• Vera Malsia added an answer:
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis. Is this also a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe?
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis, and I think that it could mean a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe. What is your opinion?
    Vera Malsia

    Day by day and step by step in our globe have a lot problems in every sector of our life ... ! Political and Econimocal crisis are giving the impcts with negeative effects in eduaction, industry, agriculture, forestry, etc.

  • Kristina Blennow added an answer:
    Any advice on Hot Spot Analysis and forest presence data?

    Is there anyone who applied the hotspot analysis to forest presence datasets?

    Kristina Blennow

    Dear Sergio,

    You might be interested in a freeware R library that I find works well:


    Kind regards,

    Kristina Blennow

  • Hermann Hampel asked a question:
    Any new literature on end-split avoidance in logs as well as flitches during vatting?

    Most comprehensive publications found from 70s (Kubler, Chen; Lutz; Tantichaiboriboon) and 90s (Mattheck, Kubler). Did I miss any new ones, ideally with statistically proven results? ( "Observations" also welcome.)

  • Felicien Amakpe added an answer:
    Is there any allometric relationship between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Wood Area Index (WAI) for Quercus species?

    Hi all,

    I am looking for an allometric relationship between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Woody Area Index (WAI) of Quercus species. Have you ever seen such a study focused on any species of Quercus (Oak)?



    Felicien Amakpe

    You can start from the attached publication of Wulder et al. and many other on different species available on researchgate.org

    best regards

  • Richard Haynes added an answer:
    Is there a spatial database (county or state level) for forestry product demand in the United States?

    I am working with the Billion Ton Study data set. I have a county level supply curve of several biomass products (Logging residues, Wheat Straw, etc.)  from year 2012-2030. I am looking for a parallel demand data set to estimate the prices. Thanks in advance!

    Richard Haynes

    The US has no systematic reporting of timber demand (or harvest) by county (there are about 3100 counties).  You can approximate it by multiplying per cap consumption times population but that is only a proxy.  Also stumpage markets are relatively broad regional representations.  You might be better to estimate county prices as site prices(defined by transportation costs) using distance from major processing clusters .

  • Oswaldo Jadán added an answer:
    Is there a new sampling method for estimating of variables in the forest stands?

    there are many sampling methods but I need to a new sampling method.

    Oswaldo Jadán

    Hi Mehrdad. I send you some papers that can be served

    For the basic terminology, see this one:

    Tuomisto, H., 2013. Defining, Measuring, and Partitioning Species Diversity, in: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Elsevier, pp. 434–446.

    A practical application in Amazonia:

    Tuomisto, H., Zuquim, G., Cárdenas, G., 2014. Species richness and diversity along edaphic and climatic gradients in Amazonia. Ecography 37, 1034–1046. doi:10.1111/ecog.00770


  • Branislav Trudić added an answer:
    Are there PCR primers for the identification of oak roots?
    In root samples for mycorrhizal investigations collected by a soil sampling tube we find three morphologically different kinds of roots. Although there are no other plants growing close to the sampling site, we want to confirm that the roots belong to the oak tree.
    Branislav Trudić

    No problem, it would be my pleasure to help anyhow.


  • Oswaldo Jadán added an answer:
    What is a standard method to calculate carbon sequestration by trees?

    We have counted trees for carbon sequestration of our university. I wish to know the standard method to calculate carbon sequestered by these trees.

    Oswaldo Jadán

    Hello. I recommend these documents


    + 1 more attachment

  • Vincent Antoine Vos added an answer:
    Has anyone documented the role of forests as fire-breaks?

    In savannas of the humid Chaco in Paraguay, we have observed (in the course of three years) that wild fires occurring in native grasslands are stopped when reaching forests islets. The natural landscape of this area is dominated by grasslands, and forests are usually present in naturally occurring islets. However these forests are usually deforested to open to new grazing areas. Can this be yet another 'environmental service' of forests at the local level, to function as fire breaks? We have not found mention of this in literature and would like to know of similar experiences. 

    Vincent Antoine Vos

    Hi Karim,

    In the Northern Bolivian Amazon forests are often left as a barrier between grasslands and agricultural fields and agroforestry systems. Practices are similar to those described in previous answers, and smallfarmers generally burn their fields about two days after a heavy rain, knowing that the sun will have dried up sufficiently the plant material in their previously slashed field to guarantee a good burn, while the shade of the surrounding vegetation secures enough humidity to prevent any significant spreading of the fire into the forests. I have seen some smallfarmers experimenting with fire in the edge of their plots to make sure humidity is on the desired level. Knowing about this capacity of forests, if possible local make sure there is an area of forest between fireprone vegetations (e.g. grasslands and young secondary vegetation) and their agricultural fields. Although I do not know of any specific literature on this subject, I believe Arienne Henkemans describes these practices in more detail in her publication "Between tranquility and hardship in the Bolivian Amazon". In my latest book "agroforestry systems in the bolivian amazon" (see my RG site) I also include several comments on this subject. And finally I'd like to suggest you check the text: "Como combatimos los incendios" (available from my ISSUU-site: http://issuu.com/vincentvos/docs/comit___interinstitucional_2015_c__) describing actions by an interinstitucional commitee for the control of fires... including the implementation of fire breaks with mango trees.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    Can anyone send some good papers about Oak decline?

    Can anyone send some good papers about Oak decline?

    Harshvardhan Singh

    "Citizen science helps predict spread of sudden oak death"

    @ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/uoc--csh042715.php

    + 1 more attachment

  • George Tarus asked a question:
    Who has information on biomass partitioning rates for Cypress and Pine for Kenya or East Africa?

    Who has information on biomass partitioning rates for Cypress and Pine for Kenya or East Africa? Biomass and Partitioning rates, biomass accumulation rates for Cypress and Pine tree species.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    I want to know how to quantify carbon sequestration and emission for fibre crop production.

    I want to know how to quantify carbon sequestration and emission for fibre crop production and what are the simplest and most recent models and equations?

  • Wei-Sheng Zeng added an answer:
    Can I estimate a simultaneous equation system containing different observations?

    I want to develop a biomass model system including aboveground biomass model, belowground biomass model and stem, branch and foliage biomass models. Because the observations are different, so I deveolped two equation systems for aboveground biomass and belowground biomass respectively. But somebody suggest that we can use dummy variables for fitting both equation systems simultaneously. Could anyone give me detailed suggestion to solve the problem using dummy variables? Thank you.

    Wei-Sheng Zeng

    Dear Jorg, Jose and Rogrio, many thanks for your suggeston an references. The additivity and heteroscedasticity of biomass models are not my problem. The real problem is that more than two equations are related to each other but the observatons for fitting each eqution are different, can we estimate simultaneously the equations as a system using dummy variables? For example, we have three equations:

    (1) Y1=f(X)           n=150

    (2) Y2=f(X,Y1)      n=150

    (3) Y3=f(X,Y2)       n=50

    That is, for the variables (X,Y1,Y2,Y3), there are 150 observations for measuring X,Y1,Y2, but only 50 observatins for measuring X,Y1,Y2,Y3.  This is the study case. 

  • Taqiyeddine Bensouilah added an answer:
    Is there any index used to determine the diversity of wildlife in plantation area?

    I am not really sure about and how to used the index and determine the wildlife or insects in natural forests or plantation areas.

    Taqiyeddine Bensouilah

    Dear Yonny,

    You can try Shannon diversity index


  • James Aaron Hogan added an answer:
    Has anyone information or articles about the destruction of the forests of the world over the past decade ?

    We are investigating the destruction of the forest
    and factors contributing to the degradation of Hyrcanian forests in Iran.

    James Aaron Hogan

    Science 7 December 2012:
    Vol. 338 no. 6112 pp. 1305-1306
    DOI: 10.1126/science.1231070
    Global Decline in Large Old Trees
    David B. Lindenmayer1, William F. Laurance2, Jerry F. Franklin3

  • Juan Cabris added an answer:
    Are there any case studies where Integrated Pest management has been implemented in forestry?

    Any references would be appreciated

    Juan Cabris

    You are very welcome, Phillip. I regret that everything I had at the moment was in Spanish. I should be glad if it was useful. Best regards, Juan

  • Bernhard Meier zu Biesen added an answer:
    Can vertical farming be used in tropical forests as an alternative to conventional (horizontal) farming?

    Farming is considered to be the first cause of deforestation in the tropics. Our research team is currently looking for farming solutions that may replace conventional small- and large-scale farming in Brazilian rainforests. Our current assumption is that vertical farming, mainly conceived for urban areas, may be an alternative that has a much smaller impact on the forest because of their small footprint and diffuse spatial distribution (vertical farms scattered around the forest, instead of being clustered), thus drastically reducing deforestation. We are confronted with the following questions:

    - Is there any knowledge on how productive vertical farms are in tropical forests?

    - What kind of new problems would vertical farms bring for farmers?

    - Can current farming products be stacked vertically?

    - Can vertical farming be realised with low-tech solutions?

    We would highly appreciate any feedback on these questions.

    Bernhard Meier zu Biesen

    These orientations from my side:

    1. Question has to be answered simply by "No", but VF can be --- in probably all agro-eco-systems --- a fantastic and trial-worthy supplement to conv. farming, also in view of the future high needs of food, industrial raw-materials, crops of biogas-units, etc..

    2. I have tested this year how much I can produce in a vertical-setting on 1 square-meter; it is breath-taking, but not easily possible on large land-areas.

    3. I suggest to focus on a few very practical and pragmatic part-options and test further (the 3,000 or so potential crops offer a wide spectrum of options):

    -----a. Growing crops like zucchini or eggplant in mixture with maize-like plants. These offer an enormous yield-intensity.

    -----b. Searching / checking / using the benefits of allelopathy-effects of plants in perma-culture-settings for VF.

    -----c. Applying drip-irrigation-systems for easy irrigation and little water-consumption.

    -----d. Priorizing climbing / creaping plants and letting them go-up on trees, stakes, palls, etc.

    -----e. Checking the option of a potatoe-box principle: start growing on ground, then filling gradually continuously in the 1 or 2 or 3 or10 cubic-meter-box; after end of growth (period) just tearing the soil apart and picking the potaties. Many tuber-crops might offer this option for VF. The famous potatoe-box is usually 1 cub.m.

    4. The systems and chances for VF depend largely on the a) technical material for erecting / constructing durable vertical levels. Best is looking for some sec.hand-material from construction-sites or factories, etc. b) irrigation demands the cheap systems of drip / trickle irrigation in case the tropical forest is not rainy enough. c) Mulching, mixed crop-stands, perma-culture or systems like that need to ensure highest yields per squaremeter.

    5. With adequate agronomical creativity and good www-search you could even find solutions for a "Yes" to the question.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    How can we measure bulk density of a different types of forest soil?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Abhishek Raj

    see attached articles. 

    + 1 more attachment

  • Neal Ferris added an answer:
    Does anybody know any other central tree for the European colonial empires?

    Acajou (Khaya sp.), okume (Aucoumea klaineana) and teka (Tectona grandis) were very important for the French, German, Spanish and British  forestry colonial economy. Does anybody know any other central tree for the European colonial empires?

    Neal Ferris

    In a different vein but perhaps of interest, the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) of the northeast of North America was a key resource for shipbuilding in particular (very tall and straight trees ideal for masts, and very strong but light material). It was key for the British in the later 17th and 18th centuries, since otherwise they were in competition for supplies elsewhere in the world. Surveys of forests led to trees being marked as King's property, often ignored by colonialists, and was another tension leading up to the American Revolution.

    Cheers, Neal

  • Fabrice Dagrain added an answer:
    Can you comment on the indirect estimation of wood density and its importance in forestry?
    See above
    Fabrice Dagrain

    Dear Uthappa,

    I confirm the information given by Vladimirs. I'm using micro-drilling on wood. Based on applied load on bit and torque while drilling, it is possible to assess some properties of the wood such as density.

    Best regards,


  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    Is it possible that trees of same species have different response to light conditions at different ages?

    For example SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and biomass allocated to leaves have different responses to light condition at different ages.
    In other hand, in smaller trees, SLA decreased by increasing light availability but in bigger ones, it increased by increasing light availability.

    Thanks for your helps

    Abhishek Raj

    Yes, the requirement of light varies with species, and in the same species, at the various stages of its development. That why on the basis of their tolerance, they are classified into light demanders, shade bearers and shade demanders.  In shade demanders is covers trees those require light in early stages (seedling) but after a certain stage is demanded for shade for tolerance.  for examples, Fir and Taxus species in moist temperate forest, Oak in subtropical forest, Kusum, Jamun in tropical moist deciduous forest and Mesua ferrea in tropical wet evergreen forest  shows that type of light requirement as per different growth stages in same species.

    In actual practice, the classification becomes complicated due to varying responses to light by species not only in different conditions  but also at various stages of their development. For example, sal is able to persist under moderate shade but its best development is obtained by admission of complete overhead light, right from earlier stage, though it requires partial shade in the beginning.  

  • Tia Hayes added an answer:
    Is there literature on palm tree distribution through primary and secondary forest in Ecuador?

    I looked at number of juveniles, nearest adult, height of each palm, species of palm, amount of light coming through the canapy, humidity and temperature any help would be great 

    Tia Hayes

    Thank you guys ill give them all a read through your a great help :)

    Kind Regards 


  • Omid Fathizadeh added an answer:
    How to measure stemflow of coppice stands such as Quercus sp?

    As we know, coppice species like Quercus sp create several stems per tree making them somewhat hard to estimate their hydrological processes accurately. Does anybody have any ideas as to how to do it?

    Take a look at attached file to see a coppice tree.

    Omid Fathizadeh

    Hi dear Ugur,

    Yes, I know a little about it, but, it needs some requirements/instruments that you are not able easily access them here.


  • Carl W. Mize added an answer:
    How far apart do forest inventory plots need to be apart to be considered a systematic sample?

    I am helping foresters in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula with the analysis of inventory data.  They use strip plots but often have relatively few in an inventory so their t value for a confidence interval is large and the confidence interval for volume is large also. They are considering changing to systematically arranged fixed area plots and would like to keep them relatively close. That creates the question - how close?

    Carl W. Mize

    thanks and i agree with you.  unfortunately, the people tend to take a 1 or 2 percent cruise by tradition.  it is often too small to achieve required precision but they accept that for economic reasons.  also, random location in a tropical forest is much more work than in temperate forests.  they usually do strip plots as they can measure trees while moving through the forest.  it is more efficient.  though they have been receptive to the idea of taking larger plots at fixed distances - systematic sampling along lines.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    What is a suitable method to determine rate of combustion of tropical peat?

    to compare tropical peat by depth

    Abhishek Raj

    Hi Dayang

    See an article entitled "Combustion and thermal characteristics of peat fire in tropical peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia by Aswin USUP, Yoshihiro HASHIMOTO, Hidenori TAKAHASHI and Hiroshi HAYASAKA (link: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tropics/14/1/14_1_1/_article)

    Also see an attached article for more valuable information.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Mugunthan Perumal added an answer:
    What is the best transplanting period for Shorea macrophylla seedlings after nursery stage to the field?

    Reforestation, Soil Fertility, Ecology 

    Mugunthan Perumal

    Dear Afi, could you mind to share with me any papers/journals related to the suitability of seedlings to be planted after nursery stage? The one you have mentioned earlier in Kalimantan. Many thanks.  

  • Rabiou Habou added an answer:
    Can we use c-band data for estimation of above ground biomass in woodlands?

    We know l & p bands data are better than c-band data for estimation of AGB, But l & p bands data not available for woodlands in Iran.

    Rabiou Habou

    it is possible if you can utlise lazer range finder to estimate the distance between the individual and a point on the azimuth direction in the observation band. This way you can increase the size of your sample and eventuelement reliability of your analysis.

  • Sean C Thomas added an answer:
    Which criteria should be considered when buying a fish-eye lens for the measurement of leaf area index (LAI)?

    I have a planning on buying a fish-eye lens, and therefore, I need to know some criteria before buying. Most Regards, Moein

    Sean C Thomas

    An additional critical point is that the fisheye lens should be equalangular (a displacement along the image radii at any distance from the center to the edge should correspond to the constant angular displacement).  Some analysis software will allow you to adjust for non-equalangular lenses, but mostly this property is assumed.

  • Md Siddiqur Rahman added an answer:
    How can the contribution of the forestry sector of any country be measured towards GDP calculation accurately?

    Forestry sector contributing toward national GDP has always been underestimated in the tropics due to many reasons. Ranging from environmental to educational, and widening between infrastructural and methodological approaches adopted; how best forest assests and liabilities could be accounted using GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)?

    Md Siddiqur Rahman

    that's what I was talking about...

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