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In chemistry, a common method of calculating solute and solvent reaction rates in a liquid is through using the quantum mechanical descriptions of inter and intramolecular bonds. One of the intermolecular descriptions is that of Van der Waals interactions - that of the sum of electrical, quantized, yet weak bonding forces. These may include permanent dipole-dipole interactions (Keesom force), dipole-induced dipole interactions (Debye force), and spontaneous dipole interactions (London dispersion forces). Generally Van der Waals forces omit that of ionic bonds between molecules.

As far as I know though, there isn't a model describing supercritical liquid/gas phases, such as that of CO2 which is often used to decaffeinate coffee beans. I know there are some models built to describe plasmas, but these are generally models designed for cross-section analysis used in fusion/fission reactors - they don't describe allowed energy levels in the same manner as say, a solid state semiconductor would.

I'm not quite sure how to tackle this kind of problem. In a field theoretic condensed matter picture (or even many-body statistical Schrodinger equation) solids are generally described by phonon modes; quasiparticle states are evaluated with ladder operators, after setting up the problem with electron & ion density. Sometimes metallic conductors can be described by an electron gas - at sufficiently low temperatures, this is a Fermi liquid.

Fermi liquids have energy levels described by momentum degeneracy and the Pauli exclusion principle. I assume something similar must apply to a gas, but there would be an absurd number of tightly packed available energy levels, and in terms of the Schrodinger equation, most particles would have a Hamiltonian of that similar to a free particle; bumping around other gases though, on the large scale, it's almost a classical description - and in fact, classical descriptions work pretty well. Is it just because the energy levels involved are so high that it's in the classical limit?

Anyways. I can't seem to find any literature on this - all of the above is just my thinking on it. It's mostly a curiosity of mine :)