable Consumption, Energy Policy, and Individual Well-Being  Daniel A. Farber VANDERBILT LAW REVIEW Vol. 65:6:1479 

  • David M Fresco added an answer:
    Can an RCT cohort be used for additional, independent longitudinal analyses?

    If you were to follow-up an RCT cohort subsequent to the RCT trial itself, is it considered methodologically acceptable to use the cohort to examine associations that were not the focus of the RCT

    For example, if there was an RCT on the use of a mindfulness intervention to enhance well-being among cancer patients, could you later gather additional data and examine whether or not early life adversity was associated with rates of depression among the cohort?.

    If it is acceptable to use an RCT cohort in this way, is it simply a case of controlling for the RCT intervention in the analysis?

    David M Fresco · Kent State University

    I typically add a section in the consenting process to see if participants would agree to be contacted for additional studies.  I have found IRB fine with this kind of recruitment. Seems to me from an ethical standpoint, that is fine. It depends on the research question as to whether it holds water from a scientific standpoint. There is a famous study that used the MMPI to assess whether college students were at risk for suicide in the US during the late 1960s.  This MMPI study became the basis for the UNC alumni heart study which spawned much of the research for Type A personality.  Although not a RCT, a very famous example for repurposing data in a very fruitful way.  

  • Lars Lafferty added an answer:
    What are some of the current, most innovative public and private wireless medical device test bed programs today, and where are they housed?

    (ex. hospitals, non-hospital settings, homes, universities, etc.) What components and characteristics comprise these test beds? Are there different types of medical device test beds(ex. hardware, software, etc)? Where do these devices operate in the radio frequency? Is there a central repository of test results/data that the medical community and other stakeholders can access? What types of medical devices and innovations are being tested? How are tests and simulations being conducted in these settings? What testing standards, if any, are being applied for current wireless medical device test beds? Who are the primary users of wireless medical device test beds (researchers, doctors, innovators, entrepreneurs) and what knowledge can be gleaned from them?

    Lars Lafferty · University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

    Mr. Don Kaiser,

            Thank you for providing me with another excellent and credible source, pertaining to the Health Level Seven International, a level of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) seven-layer communications model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - the application level. Have you, or do you currently engage with the HL7? Would be thrilled to discuss with you in further detail, at your earliest convenience. Hope the you are having and continue to have a wonderful day. Looking forward to hearing from and speaking with you in further detail. Thanks.

    Sincerely,

    Lars Lafferty

  • Henry Adams Franceschi added an answer:
    What outcome measures should be used to demonstrate chronic disease management?

    My team provides disease specialist management of patients living in the community with chronic conditions such as respiratory, cardiovascular and diabetes. In the past we measured disease severity and other biomarkers, but with the move towards self management of chronic disease we want to measure other aspects of health and wellness. Any suggestions? 

    Henry Adams Franceschi · Health Engineered Communities

    The ;most reliable clinical (as opposed to research) metrics we've found working with indigenous people in the Panamanian rainforest are the degree to which individual CD patients:can:

    1 - restore their level of full-time functionality, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) , and Return-to-Work (RTW) behaviors,

    2 - significantly decrease key chemistries and biological markers for the predominant CD and (for all CD Pts) significantly decreased insulin resistance,

    3 - once control is attained, can maintain stable 1 and 2 above for  at least 12 months;

    4 - finally, as the USMC requires, the patient must be considered by military doctors to be "able to return to full-duty status, in a military rating, with no further need for medical services."

    The implication is that CD patients who can be restored to full functionality in their normal life situation no longer should be treated as CD patients and they don't need to spend one more penny on doctors, Rx medications, or medical procedures.

    Dr. Henry Franceschi

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    How reliable is the research that has gone into health, wellness and beauty products?

    How reliable is the research that has gone into health, wellness and beauty products? To what extent can we trust the research? Do we have convincing evidence that research with such products was carried out and that the results showed the efficacy of these products?

    Please share your specific views. Thanks.

    Miranda Yeoh · Selangor Matriculation College, Malaysia (Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor)

    Dear friends (@Lala, Prof Ljubomir and all), before I heard about anti aging chocolate, I know that ladies (and men) who don't want to age too fast were advised to TRADE COFFEE FOR COCOA.  That's because coffee is somewhat dehydrating, causes us to lose much water from our bodies, and may disturb good sleep.

    @Prof Ljubomir, thanks for the link.  I will get back when I have mentally digested it.  Very busy with my teaching and writing.)

  • Barry Turner added an answer:
    Should healthcare approaches that are outside the domain of conventional medicine be adopted into mainstream clinical practice?
    Overt hostility sometimes arises between physicians and non-allopathic health providers, with caustic diatribes emanating from both sides of the divide – particularly relating to the scientific credibility of various interventions. In an era of evidence-based medicine, should modern clinical care be based on credible untainted research and favorable outcomes for patients and populations rather than what is considered conventional or alternative?
    Barry Turner · University of Lincoln

    I feel I should revisit the statement I made last August:

    "I suspect that the conflict is caused by the fact that conventional medicine is highly regulated while snake oil salesmen can sell any kind of 'off the wall' nostrum with impunity".

    I should have added that it is quite often the case that 'regulation' fails and that those in the conventional field often all too regularly sell snake oil too!

  • Rejina Kamrul added an answer:
    What are the most reliable measures (indicators) of treatment adherence in metabolic syndrome?
    We are looking at predicting adherence to medical and behavioral health care recommendations among individuals with metabolic syndrome. I'm curious if anyone might be able to provide personal insight into specific indicators (behavioral or otherwise) that have been effective/reliable in quantifying the construct of treatment adherence?
    Rejina Kamrul · University of Saskatchewan

    Successful management requires identification and addressing both root cause, barrier. Patient vary considerably in their readiness and capacity. Success can be defied as better quality of life. greater self esteem. higher energy level etc. There is an approach for obesity management from Canadian obesity network: www.obesitynetwork.ca

  • Anup Patwari added an answer:
    Is it possible to reduce the lead content of Garcinia cambogia extract to the level of 0.05 ppm?

    We tested the raw material and found that the source of lead was lime.

    We used lab grade lime to reduce the lead contamination, but could achieve only a level of 0.4 ppm. We want to reduce this to 0.05ppm.

    Are there any processes to reduce this?

    Anup Patwari · Arpan Herbikem


  • Nader Aghakhani added an answer:
    What are the effects of sea water bath if taken daily?
    Seawater can have different effects on skin/ human body as compared to normal water bath. How better/adverse that can prove to be?
    Nader Aghakhani · Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    I think sea water bath  has no impact more than other waters. Skin is not permeable to any water.

  • Lois Biggin Moylan added an answer:
    Is anyone working with patient communication skills training, particulary for adolescents?

    I'm working on curriculum for high school health and wellness classes.

    Lois Biggin Moylan · Molloy College

    Professionally, I have taught therapeutic communication skills to both nursing students and to psychiatric nurses. I find the following technique very helpful in allowing the learner to not only  master the knowledge at a cognitive level, but to affective lay internalize the skills. First, I didactically present the content, which is based on communication theory and well accepted in the healthcare professions. I then provide examples and have related discussion. Finally, and very importantly, I divide the group into couples and I provide role playing scenarios which I video tape. 

  • Kathleen A. Turner added an answer:
    How can you isolate curcuminoids in curcumin using ethyl acetate and IPA solvents?

    We are extracting curcuminoids from turmeric using ethyl acetate and IPA solvents.

    The maximum recovery we get is about 55% of the total content of curcuminoids present in the raw material.

    Is there any way to increase the recovery of curcuminoids? 

    Kathleen A. Turner · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    The recovery may depend on the degree of hydration of your sample(i.e. whether it is fresh or dried).  Ethyl acetate will take up water in a hydrated sample, which will alter its characteristics as a solvent.. 

  • Renzo Bianchi added an answer:
    What is the current global prevalence of job burnout among mental health providers?
    I am researching job wellness with special reference to burnout, engagement and existential fulfillment
  • Tha'er Momani added an answer:
    What would be the operational definition of the age and gender differences of Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents?

    I am writing a thesis on the age and gender differences of Health-related quality of life aspects and the cultural and spiritual differences among children and adolescents.  I would like to know if the scores from the health-related quality of life measures, would be my variable. It is a self-report and a quasi-experimental design.  I was wondering what statistic analysis would I use; comparing means between age and gender.  Would I be able to use ANOVA? The measures are Likert scale.  My independent variables are age and gender, and my dependent variables would be the scores from the measures.

    Tha'er Momani · St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    Agree with Carlos. An ANCOVA will probably be your best bet. Or you can include both in a univariate model and see how they interact

  • Tatyana Mollayeva added an answer:
    Are there any articles indicating whether using specific questions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) can be used as predictors?
    I am wondering if the specific questions asked by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) can be analyzed individually. Is anyone aware of articles that do this? Or, using principle components analysis?
    Tatyana Mollayeva · University of Toronto

    Hello,

    Insomnia represents something of a challenge to measure because there is no generally accepted reference or gold standard. One approach would be to use a carefully constructed questionnaire which incorporates items relevant to the construct of insomnia, where each component score measure a particular aspect of the same construct of insomnia.The developers of the instrument reported that all seven component scores of the ISI showed satisfactory internal consistency, as indicated by a Cronbach’s alpha.

    Principal components analysis of your data can help you factors explaining the most variance in the dataset,  the cumulative percentage of explained variance after each factor, and decide how many factors are relevant in your population.

    Best regards,

    Tatyana

  • Vicent Balanzá Martínez added an answer:
    Omega-6: a public health disaster.
    Today I read an article by Emily Deans, M.D entitled "Your Brain on Omega-3." It was published in Psychology Today and can be accessed here: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201103/your-brain-omega-3

    The article contains the best summary discussion about the omega-6 hazard I have ever seen. There's growing realization that excessive omega-6 intake is largely responsible for the high incidence of chronic inflammatory disease. Have others in this group been reading about omega-6?
    Vicent Balanzá Martínez · Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe

    Interesting topic. It seems that the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio is relevant in terms of health. In other words, the imbalance of PUFAs in favour of omega-6s would increase the risk for a pro-inflammatory state, for instance. Low-grade systemic inflammation is a common pathway for most common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, depression, and even cancer, to name a few. These chronic conditions are frequently comorbid and, of note, their prevalence has risen significantly in the last decades. Explanations include lifestyle factors, such as nutrition/diet. According to some, secular changes in the fat content of diets might explain this increase, especially in Western countries. For instance, Simopoulos has suggested this from an evolutionary perspective. In addtion, specific nutrients may play a role but it is sensible to take a broader perspective in terms of healthy vs unhealthy dietary patterns. It seems that the shift-away from traditional diets (e.g. Mediterranean diet) towards unhealthy, poor diets (e.g. Western or cafeteria diets) increases the risk for some NCDs. For instance, high adherence to Mediterranean diet has been associated with a decreased risk for CVDs, diabetes, and depression, according to several epidemiological studies, such as the PREDIMED study and the SUN cohort study in Spain. You may want to read some papers by F Jacka on this topic.    

  • Abhishek Pathak added an answer:
    What is the effect of drinking water immediately after eating? Does it have a positive role on digestion?
    Does it dilute the secreted acids?
    Abhishek Pathak · Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

    drinking of little amount of water with the meal helps in digestion. 

  • Rupert Whitaker added an answer:
    What are the similarities and differences between a public health and a community psychology intervention programme?
    Do you know of any intervention programme(s) that tries to address both a public health and a community psychological problem?
    Rupert Whitaker · Tuke Institute

    A brief answer is that public health relies on information or intervention (e.g., vaccination) - both "doing for" - whereas community psychology relies on skills-building on that information - "doing with" - and empowerment

  • Violeta Iguchi added an answer:
    What are the best measures in predicting second appointment return with early dropout clients?
    I was wondering if anybody can assist me with a measure in predicting client drop out after first appointment? I have the WAI, CALPAS and HaQ. Are these the best options? More importantly what are the best ways in managing clients when a connection hasn't been made in the first appointment. Is there research on how to recognise, acknowledge and refer on such clients?
    Violeta Iguchi · Viterbo University

    That sounds really good!  I'd be interested to see the results!

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Do you believe in going sugar free as one of the means to lose weight or check weight gain?
    Artificial sweetners and sugar free foods are quite a star these days. What is your opinion on such products against sugar or natural sweetners?
    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Dear @Hristina, you do have some proposals attached for balanced diet! I do accept the fact  that balanced diet is for maintaining rather than for losing or for gaining weight. Man and woman have different proposals!

  • Terry Richmond added an answer:
    Do you have any information on successful implementations of fall-prevention strategies in your country?
    We will be looking at the implementation of the fall-prevention strategies in the acute sector, primary care and nursing homes.
    Terry Richmond · Kingston General Hospital

    Daily mobility assessments and falls risk assessments by nursing staff .Identification of falls risk patients with use of falling star logos.Daily walking program by 2 personal care assistants on all patients over 65yrs admitted to medicine program that come from home,retirement home or rehab.Frequent audits.Daily discussuins of mobility status and falls risk at board rounds. 

  • Jaesung Heo added an answer:
    What types of statistical analyses are used in the algorithms that are embedded in "smart" wearable sensors?
    There has been a market explosion of smart wearable sensors. The sales are predicted to raise considerably in the next 5 years and several large companies are adopting the technologies to further develop the products. The New York Times has published several pieces in their Science section pointing out the inaccuracies of the devices. Yet it is thought that these gadgets will disrupt clinical research, see ongoing discussion here

    https://www.linkedin.com/groups/Will-health-data-collection-platforms-4322249.S.5877605859869102083?view=&item=5877605859869102083&type=member&gid=4322249&trk=eml-b2_anet_digest-null-5-null&fromEmail=fromEmail&ut=0gEk-1fPeNt6g1

    I think that using proper statistical algorithms in these devices will bring us closer to truly personalized medicine. Yet as it stands today they do not seem accurate enough and seem to be using inadequate statistics for individualized assessment. I think that the Researchgate community could actually make a difference and open a platform for data standardization, exchange and analyses with the potential to change the diagnosis, tracking and treatment methods for various disorders of the nervous systems.
    Jaesung Heo · Ajou University
    I think this paper is a good example for mobile health.

    "Outpatient Glycemic Control with a Bionic Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes"
    http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1314474
  • Yvonne Mitchell added an answer:
    How are early dropouts managed in psychotherapy?
    I am really interested in how the process of dropouts is managed in psychotherapy. I am writing a thesis on this topic and would really appreciate contributions in thought on the matter. Particularly around how early dropouts (1-3 sessions) are managed in everyday psychotherapy practice. Are there enforced guidelines around follow up? Is there any Australian data on the percentage of dropouts in the first few appointments that have been stratified between resolved status and those that are unsatisfied with their experience? Also what systems do therapists have in place to identify and support unsatisfied dropouts?
    Yvonne Mitchell · Freed-Hardeman University

         When therapist are on vacation are on vacation or unavailable to clients, they have an obligation to have another clinician available in case the client needs assistance.  If the therapist feels that  he is not able to make progress with the client, he may refer the client to someone else with the clients agreement. 

         I not sure what occurs when clients drop out of therapy.  If they are extremely resistant and difficult, the therapist may relish the fact that the client  has left. As therapist, we are often philosophical believing that the teacher scenario applies to clients as well. That scenario says that when the student is ready, the teacher will appear.   In consideration of drop out rate, client readiness is an essential component to be examined.

  • Rupa Lavanya Kaskurthy added an answer:
    "MORINGA is the only perfect food plant on the Globe" Please comment with relevant evidence
    "Moringa" is an important food source since it can be grown cheaply, has high nutritional value and grows in most tropical countries. Also called as "green super food". Konso people of Ethiopia believe that "There is no life without Moringa"

    It is rich in all essential > 90 amino acid constituents, omega oils, proteins, calcium, iron, Vitamin C and E, Beta-carotene and 64 food nutrients thus acting as a rich nutritional supplement and increasing body immunity. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-fungal properties thus curing arthritis, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders, paralysis, etc.

    Extensive worldwide research on the plant urges me to study "MORINGA" in-depth for its various applications for human benefit. Do contribute to the study.
    Rupa Lavanya Kaskurthy · Karnataka College of Pharmacy
    With a beneficial superfood properties:Following few topics are interesting and clinically proven - Moringa species
    The superfood known as Moringa (pods, leaves & leaf powder) is a powerful anti-aging nutrient zeatin & it also has two compounds that prevent cancer and stop tumor growth. A proven tool in the fight against hunger.
    Researchers at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) showed that levels of four Moringa species (oleifera, peregrine, stenopetala and drouhardii) all contained high levels of nutrients and antioxidants.

    The leaves have a strong source of vitamin A and, when raw, vitamin C & B vitamins. Calcium content is very high, Phosphorous is low, as it should be. The content of iron is very good (it is reportedly prescribed for anemia in the Philippines). They are an excellent source of protein and a very low source of fat and carbohydrates. Thus the leaves are one of the best plant foods that can be found." Leaves are incomparable as a source of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine, which are often in short supply. It is called "mother's best friend" and "malunggay.

    In a Canadian study, Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD.
    AVRDC says that "For a child aged 1-3, a 100 g (same weight as 1/10 of a liter of water) serving of fresh leaves would provide all his daily requirements of calcium, about 75% of his iron and half his protein needs, as well as important supplies of potassium, B complex vitamins, copper and all the essential amino acids. As little as 20 grams of fresh leaves would provide a child with all the vitamins A and C he needs."
    "For pregnant and breast-feeding women, Moringa leaves and pods can do much to preserve the mother's health and pass on strength to the fetus or nursing child. One 100 g portion of leaves could provide a woman with over a third of her daily need of calcium and give her important quantities of iron, protein, copper, sulfur and B-vitamins."

    Laboratory of Herbal Medicine and Cancer Research, Israel with fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
    Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment; however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells’ chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. With a conclusion the leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK study describes that the plant can be used for different properties, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described
    Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap when used for hand washing. Efficacious and available hand washing products could be useful in developing countries in controlling pathogenic organisms that are transmitted through contaminated hands.
  • Maciej (Mac) S. Buchowski added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a quick and easy field test to estimate aerobic fitness in obese children?
    I'm involved in a multi-venue project that is working with young (11 years +) overweight/obese children/adolescents. I'm after a quick and easy field test that requires minimal resources that can monitor changes over time. I was thinking of the Rockport walk test but in all honesty, I think a mile is going to be too long time wise and potentially too difficult for some of the participants. Any help/advice would be most appreciated. Thanks
    Maciej (Mac) S. Buchowski · Vanderbilt University
    Another possibility is a modified 3 min step test known also as YMCA step test. A good reference to start is: Santo AS, Golding LA. Predicting maximum oxygen uptake from a modified 3-minute step test. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003 Mar;74(1):110-5.
  • Jesus Montero-Marin added an answer:
    How is the SF-12 scored?
    I am working on my master's thesis using an existing dataset. I would like to include the PCS and MCS from the SF-12, but I want to confirm that the way these scores were calculated is correct. Are all 12 items used to calculate the PCS and MCS? The directions I found weigh each item differently, with different weights for each component score, and that the sum of the items is added/subtracted from a national norm (or something like that). I want to confirm this is the standard way of generating the PCS and MCS from the SF-12. Thanks in advance for the help!
    Jesus Montero-Marin · University of Zaragoza

    Please, could someone send me the SF-12 correction algorithm for Spanish people? Many thanks in advance!

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