• Giovanni Di Matteo added an answer:
    How can the contribution of the forestry sector of any country be measured towards GDP calculation accurately?

    Forestry sector contributing toward national GDP has always been underestimated in the tropics due to many reasons. Ranging from environmental to educational, and widening between infrastructural and methodological approaches adopted; how best forest assests and liabilities could be accounted using GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)?

    Giovanni Di Matteo · CRA Agricultural Research Council

    The overall full budget data investments in forest research from some Mediterranean countries were published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2014.08.003. This represents however only the fraction of forestry research...

  • Francois Libois added an answer:
    What might be the broader strategies to tackle deforestation and forest degradation in case of developing countries like Nepal?

    Currently, Nepal is in transition and developing several types of strategies such as Forestry Strategy for coming 10 years, Terai Arc Landscape Strategy covering from Bagmati River to east to Makakali in the west. Further, REDD Cell has proposed to develop REDD strategy for Nepal. In this context, one of the major issues is deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal. So, how can we go ahead to tackle this issues seriously, so that we can devise the further strategies to tackle the issues? 

    Francois Libois · University of Namur

    Considering the number of Community Forest User Groups in Nepal, we should hope that they are effective to protect forest. We're currently working on that. Up to know, from household survey data, it is clear that population growth and livestock rearing increase pressure on forest. In the Indian Himalayas, a study shows that relatively small LPG subsidies might help to reduce deforestation. It's not sure that it is fully applicable in Nepal since many villages are quite remote. Delivery of LPG as a substitute for firewood as main cooking fuel might be difficult.

    The first link points at a survey of different studies on forestry in the Himalayas, the second one to a more policy oriented paper.

  • Hadi Karbin added an answer:
    Does anybody study "Effects of Hydropower plant (River type) on water quality" at present?

    I have been working and gathering data about this topic related to water quality parameters like DO, TDS, pH, Salnity etc.  for 12 months in one watershed. I came across very few studies on this subject. So, please contribute and expand to this subject with your comments...

    Hadi Karbin · Water Research Institute

    We are conducting a research project in related field at the moment, emphasizing Micro Hydro power plants. It should be noted that, this kind of power plants usually classify in the green energy categories and has not environmental effects.
    The results would be published as soon as possible.

  • Tamer Mahmoud added an answer:
    What is the best analysis to calculate the growth rate for this group of a tree area for ten years?

    If you have the area of certain trees for successive ten years, what is the best analysis to calculate the growth rate for this group? And if you have the weather data for the area, what are the analysis you use?

    Tamer Mahmoud · Egyptian Ministry of State For Environmental Affairs

    Thank you very much for your very helpful answers.

  • Satish Kumar Sinha added an answer:
    Do you know a free dendrochronology software?

    We have about 100 disks with diameter from 20 cm to 1.2 meter. We want to measure tree ring width for growth analyzes. We dont have access to lintab, so we are searching for a free software that accept importing scanned images of disks. Since we want to publish our results in a scientific journal, we would like to use a scientifically valid one.

    Satish Kumar Sinha · Navsari Agricultural University

    You just measure the ring-width by live measurement or interactive measurement software or even by scale also and put the value in excel sheet then run  suitable program of freely avialable software DPL and convert it into dacadal basis and then run COFECHA program. In this way You can proceed for dendrochronological research. In my knowledge there is no any free software avialable on internet  that can measure ring-width from scanned images.

  • Marina Zharikova added an answer:
    What fire dynamic model is the most convenient for programming?

    Let me describe my task in short.

    I've created the electronic map of forestry, which includes a set of objects (polygons) of different nature, such as forest plants, roads, lakes etc. Each object is homogeneous. I have to write a program for mapping the dynamic of fire contour on the map. I’m going to use Rothermel’s model, because I have all input data for this model. But this model is good for homogeneous terrain, but my terrain is heterogeneous. I’m looking for the information, how Rothermel’s model can be adjusted to solve my task. Can anyone help me with the information on this question? Maybe there are other models, appropriate for programming... I would be grateful for any help.

    Marina Zharikova · Kherson National Technical University, Kherson, the Ukraine

    Hengky, thank you very much for your help. Very interesting papers, and useful for me.

    I'm developing web-oriented geoinformation system for protection against forest fires. I needed a mathematical model of forest fire dynamic, which I could program and include into my system for visual representation of fire behavior on a map of forestry. I can't use statistical mathematical methods, because I don't have enough data for them.  So, I dwelt on the Rothermel model.

  • Fadel Djamel added an answer:
    To integrate or to segregate: what are the best approaches for the conservation of forest biodiversity?

    In Europe, but also in other parts of the world, there are two different main approaches for forest biodiversity conservation on a larger scale (landscape, regional, national scale). The segregative approach separates large areas for nature reserves without any management from other areas with intensive forest management for economic purposes. The integrative approach tries to combine nature conservation and economic management by including the provision of e.g. structural heterogeneity, species mixtures and DWD in a more extensive, so-called 'close-to-nature' forestry.

    I wonder if there are studies and scientific results regarding the efficiency and cost-benefit ratios of both approaches in comparision. I would be glad if you could provide me with any information on this for any part of the world.

    There is a nice publication of the European Forest Institute (EFI) providing more insights in the integrative approach (see link).

    Thanks a lot in advance.

    Best regards,

    Fadel Djamel · Université Mohamed Chérif Messaadia de Souk-Ahras

    Dear Andrea

    Far from it being a forestry specialist. Nevertheless, I agree with your question because I am interested in the forest as a landscape but also its use for leisure and recreation. I fully understand your dilemma concerning the two approaches inherent in the forest

    - The segregated approach

    - The integrative approach

    A guide to forest which directs them to better assess the conservation priorities and integrate them into their forestry practices either in a property but also a large territory. The guide provides leading ecology in the context of sustainable management of the forest. Here are the reference : Guide pratique : «  Mieux intégrer la biodiversité dans la gestion forestière » par Yoan Pailletet Marion Gosselin.  Edition Quae.

    Best regards

  • Victor L. Barradas added an answer:
    How to measure stemflow of coppice stands such as Quercus sp?

    As we know, coppice species like Quercus sp create several stems per tree making them somewhat hard to estimate their hydrological processes accurately. Does somebody have any ideas as to how to do it?

    Take a look at attached file to see a coppice tree.

    Victor L. Barradas · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


    The throughfall contribution to nutrient dynamics depends on the characteristics of the forest or the concerned ecosystems o agricultural or any system. It is not so easy to know about this contribution until measure it. Measurement is relatively easy to make, since it is possible to take samples from the collected water from the throughfall and perform chemical analyzes of the nutrient in question.

  • Xiongqing Zhang added an answer:
    How to calculate nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR)?

    Parresol 1999 and Parresol 2001 pointed out that biomass equations should be additive.  He introduced two types of additive biomass equations: weighted seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) and nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). Although, there are some examples in the articles, but the whole procedure remained unclear for use. SUR can be calculated using systemfit  r package. But I don't know how to calculate NSUR. Can I define the formula in r codes as nonlinear so I can calculate NSUR?

    Xiongqing Zhang · Chinese Academy of Forestry

    You can use proc model in SAS

  • Hamid Jalilvand added an answer:
    Is current climate change favorable or not for hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) in central Europe?
    We know quite a lot about potential impact of climate change on main tree species (e.g. pine, spruce, oak, beech) in central Europe but what about hornbeam? Could anyone write some about the effect of climate change on Carpinus betulus? In Poland we observe that the present climate evolution would be favorable for hornbeam, but would it be long-term? We consider some questions that are really crucial for silvicultural decisions. Have you made any researches/models on impact of climate changes on Carpinus betulus in Europe? If so, I would be grateful to be advised relevant publications.
    Hamid Jalilvand · Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University

    Dear Piotre Sewarniak

    In my opinion identification of ring width in hornbeam is very hard; I work in Iran but I couldn't create basic chronological report for a long term period for hornbean whereas I gotten cores from Carpinus betulus. My experiment in Caspian forests in harvested and non-harvested sites in the north forest of Iran show that regeneration of hornbeam under the beech sites in high elevation was increased.

  • Sabina Introvicova added an answer:
    Does anybody know if Forensic Experts working in the field of Forestry Management use Remote Sensing data for their assessments in your country?

    In the Czech Republic Forest Management Forensic Experts commonly use orthophotomaps, aerial photography products, accessible online. Satellite images usage is rare in their practice. I have not found any mention of Forensic Experts using the nowadays tools to gain mensurational variables from remote sensing data. In that case we are able to obtain data which are describing the stand that was already cut down.

    Sabina Introvicova · Brno University of Technology

    Thanks for Your answer, I will check the web.


  • Dan Laurentiu Stoica added an answer:
    What index/method can we use to express and compare the microhabitat diversity among sampling sites?

    We have data on the vegetation structure at individual sampling sites. Vegetation surveys were visually estimated in % of (I) bare soil, (II) moss layer, (III) herb layer (0 – 20 cm above ground), (IV) herb layer (20 – 50 cm above ground), (V) shrub layer (50 – 400 cm above ground) and (VI) tree layer (>400 cm above ground) in the centre of each stand (Brändle et al., 2000).

    Dan Laurentiu Stoica · Local Environmental Protection Agency in Iaşi

    The are also alpha, beta and gamma diversities that you can try to apply. 

    Tuomisto, H. (2010) A diversity of beta diversities: straightening up a concept gone awry. Part 2. Quantifying beta diversity and related phenomena. Ecography, 33, 23-45. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.06148.x

  • Bernhard Meier zu Biesen added an answer:
    Is anybody working on non wood products derived from prosopis?

    I´m working on develop non wood products derived from prosopis in Argentina with little farmers in native prosopis forests   

    Bernhard Meier zu Biesen · NROs, ACSAD Arab League; ARI Tanzania; Agric. Investm.Ltd.

    here there are: see Attachements.

    Attention: the largely negativ perception of P.j. by environmentalists is not really justified. Acc. to my observations in East and West-Africa P.j. is expanding / invading / spreading only where poor, lazy, inactive, dull communities do not care for their Environment, its potentials and challenges and opportunities. P.j. could be an enormous carbon-dioxide-sink in the climate-Change-debate..

  • Kambiz Taheri Abkenar added an answer:
    Has anyone investigated the interaction between quercus sp. and ostrya carpinifolia or carpinus betulus during the oak natural regeneration?

    Recent papers or works. Thanks

    Kambiz Taheri Abkenar · University of Guilan

    Oak and hornbeam trees also grow in the forests of northern Iran.Hornbeam leaves decomposed faster than oak and help to regeneration them.Pure oak forests with poor soils can be seen.

    Hornbeam trees cause less light reaches the trunk of the oak trees.Oak trees will result in better quality.

  • Masoud Ghorbani added an answer:
    Can anyone provide some information on Paulownia tomentosa, its habit, habitat, ecology and other related aspects?
    Paulownia description.
    Masoud Ghorbani · Tarbiat Modares University


    General information about Royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa) Tree:

  • Douglas Sheil added an answer:
    Examples of the species or provenance choice of trees that have gone wrong (unproductively) in what way was it wrong ?

    About half a century ago a particular provenance of lodge-pole pine was planted extensively, but ultimately, unproductively, are there other examples where species or provenance choice has gone "wrong"? In what way was it wrong? Could the forester have possibly foreseen the danger looming? Could any silvicultural decisions or interventions mitigated these "losses"? Can we ever hope to avoid similar mistakes ourselves?

    Douglas Sheil · Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)

    If you are interested in tropical examples there are various examples of pines that are poorly matched to the less seasonal tropics and exhibit "Foxtailing" a lack of branching.  This is best known for Pinus caribaea but also impacts other species (depending on provenance).

    A quote:  "Foxtailing, a striking form of apical dominance, often produces trees with up to 6 metres, and occasionally up to 12 metres, of branchless stem. This environmental response is a problem of variable degree wherever pines are grown in the tropics. Among pines reported to show foxtailing growth are P. canariensis, P. caribaea, P. cembroides, P. echinata, P. elliottii, P. kesiya (insularis), P. merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. palustris, P. radiata, P. taeda and P. tropicalis. "  See http://www.fao.org/docrep/a7218e/a7218e03.htm

    You'll find quite a literature if you look up "pine foxtailing" on google.

    I don't know how widely such trees were planted but it has clearly happened many times and is provenance dependent.

  • V. P. Tewari added an answer:
    is there a method of calculating tree form factor using field data like height and DBH?

    Is there any articles establishing authentic and easy methods by which form factor of the tree bole can be measured using height, DBH or sectional diameter? Pls provide with citations.

    V. P. Tewari · Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE)

    Form factor is ratio of tree real volume to volume of one geometrical form such as cylinder. Form factor is one method for harmony and relation between tree form and volume. Form factor is calculable for all of trees (stems and branches) and/ or for tree stem. You may refer to forestry books like Avery & Burkhart (1994), Philip (1994), Van Laar and Acka (1997) and many others.

  • Aitor Gastón added an answer:
    Where can I find reliable (not interpolated neither predicted) data about species current distribution across Europe?

    Data will be used for species distribution modelling

    Aitor Gastón · Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

    The species you are looking for are well represented in National Forest Inventories (NFI). I don't know if a joint public database exists, but you may find the NFI datasets ready to download in their webpages (check http://efdac-catalog.jrc.ec.europa.eu/efdac_subthemes.jsp?DI=8) or even in the GBIF data portal (e.g. Spanish NFI, http://www.gbif.org/dataset/fab4c599-802a-4bfc-8a59-fc7515001bfa)

  • Kambiz Taheri Abkenar added an answer:
    Where can I get information about the area and species of the exotic tree plantations in semiarid and arid regions?

    I want to have information about the of species, plantation area, plantation age as well as hydrological effects of these species in the semiarid and area climate zones.

    Kambiz Taheri Abkenar · University of Guilan

    1-The possibility of improving forest plantations in dry lands through spate irrigation: A case study

    from scholarly-journals.com

    2-Performance of planted Maple in western Guilan province, Iran

    from uq.edu.au

    please go to googol scholar and see my paper. 

  • Which criteria should be considered when buying a fish-eye lens for the measurement of leaf area index (LAI)?

    I have a planning on buying a fish-eye lens, and therefore, I need to know some criteria before buying. Most Regards, Moein

    Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi · University of Tehran

    Thank you dear Sylvain Gaudin and dear Sean Haughian 

  • Hein Sebastian added an answer:
    Is there a Hungarian yield table available for Tilia cordata?

    Dear all,

    I am looking for the Hungarian yield table on small-leaved lime "Tilia cordata" (both for T. cordata growing from stumps and from seeds/ plantations).

    Could anyone provide a copy of the corresponding pages? (I've found a citation - see paper attached, but I am not sure, whether the reference is correct).

    Any help will be greatly appreciated!

    Sebastian Hein.

    Hein Sebastian · University of Applied Forest Sciences Rottenburg

    Thanks Julian!

    unfortunately the Romanian yield tables are for T. tomentosa only!

    Kind regards


  • David Ian Bevege added an answer:
    What is a standard method to calculate carbon sequestration by trees?

    We have counted trees for carbon sequestration of our university. I wish to know the standard method to calculate carbon sequestered by these trees.

    David Ian Bevege · Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia

    I think the previous responses have covered the ground. Standard mensuration approach to determine tree component biomass; for branches and foliage by direct measurement, for stems  via volume and wood density. Then use allometric relationships between tree dbhob and biomass to scale up from trees to stands to calculate biomass per unit area. Not difficult but time and labour consuming.

  • Jean Semeki Ngabinzeke added an answer:
    Help to choose and buy a UAV and sensors for forestry applications?

    I am going to buy an unmanned aerial vehicle for my university for forestry applications. Since there are alot of options,  I realy get confused to choose a proper model and a valid brand. Also, l want to use a 3d laser scanner and a multispectral camera. I would rather that the vehicle have gps and imu and the flight could be programmed.  Please if you have personal experience, share them.

    Best regards, 


    Jean Semeki Ngabinzeke · University of Kinshasa

    falcon: www.falconunmanned.com

  • Haddouche Driss added an answer:
    Could somebody give us some information on new models for mapping risk fire using satellite medium resolution images and GIS?
    Satellite medium resolution images and GIS.
    Haddouche Driss · Abou Bakr Belkaid University of Tlemcen

    For a reforestation, the choice of forest tree species depends on the soil and weather conditions. Apart from the climate, what is the physical parameter of soil that must be considered firstly for the successful operation?

  • Adriano Almeida added an answer:
    How can researchers effectively determine the needs of industry to plan and implement research?
    Just returning from some interesting industry visits that included discussions on a few recent initiatives to plan and deliver applied research with industry. To spite the best intentions and efforts to align research with real industry interests and needs it is not clear these efforts are hitting the mark. Everyone is time and resource poor and everyone views the issues with a different perspective but in my experience both industry and researchers want to see research that has real impact. The trick is how to effectively include all the stakeholders to plan and deliver research that delivers that real impact.
    Adriano Almeida · International Paper

    Technology Roadmap is a powerfull tool to promote the alignment between research and company goals. It is very common multinacional companies use this tool for establish their research programs, projects and resource allocation.


  • Benjamín Jarčuška added an answer:
    What is a proportion of sanitary fellings in forests of European countries?

    Regarding disturbances in European forests, annual average of about 8.1% of the total felling (i.e. 35 million m3 of wood) was damaged by disturbances in Europe over the period 1950–2000 (Schelhaas et al. 2003, Glob Change Biol 9: 1620–1633).

    In Slovakia, annual average of sanitary felling is 48% of total fellings over past 28 years (1986–2013).

    UPDATE (Dec 2, 2014): Over the period 1950–2000, ca. 75 million m3 of wood was damaged (and felled) only in Slovakia. Thus a pan-European estimate by Schelhaas et al. has to be considerably underestimated...

    What about other European countries? What is the percentage (volume) of total fellings being damaged by disturbances?

    Benjamín Jarčuška · Slovak Academy of Sciences

    Thank you, Danut Chira. By sanitary fellings I mean all incidental fellings due to (natural) disturbances in forest. Do you know some data about proportion of the sanitary fellings in Romania?

  • Bhagirath Ram added an answer:
    Does anyone know a good book about: 'forest development on agricultural fields' ?

     'forest development on agricultural fields'

    Bhagirath Ram · Directorate of Rapeseed and Mustard Research

    The Book authored by Dr K G Tejwani may be good source of information

  • Md. Siddiqur Rahman asked a question:
    Has anyone worked with Paterson's CVP index for tropical forests?

    Paterson's Climate Vegetation Productivity (CVP) index is used to quantify potential forest productivity of any region using meteorological factors.

  • Axel T Albrecht added an answer:
    Are there any allometric equations for relation between leaf area and/or mass to mensurational parameters for temperate deciduous species?

    I have mensurational data (dbh, crown height, tree height) of stands with up to 14 temperate broadleaves: (the most important being Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Fraxinus ornus, Acer campestris, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Prunus avium) and I am interesting in species-specific modelling leaf area of trees.

    I have no allometric equations for the stands, but when searching about it in literature, the majority of equations available focused on (total) above-ground mass. I am at least interested in leaf biomass. Can you help me?

    Thank you.

  • Can SEM be recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments?

    SEM has been under development for decades in human science, but its application in the field of natural science has not been as widespread.

    Unnikrishnan Narath Nandakumar · Kerala Forest Research Institute

    Because of its capabilities for confirmatory& exploratory modelling , It is a good statistical tool .Considering the variety of factors influencing forest management , it can easily be recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments. However, as we all know not much studies are available regarding application of these tools for forest management in Tropical conditions. There is quite a lot of scope for using SEM  in forest management. Thanks a lot to Prof. Eugen Lordache for highlighting the scope of this tool. 

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