• Stephen Mattia asked a question:
    How can dispersion index help in analyzing forest structure/pattern?

    Index of dispersion

  • Georgianne W. Moore added an answer:
    Forestry and water partitioning
    Very interesting. Forests are known to increase ET while also increase infiltration and thereby baseflow for longer periods in the drier parts of the year. Direct runoff following rain events are decreased because of interception and infiltration. Now, if forestry is conducted in semi arid zones where woody trees are not the natural vegetation type, there could be consequences such as lowering of the water table and the salinization of surface soils (as has been observed in Argentina - Esteban Jobaggy et al). Also, while the annual water yield may be predicted to decrease, does the model show any smoothing out over the seasons, ie relatively lower flows in the wet season following forestry, and relatively longer flows in the dry season?
    Georgianne W. Moore · Texas A&M University

    Empirical evidence in semi arid regions does not definitively indicate that forests transpire more water, have higher infiltration, and increase base flows.

  • TzeHuey TAM added an answer:
    Can Interferometric techniques apply in forestry area for determining potential landslide areas?

    I would like to know whether interferometric technique is capable to detect landslide in forestry areas? 

    TzeHuey TAM · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Thank you very much for the valuable information

  • Mikwa jean-fiston added an answer:
    How can I apply a geostatistical approach in mapping carbon stock of a protected area?

    I need explanation on the number of plot  to use for kriging for a study area of 6000 ha 

    Mikwa jean-fiston · University of Kisangani

    ok 

    thanks for your comments

  • Nino Chikhradze added an answer:
    In which Journal was your article published and which year?
    Assessing forest gap dynamics using remotely sensed digital height models and GIS
    Nino Chikhradze · Ilia State University

    Thanks a lot, Kiomar.

  • Andre Lindner asked a question:
    Open access - Journal of Forest and Landscape Research

    Along with the 13th Annual Meeting of the Forest Sciences (“Forstwissenschaftliche Tagung – FowiTa”) at the Department of Forest Sciences in Tharandt, Germany (September 17th – 20th) we are announcing the kick-off of the open access Journal of Forest and Landscape Research – JFLR.
    JFLR is an international journal presenting current research into forest ecosystems and forest management in a landscape context. Particular emphasis is given to inter- and transdisciplinary approaches and studies with a focus on the interactions between forests and other landscape components.
    We are looking for motivated colleagues willing to contribute within the editorial board covering a broad array of subject areas (e.g. Ecology and Conservation, Engineering & Utilization, Risks & Health, Urban Forestry, among others).
    The online submission system is now online (www.jflr.org) and we are calling for submissions of high quality manuscripts.

  • Gustavo Javier Chacón added an answer:
    Is the economic potential of invasive pines getting explored and exploited in any part of the world?

    Many invasive pines have huge economic potential which can contribute a lot in the sustainable development of the area. How far this is tapped in the global perspective?

    Gustavo Javier Chacón · Universidad del Azuay (UDA)

    Dear Gautam,

    It will be great to discuss these issues in detail. We will have a newer report by the end of October in Spanish that I can send it to you. Is Spanish a problem for you? I will eventually translate it into English...

    Regards...

  • Mahfuz Judeh added an answer:
    Are there any estimates of global environmental damage from the production of paper, printing equipment and the printing industry?
    What social, administrative and economic means of influence can lead to a significant reduction in the production and use of paper?
    Mahfuz Judeh · Applied Science Private University

    "According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), about one third of the paper made in the U.S. today comes from whole trees and plants, about one third comes from wood chips and scraps, and about one third is recycled from other paper".

    For more details, follow the link here-under

  • Peter Rauch added an answer:
    How can researchers effectively determine the needs of industry to plan and implement research?
    Just returning from some interesting industry visits that included discussions on a few recent initiatives to plan and deliver applied research with industry. To spite the best intentions and efforts to align research with real industry interests and needs it is not clear these efforts are hitting the mark. Everyone is time and resource poor and everyone views the issues with a different perspective but in my experience both industry and researchers want to see research that has real impact. The trick is how to effectively include all the stakeholders to plan and deliver research that delivers that real impact.
    Peter Rauch · University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna

    As far as industry needs mean the needs of a specific sector in forest based industries I experienced that SWOT analysis based on interviews with managers of all levels and involved companies across a specific supply chain (e.g. from the forest to a pulp mill) can provide valuable hints for research topics with impact. If you then develop and prioritize also strategies in a participative process together with shareholders you could end up with some very specific future research issues. Also process orientated analysis of the supply chain using business process management methods can be helpful.

  • Hammad Gilani added an answer:
    Fish-eye lens and satellite data - any thoughts?

    I am planning to buy a fish-eye lens (Canon DSLR camera) for forestry applications, to link field data with GeoEye-1 (0.5m) satellite image. I am interesting to know;

    1. Best Focal length
    2. Aperture (max/min)
    3. Software to process photographs to link with satellite image

    Kindly share you experiences with advantages and disadvantages. Recently published articles are also welcome.

    Hammad Gilani · International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development

    Thanks a lot Francesco Chianucci  for clarification. Your point FOV  is very valid and I will keep in my mind while developing relationship. I am curious, if you or anyone else can share paper, where someone has develop relationship between crowns area or numbers with satellite image. Almost every third paper takes about LAI linking ground information.

  • Bernhard Meier zu Biesen added an answer:
    What might be the broader strategies to tackle deforestation and forest degradation in case of developing countries like Nepal?

    Currently, Nepal is in transition and developing several types of strategies such as Forestry Strategy for coming 10 years, Terai Arc Landscape Strategy covering from Bagmati River to east to Makakali in the west. Further, REDD Cell has proposed to develop REDD strategy for Nepal. In this context, one of the major issues is deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal. So, how can we go ahead to tackle this issues seriously, so that we can devise the further strategies to tackle the issues? 

    Bernhard Meier zu Biesen · NROs, ACSAD Arab League; ARI Tanzania; Agric. Investm.Ltd.

    Thought-points from my side: 1.Promoting agro-forestry country-wide and establishing quickly growing large-scale multi-purpose-tree-plantations so as to reduce the ecological pressure on the forests; 2.Promoting vegetative-propagation wherever possible / adequate: much faster, much cheaper; 3. Strict protection-rules for newly planted trees / areas; 4. Never forgetting the real reasons of degradation; 5. Disregarding charcoal-production; 6. Protection of areas, incl. by thorny plants / shrubs; 7. Promoting perma-culture; 8. Full community-participation; By the way: the term "Sustainability" was first used in German and Austrian forest-papers 300 years ago.

  • Duncan Macqueen added an answer:
    How can we generalize the PES concept and its practicality at the local community level?
    Payment for environment service
    Duncan Macqueen · International Institute for Environment and Development

    One of the key elements of making PES work is the organisation of local forest-dependent people into financially credible units that can receive payment. There is much that international programmes such as the Forest and Farm Facility are doing to strengthen forest and farm producer organisations that is key here. I know that the metrics and conditionalities also have to be sorted out, but none of that is any use without strong field level organisations at the landscape level.

  • How far can the forest canopy cover, rainfall and soil nutrients influence the carbon sequestration of a species?
    Photosynthesis as well as climatic and edaphic factors are responsible for increment in tree biomass. What is their quantitative relation with carbon sequestration?
    Bruna Cersozimo Arenque-Musa · University of Campinas

    In case of the Amazonian species Senna reticulata, our results are reinforcing the relevance of sink-source relationship of each species or functional groups, to  reponses under a CO2-enriched atmosphere and as a consequence, increasing or not carbon sequestration as biomass and/or reserves.The latest can be used to increase growth in a future stress condition (flooding in our case). http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00468-014-1015-0#page-1

  • Durai M V added an answer:
    Why does the amount of Carbon sequestration differ among the same species in different regions of the world?
    The amount of Carbon sequestration widely varies among the same species growing in different areas.
    Durai M V · Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding

    Dear, carbon stocks depends upon soil bulk density and total biomass. If you have have high biomass, he would have high carbon stocks. Further, site factors determine the rate of growth and biomass production.  

  • Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy added an answer:
    What is the best way to induce stomatal closure while minimizing the effect on other plant processes?
    We are planning an experiment with pine and oak seedlings, for which we would like to reduce transpiration flow, but keeping as much as possible plant functionality. Our first thought was ABA, however as a plant hormone this would also induce other stress responses.
    Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy · Mansoura University

    ABA promoted stomatal closure that was positively correlated with an increase of the RWC in leaves. This situation was reflected in higher leaf expansion implying augmentation of expansion growth; that is, the new leaves and sprouts of the ABA-treated plants grew more than those of untreated control plants. These results are in agreement with the concept that expansion growth is very sensitive to water deficit, especially in leaf tissues (Granier and Tardieu 1999). In fact, the role of ABA in the
    adaptation of a variety of plant species under extreme conditions of water deficit has been well established (Zeevaart and Creelman 1988). ABA-deficient mutants showed higher damage at leaf level under conditions of water stress, in correlation
    with their ABA contents (Fambrini et al. 1994).

  • Iñaki Etxebeste added an answer:
    How can we effectively control the European spruce bark beetle?

    Dear All,

    I have eight Norway spruces (about 100 years old, with 25-30 m height). They have been healthy until this May when I observed an enormous attack and outbreak of European spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus; Scolytidae).
    Now, two of the spruces will die and their trunks are full with holes (about 130-160 hole /m2). Generally, chemical control is not efficient because the sheltered insects bore galleries under the bark. The basic strategy is removing the heavily infested trees.


    Has anybody experience in controlling pests like that?

    My primary aim is to get help! I like these trees!

    Iñaki Etxebeste · Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    Hi András,

    Below you will see the references to some other alternatives tested on Ips typographus that might be more easy to apply, and certainly cleaner than pesticides.

    Repellents/response inhibitors such as non-host volatiles (NHV) or verbenone have shown to reduce the density of attacking beetles. Verbenone has been succesfully used to protect single trees like the ones you are mentioning, and is available from previously mentioned Contech. NHVs are not that easy to find, but the same company might help. We have purchased trans-conophthorin (a well known NHV) from them in the past.

    Good luck!

    --------------

    Zhang QH 2003. Interruption of aggregation pheromone in ips typographus (l.) (col. Scolytidae) by non-host bark volatiles. Agr. Forest. Entomol. 5, 145-153.

    Zhang QH, Schlyter F, Anderson P 1999. Green leaf volatiles interrupt pheromone response of spruce bark beetle, ips typographus. J. Chem. Ecol. 25, 2847-2861.

    Schlyter F, Löfquist J, Jakus R, 1995. Green leaf volatiles and verbenone modify attraction of european, tomicus, hylurgops, and ips bark beetles. In: Behavior, population dynamics, and control of forest insects. Proceedings IUFRO Working Party Conference. Ed. by F P Hain, S M Salom, F W Ravlin, T L Payne, K F Raffa, Ohio State University, 29-44.

    Jakus R, Schlyter F, Zhang QH, Blazenec M, Vavercak R, Grodzki W, Brutovsky D, Lajzova E, Turcani M, Bengtsson M, Blum Z, Gregoire JC 2003. Overview of development of an anti-attractant based technology for spruce protection against ips typographus: From past failures to future success. Anz. Schadl.-J. Pest. Sc. 76, 89-99.

  • Wendy Peterman added an answer:
    Can people share references for models for conservation of agricultural lands?

    I'm interested in approaches to valuing agricultural lands for conservation in the face of energy and urban development. I would like to compare numerous models to help stakeholders formulate their own approaches to conserving their agricultural lands.

    Wendy Peterman · Conservation Biology Institute

    A good one I read today: 

    Polasky et al. 2008. Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns. Biological Conservation 141: 1505-1524

     

  • Lala Behari Sukla added an answer:
    What is the importance of maintaining, improving and restoring forests through scientifically based forest tree breeding?

    Tree improvement is now branching out to separate programme. Genetics of trees, natural variation of trees, improving seed sources,and conservation and commercialisation of tree products are some of them.

    Lala Behari Sukla · Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi

    The life's work of Professor Gene Namkoong helped to lay the theoretical and quantitative foundations for modern forest genetics and tree breeding. It also emphasized the practical and ethical issues of the conservation of forest gene resources. As we enter a new millennium the challenges facing forest geneticists and tree breeders include recognition of changing demands on forests for a range of forest products of different quantities and qualities; development and wise application of the new molecular technologies for genetic manipulation and practical breeding; presentation of the values of genetics to policy-makers and to the concerned public; capture of resources for research and development as forestry moves from the public sector to private institutions; and preparation for a future that is uncertain politically, economically, socially, and environmentally.

  • Timothy Philpott added an answer:
    What is best for preserving soil for later RNA extraction in the field: LifeGuard or liquid Nitrogen?
    As far as I can tell, it seems like the best method for preserving RNA in soil samples in the field is to snap freeze soil samples in liquid nitrogen. But what happens next if I'm in the field, not anywhere near a -80 freezer? Can I keep the samples in liquid nitrogen in a cooler (maybe 4 degrees C), then transfer them to a -80 freezer after a few days? Or would something like LifeGaurd be better suited to this? I'm trying to keep costs down, and LifeGuard is expensive. I hope you can help!
    Timothy Philpott · University of British Columbia - Vancouver

    Just an update for any others tackling similar problems. RNA Later will not work with soil or other environmental samples with high humic acid content. I decided to use Lifeguard from Mobio - it is their proprietary stabilization solution for soil RNA work. I tried getting around this given how expensive Lifeguard is, but humic substances bind to the Ammonium salt in RNA Later (including the homemade solution). As far as I know, the only way around field stabilization of soil samples for RNA work is Lifeguard or liquid nitrogen. Carting around liquid nitrogen through logging roads is probably not a very good idea, so lifeguard it is. 

  • Vladan Ivetic added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the use of mulch rings made ​​of recycled cardboard in reforestation?
    I plan to try them in the next planting season because they are cheap to produce and suitable for rural and underdeveloped areas. Any previous experience will be helpful.
    Vladan Ivetic · University of Belgrade
    Thank you. I am setting a series of field trials with much of different materials. Every additional experience is beneficial.
  • Gopal Shukla added an answer:
    How many samples should I apply for the study of litter decomposition?
    Actually, I would like to do research on litter decomposition where the 2 main objectives are:
    1. To study the rates of litter decomposition between mixing litter from 5 different species and individuals of 5 species in different forest successions
    2. To determine the capacity and the rates of carbon uptake from the existing decomposed biomass in different forest successions

    Due to the limited budget, I would like to know how many samples should be used for this research for each species?
    Gopal Shukla · Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
    At least nine bag (25g dried litter/bag) for each species.
  • Can you comment on the indirect estimation of wood density and its importance in forestry?
    See above
    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein · Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
    Dear Uthappa,
    For indirectely estimating wood density in standing trees you can use a Pilodyn, as pointed out by DJ Cown, or a Resistograph (see pdf below). You can also remove a increment core from the trees and use densitometry or Silviscan to analyse the wood (as suggested by DJ Cown), and even use Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy for estimating the wood density. For NIR spectroscopy approach, check the paper indicated below.
  • Stefan Neagu added an answer:
    What is the link between forest health and climate change?
    Are there any standardized protocols for monitoring the health of tropical forest ecosystems? Is it possible to suggest forest management strategies based on forest health monitoring?
    Stefan Neagu · Forest Research and Management Institute
    Mr. Gopakumar,
    In Europe and North America there are standardized protocols for forest monitoring, including crown condition assessments, published by ICP-Forests (click the link below).
    There are some ICP member countries which assess evergreen broadleaves/conifer forests, and it's possible to adapt the protocols to tropical regions.
  • Kazimierz Becek added an answer:
    How to define forest degradation from an operational point of view?
    Forest degradation is a global issue in many forest ecosystems, however, degradation is quite more complex to measure and define than deforestation.
    From an operational definition which factors should be considered?
    Kazimierz Becek · Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
    Hi,
    Instead analysing forest degradation, consider to capture or assess deforestation + forest degradation. This combined effect may be termed as forest depletion. Forest depletion level may be measured by vegetation density. And the VD can be estimated as per description found here: http://www.qucosa.de/recherche/frontdoor/cache.off?tx_slubopus4frontend%5Bid%5D=urn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Absz%3A14-qucosa-62707.

    Best Regards
  • Angel Jili asked a question:
    What job opportunities regarding forestry are available in South Africa, or should one just go overseas?
    I would like to know whether I have chosen the right career, because it seems that the conditions regarding forestry are more favorable for foresters overseas as they receive more support from their Governments, and less restraints such as water licensing and so on.
  • Mateusz Płóciennik added an answer:
    How does ownership affect forest management? What is better for the protection of forests: large public enterprise or a number of private owners?
    Most forests in Poland belong to one public company called 'National Forests'. Because the National Forests manage an area of ca. 30% of the country it has relatively good economic results, but the opinions about how this situation influences the conservation of forests ecosystems are divided. Some ecologists are convinced that is easier to influence the environmental strategy of one public enterprise. On the other hand, the Polish government plans the privatization of National Forests and dividing it property among many private owners. Now in Poland there is a debate about future of National Forests. What is your opinion and could you give some examples about research that support some of the parties to the dispute.
    Mateusz Płóciennik · University of Lodz
    This is really a problem for many people. The largest natural forest in Poland - the Białowieża forest, is one of primary Polish area that needs protection, but the local community doesn't agree for widening national park in this place, because they affraid they won't be able to take such a profits like branches, berries and mashrooms from the forest. So the National Forests still treats this area as a typical supply for wood production. This is on the other hand, apparent example where the foresters destroy nature in Poland.
  • Franz Starlinger added an answer:
    Is there anybody who knows about forest roads impacts on plant biodiversity indices in altitude gradient?
    Forest roads impacts
    Franz Starlinger · Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape
    Yes, I agree, usually the biggest impact is not the road itself, but the landuse change enabled by the existence of a newly built road. If you study only the ecological impact of the road itself, including the effect of tree felling along a narrow strip within a closed tree stand, it may even result in an enhancement of biodiversity, depending on scale and group of organism. The reason is, that road construction is increasing habitat heterogeneity within large areas of closed forests.
  • Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror added an answer:
    Does anyone have a journal for an ecological MATLAB model?
    I wish to write a summarizing mathematical paper on the different factors influencing the herbaceous biomass in arid shrublands using MATLAB (some factors will be based on my findings and other from other documented resources). Which journal would suit? Could anyone send me a sample paper?
    Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror · Independant Ecologist
    Ecological Modelling (Elsevier) seems the most appropriate journal. Have a look at http://www.journals.elsevier.com/ecological-modelling/
    Best
    JM
  • Hein Sebastian added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) coppice yield model?
    I have a Hungarian model (Somogyi and Béky, 2000) but are there any others out there?
    Hein Sebastian · University of Applied Forest Sciences Rottenburg
    Both papers could be of interest (only in German/ English summary):
    LOCKOW, K.-W.; LOCKOW, J. (2009): Die Hainbuche im nordostdeutschen Tiefland - Wuchsverhalten und Bewirtschaftungshinweise. Eberswalde, Eberswalder Forstliche Schriftenreihe Band 41, 41, Ministerium für Ländliche Entwicklung, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz MLUV des Landes Brandenburg (eds.),
    LOCKOW, K.-W. (1974): Waldwachstumskundliche Untersuchungen an Hainbuche (Carpinus betulus) im nördlichen Tiefland der DDR.Technische Universität Dresden 143 S.
    Kind regards
    Sebastian Hein
  • Mark Brown asked a question:
    What is the role of end user involvement in forest research in securing successful implementation outcomes?
    Background to the project
    The objective of applied research is to contribute effectively to the innovation process, there by delivering sustainable and positive changes for the industry. This PhD research project will explore the role of end users - or industry engagement - throughout the research process in facilitating effective implementation and innovation.

    How can you help?
    To conduct this analysis, I am seeking a range of case studies from research providers or industry, including applied research projects that have been successfully implemented or that have led to innovation. I am also seeking case studies which have either failed or experienced difficulty reaching implementation.

    We ask approximately 5-10 minutes of your time, per case you are able to provide, to complete an online questionnaire about:
    • The cost of implementing the research results relative to the potential annual benefit;
    • The time taken from implementation as normal practice, until tangible benefits are realised;
    • The levels of effort and resources required to implement the research results; and
    • The degree of industry involvement in the five phases of the applied research process:
    o Inception
    o Planning
    o Research and data collection
    o Data analysis
    o Reporting and knowledge transfer of results

    Any and all cases you can provide will be greatly appreciated. Material provided will remain completely confidential, and as presentations will focus on amalgamated analysis, individual projects, organisations or individuals will not be identified in any way.

    The minimum requirement for case studies is a project title, output/outcome produced, and a response to each multiple choice question (below). Any additional explanation or comment can be included in the space provided, and will be valued and appreciated but is not a strict requirement. Any supplementary documentation (study plans, reports, etc.) that could enhance our understanding of the case study can be emailed to mbrown2@usc.edu.au Mark Brown with the project title as the subject.

    Survey is available at: http://www.surveygizmo.com/s3/995539/Role-of-end-user-involvement-in-forest-research-in-securing-successful-implementation-outcomes

    If you have questions please feel free to contact Mark.

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