• Bernhard Meier zu Biesen added an answer:
    What might be the broader strategies to tackle deforestation and forest degradation in case of developing countries like Nepal?

    Currently, Nepal is in transition and developing several types of strategies such as Forestry Strategy for coming 10 years, Terai Arc Landscape Strategy covering from Bagmati River to east to Makakali in the west. Further, REDD Cell has proposed to develop REDD strategy for Nepal. In this context, one of the major issues is deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal. So, how can we go ahead to tackle this issues seriously, so that we can devise the further strategies to tackle the issues? 

    Bernhard Meier zu Biesen · NROs, ACSAD Arab League; ARI Tanzania; Agric. Investm.Ltd.

    Thought-points from my side: 1.Promoting agro-forestry country-wide and establishing quickly growing large-scale multi-purpose-tree-plantations so as to reduce the ecological pressure on the forests; 2.Promoting vegetative-propagation wherever possible / adequate: much faster, much cheaper; 3. Strict protection-rules for newly planted trees / areas; 4. Never forgetting the real reasons of degradation; 5. Disregarding charcoal-production; 6. Protection of areas, incl. by thorny plants / shrubs; 7. Promoting perma-culture; 8. Full community-participation; By the way: the term "Sustainability" was first used in German and Austrian forest-papers 300 years ago.

  • Duncan Macqueen added an answer:
    How can we generalize the PES concept and its practicality at the local community level?
    Payment for environment service
    Duncan Macqueen · International Institute for Environment and Development

    One of the key elements of making PES work is the organisation of local forest-dependent people into financially credible units that can receive payment. There is much that international programmes such as the Forest and Farm Facility are doing to strengthen forest and farm producer organisations that is key here. I know that the metrics and conditionalities also have to be sorted out, but none of that is any use without strong field level organisations at the landscape level.

  • Gautam Bhattacharyya added an answer:
    How far can the forest canopy cover, rainfall and soil nutrients influence the carbon sequestration of a species?
    Photosynthesis as well as climatic and edaphic factors are responsible for increment in tree biomass. What is their quantitative relation with carbon sequestration?
    Gautam Bhattacharyya · Paramount Academy, Tarapur, India

    In case of pines a higher annual rainfall (more than 1200 mm) facilitates nutrient absorption. But certain species show a negative relationship between their growth and rainfall. In such case how the carbon sequestration will get affected?

  • Durai M V added an answer:
    Why does the amount of Carbon sequestration differ among the same species in different regions of the world?
    The amount of Carbon sequestration widely varies among the same species growing in different areas.
    Durai M V · Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding

    Dear, carbon stocks depends upon soil bulk density and total biomass. If you have have high biomass, he would have high carbon stocks. Further, site factors determine the rate of growth and biomass production.  

  • Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy added an answer:
    What is the best way to induce stomatal closure while minimizing the effect on other plant processes?
    We are planning an experiment with pine and oak seedlings, for which we would like to reduce transpiration flow, but keeping as much as possible plant functionality. Our first thought was ABA, however as a plant hormone this would also induce other stress responses.
    Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy · Mansoura University

    ABA promoted stomatal closure that was positively correlated with an increase of the RWC in leaves. This situation was reflected in higher leaf expansion implying augmentation of expansion growth; that is, the new leaves and sprouts of the ABA-treated plants grew more than those of untreated control plants. These results are in agreement with the concept that expansion growth is very sensitive to water deficit, especially in leaf tissues (Granier and Tardieu 1999). In fact, the role of ABA in the
    adaptation of a variety of plant species under extreme conditions of water deficit has been well established (Zeevaart and Creelman 1988). ABA-deficient mutants showed higher damage at leaf level under conditions of water stress, in correlation
    with their ABA contents (Fambrini et al. 1994).

  • Iñaki Etxebeste added an answer:
    How can we effectively control the European spruce bark beetle?

    Dear All,

    I have eight Norway spruces (about 100 years old, with 25-30 m height). They have been healthy until this May when I observed an enormous attack and outbreak of European spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus; Scolytidae).
    Now, two of the spruces will die and their trunks are full with holes (about 130-160 hole /m2). Generally, chemical control is not efficient because the sheltered insects bore galleries under the bark. The basic strategy is removing the heavily infested trees.

    Has anybody experience in controlling pests like that?

    My primary aim is to get help! I like these trees!

    Iñaki Etxebeste · Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    Hi András,

    Below you will see the references to some other alternatives tested on Ips typographus that might be more easy to apply, and certainly cleaner than pesticides.

    Repellents/response inhibitors such as non-host volatiles (NHV) or verbenone have shown to reduce the density of attacking beetles. Verbenone has been succesfully used to protect single trees like the ones you are mentioning, and is available from previously mentioned Contech. NHVs are not that easy to find, but the same company might help. We have purchased trans-conophthorin (a well known NHV) from them in the past.

    Good luck!


    Zhang QH 2003. Interruption of aggregation pheromone in ips typographus (l.) (col. Scolytidae) by non-host bark volatiles. Agr. Forest. Entomol. 5, 145-153.

    Zhang QH, Schlyter F, Anderson P 1999. Green leaf volatiles interrupt pheromone response of spruce bark beetle, ips typographus. J. Chem. Ecol. 25, 2847-2861.

    Schlyter F, Löfquist J, Jakus R, 1995. Green leaf volatiles and verbenone modify attraction of european, tomicus, hylurgops, and ips bark beetles. In: Behavior, population dynamics, and control of forest insects. Proceedings IUFRO Working Party Conference. Ed. by F P Hain, S M Salom, F W Ravlin, T L Payne, K F Raffa, Ohio State University, 29-44.

    Jakus R, Schlyter F, Zhang QH, Blazenec M, Vavercak R, Grodzki W, Brutovsky D, Lajzova E, Turcani M, Bengtsson M, Blum Z, Gregoire JC 2003. Overview of development of an anti-attractant based technology for spruce protection against ips typographus: From past failures to future success. Anz. Schadl.-J. Pest. Sc. 76, 89-99.

  • Wendy Peterman added an answer:
    Can people share references for models for conservation of agricultural lands?

    I'm interested in approaches to valuing agricultural lands for conservation in the face of energy and urban development. I would like to compare numerous models to help stakeholders formulate their own approaches to conserving their agricultural lands.

    Wendy Peterman · Conservation Biology Institute

    A good one I read today: 

    Polasky et al. 2008. Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns. Biological Conservation 141: 1505-1524


  • Lala Behari Sukla added an answer:
    What is the importance of maintaining, improving and restoring forests through scientifically based forest tree breeding?

    Tree improvement is now branching out to separate programme. Genetics of trees, natural variation of trees, improving seed sources,and conservation and commercialisation of tree products are some of them.

    Lala Behari Sukla · Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi

    The life's work of Professor Gene Namkoong helped to lay the theoretical and quantitative foundations for modern forest genetics and tree breeding. It also emphasized the practical and ethical issues of the conservation of forest gene resources. As we enter a new millennium the challenges facing forest geneticists and tree breeders include recognition of changing demands on forests for a range of forest products of different quantities and qualities; development and wise application of the new molecular technologies for genetic manipulation and practical breeding; presentation of the values of genetics to policy-makers and to the concerned public; capture of resources for research and development as forestry moves from the public sector to private institutions; and preparation for a future that is uncertain politically, economically, socially, and environmentally.

  • Timothy Philpott added an answer:
    What is best for preserving soil for later RNA extraction in the field: LifeGuard or liquid Nitrogen?
    As far as I can tell, it seems like the best method for preserving RNA in soil samples in the field is to snap freeze soil samples in liquid nitrogen. But what happens next if I'm in the field, not anywhere near a -80 freezer? Can I keep the samples in liquid nitrogen in a cooler (maybe 4 degrees C), then transfer them to a -80 freezer after a few days? Or would something like LifeGaurd be better suited to this? I'm trying to keep costs down, and LifeGuard is expensive. I hope you can help!
    Timothy Philpott · University of British Columbia - Vancouver

    Just an update for any others tackling similar problems. RNA Later will not work with soil or other environmental samples with high humic acid content. I decided to use Lifeguard from Mobio - it is their proprietary stabilization solution for soil RNA work. I tried getting around this given how expensive Lifeguard is, but humic substances bind to the Ammonium salt in RNA Later (including the homemade solution). As far as I know, the only way around field stabilization of soil samples for RNA work is Lifeguard or liquid nitrogen. Carting around liquid nitrogen through logging roads is probably not a very good idea, so lifeguard it is. 

  • Vladan Ivetic added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the use of mulch rings made ​​of recycled cardboard in reforestation?
    I plan to try them in the next planting season because they are cheap to produce and suitable for rural and underdeveloped areas. Any previous experience will be helpful.
    Vladan Ivetic · University of Belgrade
    Thank you. I am setting a series of field trials with much of different materials. Every additional experience is beneficial.
  • Gopal Shukla added an answer:
    How many samples should I apply for the study of litter decomposition?
    Actually, I would like to do research on litter decomposition where the 2 main objectives are:
    1. To study the rates of litter decomposition between mixing litter from 5 different species and individuals of 5 species in different forest successions
    2. To determine the capacity and the rates of carbon uptake from the existing decomposed biomass in different forest successions

    Due to the limited budget, I would like to know how many samples should be used for this research for each species?
    Gopal Shukla · Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
    At least nine bag (25g dried litter/bag) for each species.
  • Can you comment on the indirect estimation of wood density and its importance in forestry?
    See above
    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein · Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
    Dear Uthappa,
    For indirectely estimating wood density in standing trees you can use a Pilodyn, as pointed out by DJ Cown, or a Resistograph (see pdf below). You can also remove a increment core from the trees and use densitometry or Silviscan to analyse the wood (as suggested by DJ Cown), and even use Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy for estimating the wood density. For NIR spectroscopy approach, check the paper indicated below.
  • Stefan Neagu added an answer:
    What is the link between forest health and climate change?
    Are there any standardized protocols for monitoring the health of tropical forest ecosystems? Is it possible to suggest forest management strategies based on forest health monitoring?
    Stefan Neagu · Forest Research and Management Institute
    Mr. Gopakumar,
    In Europe and North America there are standardized protocols for forest monitoring, including crown condition assessments, published by ICP-Forests (click the link below).
    There are some ICP member countries which assess evergreen broadleaves/conifer forests, and it's possible to adapt the protocols to tropical regions.
  • Kazimierz Becek added an answer:
    How to define forest degradation from an operational point of view?
    Forest degradation is a global issue in many forest ecosystems, however, degradation is quite more complex to measure and define than deforestation.
    From an operational definition which factors should be considered?
    Kazimierz Becek · Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
    Instead analysing forest degradation, consider to capture or assess deforestation + forest degradation. This combined effect may be termed as forest depletion. Forest depletion level may be measured by vegetation density. And the VD can be estimated as per description found here: http://www.qucosa.de/recherche/frontdoor/cache.off?tx_slubopus4frontend%5Bid%5D=urn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Absz%3A14-qucosa-62707.

    Best Regards
  • Angel Jili asked a question:
    What job opportunities regarding forestry are available in South Africa, or should one just go overseas?
    I would like to know whether I have chosen the right career, because it seems that the conditions regarding forestry are more favorable for foresters overseas as they receive more support from their Governments, and less restraints such as water licensing and so on.
  • Mateusz Płóciennik added an answer:
    How does ownership affect forest management? What is better for the protection of forests: large public enterprise or a number of private owners?
    Most forests in Poland belong to one public company called 'National Forests'. Because the National Forests manage an area of ca. 30% of the country it has relatively good economic results, but the opinions about how this situation influences the conservation of forests ecosystems are divided. Some ecologists are convinced that is easier to influence the environmental strategy of one public enterprise. On the other hand, the Polish government plans the privatization of National Forests and dividing it property among many private owners. Now in Poland there is a debate about future of National Forests. What is your opinion and could you give some examples about research that support some of the parties to the dispute.
    Mateusz Płóciennik · University of Lodz
    This is really a problem for many people. The largest natural forest in Poland - the Białowieża forest, is one of primary Polish area that needs protection, but the local community doesn't agree for widening national park in this place, because they affraid they won't be able to take such a profits like branches, berries and mashrooms from the forest. So the National Forests still treats this area as a typical supply for wood production. This is on the other hand, apparent example where the foresters destroy nature in Poland.
  • Franz Starlinger added an answer:
    Is there anybody who knows about forest roads impacts on plant biodiversity indices in altitude gradient?
    Forest roads impacts
    Franz Starlinger · Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape
    Yes, I agree, usually the biggest impact is not the road itself, but the landuse change enabled by the existence of a newly built road. If you study only the ecological impact of the road itself, including the effect of tree felling along a narrow strip within a closed tree stand, it may even result in an enhancement of biodiversity, depending on scale and group of organism. The reason is, that road construction is increasing habitat heterogeneity within large areas of closed forests.
  • Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror added an answer:
    Does anyone have a journal for an ecological MATLAB model?
    I wish to write a summarizing mathematical paper on the different factors influencing the herbaceous biomass in arid shrublands using MATLAB (some factors will be based on my findings and other from other documented resources). Which journal would suit? Could anyone send me a sample paper?
    Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror · Independant Ecologist
    Ecological Modelling (Elsevier) seems the most appropriate journal. Have a look at http://www.journals.elsevier.com/ecological-modelling/
  • Hein Sebastian added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) coppice yield model?
    I have a Hungarian model (Somogyi and Béky, 2000) but are there any others out there?
    Hein Sebastian · University of Applied Forest Sciences Rottenburg
    Both papers could be of interest (only in German/ English summary):
    LOCKOW, K.-W.; LOCKOW, J. (2009): Die Hainbuche im nordostdeutschen Tiefland - Wuchsverhalten und Bewirtschaftungshinweise. Eberswalde, Eberswalder Forstliche Schriftenreihe Band 41, 41, Ministerium für Ländliche Entwicklung, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz MLUV des Landes Brandenburg (eds.),
    LOCKOW, K.-W. (1974): Waldwachstumskundliche Untersuchungen an Hainbuche (Carpinus betulus) im nördlichen Tiefland der DDR.Technische Universität Dresden 143 S.
    Kind regards
    Sebastian Hein
  • Mark Brown asked a question:
    What is the role of end user involvement in forest research in securing successful implementation outcomes?
    Background to the project
    The objective of applied research is to contribute effectively to the innovation process, there by delivering sustainable and positive changes for the industry. This PhD research project will explore the role of end users - or industry engagement - throughout the research process in facilitating effective implementation and innovation.

    How can you help?
    To conduct this analysis, I am seeking a range of case studies from research providers or industry, including applied research projects that have been successfully implemented or that have led to innovation. I am also seeking case studies which have either failed or experienced difficulty reaching implementation.

    We ask approximately 5-10 minutes of your time, per case you are able to provide, to complete an online questionnaire about:
    • The cost of implementing the research results relative to the potential annual benefit;
    • The time taken from implementation as normal practice, until tangible benefits are realised;
    • The levels of effort and resources required to implement the research results; and
    • The degree of industry involvement in the five phases of the applied research process:
    o Inception
    o Planning
    o Research and data collection
    o Data analysis
    o Reporting and knowledge transfer of results

    Any and all cases you can provide will be greatly appreciated. Material provided will remain completely confidential, and as presentations will focus on amalgamated analysis, individual projects, organisations or individuals will not be identified in any way.

    The minimum requirement for case studies is a project title, output/outcome produced, and a response to each multiple choice question (below). Any additional explanation or comment can be included in the space provided, and will be valued and appreciated but is not a strict requirement. Any supplementary documentation (study plans, reports, etc.) that could enhance our understanding of the case study can be emailed to mbrown2@usc.edu.au Mark Brown with the project title as the subject.

    Survey is available at: http://www.surveygizmo.com/s3/995539/Role-of-end-user-involvement-in-forest-research-in-securing-successful-implementation-outcomes

    If you have questions please feel free to contact Mark.
  • Parinaz Jansouz added an answer:
    Are there any estimates of global environmental damage from the production of paper, printing equipment and the printing industry?
    What social, administrative and economic means of influence can lead to a significant reduction in the production and use of paper?
    Parinaz Jansouz · University of Sistan and Baluchestan
    dont mention it. ya you can go on NationMaster.com and choose your country and enviroment. and also world bank have these data.
  • Ghazala Yasmeen added an answer:
    How can researchers effectively determine the needs of industry to plan and implement research?
    Just returning from some interesting industry visits that included discussions on a few recent initiatives to plan and deliver applied research with industry. To spite the best intentions and efforts to align research with real industry interests and needs it is not clear these efforts are hitting the mark. Everyone is time and resource poor and everyone views the issues with a different perspective but in my experience both industry and researchers want to see research that has real impact. The trick is how to effectively include all the stakeholders to plan and deliver research that delivers that real impact.
    Ghazala Yasmeen · University of Peshawar
    Primary data directly collected from industries on current issues can help researchers to determine the needs of industry and planning of research.
  • Ozgur Kozaci added an answer:
    Dendrochronology: reparative actions after taking cores from trees - any thoughts?
    I have questions concerning reparative action taken after having taken cores from trees, using things like increment borers.
    Some advocate to plug the hole with a cylinder piece of wood that has been disinfected with fungicide, and then seal the hole with some kind of healant formula for trees.
    Is this becoming common practice?
    It seems there is no clear consensus as to whether taking these measures has a considerable impact on a trees health and survival?
    Any viewpoints by dendrochronologists would be most welcome.
    Ozgur Kozaci · Fugro Consultants Inc.
    There are plenty of expert suggestions provided already. I agree that sealing can potentially be more harmful to a tree than leaving it open. To contribute to the case examples, especially pines are very efficient in pushing out any externally introduced material and sealing the hole themselves with their own resin. Trees, in general, are very resilient. Your main concern should be keeping the corer clean to avoid spreading diseases.
  • Hamid Jalilvand added an answer:
    Is current climate change favorable or not for hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) in central Europe?
    We know quite a lot about potential impact of climate change on main tree species (e.g. pine, spruce, oak, beech) in central Europe but what about hornbeam? Could anyone write some about the effect of climate change on Carpinus betulus? In Poland we observe that the present climate evolution would be favorable for hornbeam, but would it be long-term? We consider some questions that are really crucial for silvicultural decisions. Have you made any researches/models on impact of climate changes on Carpinus betulus in Europe? If so, I would be grateful to be advised relevant publications.
    Hamid Jalilvand · Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
    I think hornbeam is a tree species which is willing semi-warm climate. My observation in south Caspian revealed that at three last decades natural regeneration goes to the higher elevation out of ecological distribution under beech sites. this results have parallel to the results of other research such as this in Europe.
  • Kathryn B Piatek added an answer:
    Annual changes in foliar element concentrations in mature Norway spruce anyone?
    We observed a high degree of variability in foliar elements among years in mature eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), but a time series of foliar elements in this species is unknown (to my knowledge), so any trends that may exist are difficult to explain. Norway spruce may be the best comparison, and has been extensively studied. If you know of particular manuscripts that show elemental concentrations in Norway spruce needles across years, please send me the references. Thank you.
    Kathryn B Piatek · editmyscience.com
    Thank you Pedro. Yes, that is helpful and I will be looking up some of these!
  • Daniel Jay Twedt added an answer:
    Which performs better on megadata calculation: GRASS GIS or ArcGIS?
    Recently, I've been analyzing a large spatial forestry dataset, about 350,000 forestry polygons with 10 year tree cover change (1223x902 pixels MODIS data). My ArcGIS always gets stuck and has been reporting error, when I try to "extract the tree cover by the forest polygons". We've even tried to run it on our GIS workstation, which is with higher computing power, my colleagues also help to run on different version of ArcGIS we have, but it still doesn't work. So I am wondering if GRASS GIS handles better on modeling this kind of big datasets. If it’s so I would like to start learning GRASS GIS again. I used GRASS to analyse hydrological datasets (in about 20,000km2 area) 3 years ago, and I know it performs much better than ArcGIS. Are there any better GIS software available than these two?
    Daniel Jay Twedt · United States Geological Survey
    In the past, I've used MircroImages (TNT-MIPS) to process large datasets that crashed ArcGIS. The the advantage I found was that I could write code myself to have it do what needed to be done. It was not fast (hours or even days!) at processing the large multiple TM image datasets, but I got the results I needed.
  • Kayode Samuel Obaniyi added an answer:
    Does anybody know about three major problems in implementing the precision forestry approach in Malaysia?
    As above.
    Kayode Samuel Obaniyi · Landmark University
    Precision forestry as related to climate change may be an added advantage to you because it is a source of mitigating climate change as carbon sequestration is the order of the day. Precision forestry to me is seen as establishing forest with a unique purpose either for profitability or for balancing natural ecosystem .
  • Ovidiu Bucur added an answer:
    Who can suggest me some literature on road networks as a indicator of human impact on forest biodiversity?
    Many studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in forests since they change the microclimate, soil properties, and drainage patterns.
    Ovidiu Bucur · University of South Wales
    Buna ziua,

    Am gasit doua articole despre topicul care va intereseaza. Acestea cuprind o sectiune de lucrari de referinta destul de extinsa care va pot fi de folos. Am atasat articolele. Sper sa va fie de folos.
  • Frank Veroustraete added an answer:
    Why is acacia sp. more popular for paper production than kenaf sp?
    As I made some revision on this species, kenaf is quite a multipurpose species. So I wonder why this species is not really well known among the people.
    Frank Veroustraete · University of Antwerp
    Hi Yonny.

    The ligin content of Acacia is much higher than that of Kenaf .
    See also


    You will notice in the paper ceited above that Kenaf is a species which is not very suitable for paper production due to its low lignin content compared to many other species (used in the paper industry) This is also true for Kenaf and Acacia. Straightforward reason no?

  • Mandy Maid added an answer:
    Are Shorea macrophylla species suitable for forest plantation in Malaysia?
    Including growth performance,challenges that may appear, etc.
    Mandy Maid · Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
    Its natural habitat is usually near rivers. I believe they are site specific.

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