Epidemiology and Public Health

Epidemiology and Public Health

  • Saleh Ameer added an answer:
    Why two groups with same median shows significant difference when using Wilcoxon signed rank test or Mann-Whitney u test?
    Whether the non parametric tests are designed properly?
    Saleh Ameer · The University of Sheffield

    Sorry I only just saw the date of the q.

    A bit late I guess :)

  • Olubusayo Akinola added an answer:
    Can perception of role be independent of exhibited attitude?

    In a sample of healthcare workers, it was deduced that exhibited attitude towards performing a role differs from their perception towards taking up that particular role in a hospital establishment.

    Although this sample exhibited a negative attitude, they had positive perception of their role. It seems to me however, that perception and attitude should go hand in hand, and this sample defies my thinking. Any help?

    Olubusayo Akinola · Walden University

    Thanks for your prompt response to my question. The two independent variables for the study in question is perception and attitude. Measured with two different validated instruments, one specifically designed to access attitude and the other measures perception. The responses to the questions are Likert scaled. 

  • Manpreet Khurmi added an answer:
    Disease causing Suicidal deaths ?
    Dear Researcher,
    I am very eager to know the answer for this research question.
    What are the disease that can lead to increase the suicidal intend of the patient. Because, I had seen a good number of cases of the patients of HIV/AIDS patients commiting suicide due to lack of hope on the life expectecation, social discrimination, compramised life and Family isolations. But as the same, there may be many disease that which can turns the patient mind into suicidal corner.
    Please share the answer for my question. I would be very happy if anyone interested to share some of the articles and data of the same mentioned above.
    Manpreet Khurmi

    Dear Akshaya, 

    Broadly speaking, Suicides are seen in pts with Chronic depression, Patients on Terminal illnesses etc. However, one needs to differentiate between attempted suicide and a successful suicide as attempt to suicide could be related to heat of the moment e.g. a students who learns he has failed in an exam. Do see these articles that may answer your query: 

    1. Leading causes of death in US: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf (Suicide is at 10th)

    2. Vulnerability to suicide: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Suicide/Pages/Causes.aspx

    3. Low serotonin levels and suicide: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819157/


    As a research topic, one should differentiate between Trigger due to Physiological/ Stress (in absence of any pathological condition) reasons and Suicide related to Background of any pathological condition (mental, chronic illness, neoplasia etc). As a secondly aim, mode of execution of suicide may also be studied.  

    Hope this helps!


  • Manpreet Khurmi added an answer:
    Is it necessary to make the medical records data electronic in hospitals in developing countries? What are the benefits?
    In Nepal, most of the hospital's records are disposed of after 5 years, so data is also disposed of. Is it correct to do this? Should it be made electronic? Should Bio-statisticians play a role?
    Manpreet Khurmi

    Hi Brijesh,

    It is important to make Hospital Data electronic. Just sharing some random thoughts:

    1. Epidemiological Information: Who knows which part of the world has the highest burden of the disease? Incidences like Minamata disease just point out to this epidemiological correlate.

    2. In countries where large number of clinical trials are on-going, such information is highly valuable to identify patients who need newer drugs and can benefit from newer treatment regimens. 

    3. Patients who are allergic to a particular drug (or inborn errors of metabolism) could easily be maintained in such clinical histories e.g. sulphonamides.

    4. Such information can help Government to develop Targeted Behaviour Change Communication strategies to change unwanted behaviours.

    5. Can help health financing that is set aside required budget to address health needs of the population e.g. Incidence of Cleft lip/ palate as part of National programme of the country e.g. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram.  

    6. Obstetric History: Impact on next pregnancy

    7. Vaccination history: I need not emphasize more 

    Do Note: Patient history is confidential. In no case this should be made public and should be free form data theft.



  • Lateef Mtima added an answer:
    What types of intellectual creations can be the subject matter of IP?

    The history of the human race is a history of the application of imagination, or innovation and creativity, to an existing base of knowledge in order to solve problems or express thoughts. From early writing in Mesopotamia, the Chinese abacus, the Syrian astrolabe, the ancient observatories of India, the Gutenberg printing press, the internal combustion engine, penicillin, plant medicines and cures in Southern Africa, the transistor, semiconductor nanotechnology, recombinant DNA drugs, and countless other discoveries and innovations, it has been the imagination of the world's creators that has enabled humanity to advance to today's levels of technological progress. I am interested in determining what type of intellectual creations can be the subject matter of IP?

    Lateef Mtima · Howard University

    To provide a non-political answer to the question, today most nations recognize IP protection for utilitarian innovation (machines, drugs, some times methods of doing business) under patent and/or trade secret regimes; for original creative expression (books, art, music) under copyright regimes; restricting commercial exploitation of an individual's name, likeness, or persona under publicity rights (not as widely recognized as other forms of IP); and for distinctive source indicators of products or services under trademark regimes. Those are the major categories of innovative or creative output typically recognized as IP; the key is fitting the out put into one of these regimes AND satisfying the regime's particular prerequisites to protection (for example, in the US, fixation in a tangible medium such as on paper or film is a prerequisite to copyright protection, which is not the case for some other copyright regimes).

  • Olubusayo Akinola added an answer:
    Can I compare the results of a PCA from a study with mine using the same questionnaire?

    I would like to know if its possible to compare the factor loadings obtained from a particular survey with mine using the same questionnaire. This is to enable me to establish the variables capable of explaining the observed variance in my study and to confirm if there are differences in the item loadings.  

    Olubusayo Akinola · Walden University

    Thank you Dr Filipe for being so explicit, I found the links very useful and I feel more confident to continue with my analysis. I also appreciate Prof David, it's a privilege that you look through my questions. Thank you. 

  • Paresh Chandra Ghosh added an answer:
    Has anyone examined the effect of breast size on the biomechanics of lifting in industry or health care?

    Seems like women with larger breasts would have to carry objects further from the body, with effects on lifting efficacy.  But I can't find anything about this.

    Paresh Chandra Ghosh ·

    Yes I do agree with myor her view is considerate.let us leave together some disadvantage of this nature man can help women so peaceful co existence is best. Beside pursue some research to really understand it is problem or not. pcg Chennai

  • Sandro Rolesu added an answer:
    How does one link altitude to a dataset containing latitude and longitude?

    I would like to analyse my data by altitude, however I do not have this information in my dataset. Latitude and longitude are recorded. Is there a look-up table which would allow me to link this to altitude?

    Edited for clarification: I am using Health Survey data. I would like to examine various participant characteristics by altitude. I have the latitude and longitude for addresses of all the respondents in my survey data. I do not have any data on altitude. Does a dataset exist that is open-access, that I could download and use to link altitude to my existing data?

    Sandro Rolesu · Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna

    You can download altimetry 30x30 meters (ASTER GDEM data) based on satellite observation, at the link: http://www.jspacesystems.or.jp/ersdac/GDEM/E/4.html 

  • Ali Abdil Razzaq Muhammed Noori Aldallal added an answer:
    Where we can get a current epidemiological status of obesity and insulin resistance?
    Is there any specific site for current epidemiological status?
  • Avi Biswas added an answer:
    Do you know what the recommendation is for physical activity and sedentary behavior to health?
    We know that there are many determinants and barriers to physical activity. Among them are the extrinsic factors such as environmental, socioeconomics, and sociopolitical as intrinsic motivation, self-perception, self-efficacy and level of knowledge.
    My questions are: Are people becoming inactive due to lack of knowledge of practical recommendations for physical activity, as well as the volume and intensity to achieve health benefits? Would an intervention program based on the recommendations of health would increase levels of physical activity?
    Avi Biswas · University of Toronto

    Inactivity and sedentary behaviour are totally different constructs. One (Inactivity) is the failure to be physically active and the prevailing behavioural literature suggests that this has more to do with intention - ie. if your intend to be active, this is is usually a strong motivator to do that behaviour. You can read up more on the theories articulating this Transtheoretical model and the Social Cognitive Theory.

    Sedentary behaviour, it has been argued, relies more on habit than intention and has different behavioural constructs - as such, needs to be targeted differently in terms of interventions. 

    A great discussion paper summarizing the different between the two and the theories that define them is by Dr. Stuart Biddle: http://sporttudomany.hu/Hirlevel/pdf/10/Fit_or_Sit.pdf

  • M. Ricky Ramadhian added an answer:
    Can we use mean+/-standard error instead of mean+/-standard deviation when data is non-parametric?
    I measured cytokines through ELISA in humans, but my values were very skewed since I got huge standard deviation which was nearly 2 fold larger than my mean value.
    Shall I use mean+/-standard error instead of mean+/-standard deviation when data is non-parametric?
    M. Ricky Ramadhian · Lampung University

    how about this data if we have data like this?

  • Greger Lindberg added an answer:
    What impact will labeling obesity as a disease have on primary prevention of childhood obesity?
    The American Medical Association has now joined other organizations in deeming obesity a disease (not just a condition or syndrome). There is hand-wringing about proliferation of pharmaceuticals, surgery, and other medical treatments. What about prevention, and specifically, primary prevention for children? Is there applicable evidence for other diseases to inform us of what to expect for prevention and public health efforts around childhood obesity?
    Greger Lindberg · Karolinska Institutet

    Weight essentially reflects energy intake minus energy expenditure. I think it is wrong to focus on energy intake. We should direct our attention to energy expenditure. A sedentary lifestyle in itself is a strong risk factor for disease and also for obesity. Concentrating on energy intake is rather useless if we do nothing to increase energy expenditure. The latter is probably also much easier to change whereas changing energy intake has at best a short-term but marginal effect on weight.

  • Masimalai Palaniyandi added an answer:
    What is the forward elimination method, SPSS- forward selection or backward elimination?

    Data was analysed by SPSS software and the authors mentioned that in the multivariate logistic regression analysis they used forward elimination method

    Masimalai Palaniyandi

    Dear friend Yan Chen,

    The both backward and frontward selection or removal methods are used to find the influence of potential confounders (independent variables) and statistical significance on the dependant variables. it is built in or with in Linear Multivariate regression model to see the stepwise regression analysis to see the influence of single variable and multiple variables and also compound variables or factors.


  • Javad Amani added an answer:
    How we can find the Cut off score of the Scale tool?
    Suppose I have a Questionnaire for a Stress assessment that contains 30 questions, each question has 5 answers (0- no stress, 1-mild stress, 2- moderate , 3-High stress, 4- Severe stress). The Total score of the 30 question varies from 0 - 120.

    How we can categories the Total score (the range of total score is 0-120) into mild , moderate and severe? Which cut off s should l take for mild, moderate and severe?
    Javad Amani · University of Tabriz

    for likert scale 1 to 2.33 (low), 2.34 to 3.67 (moderate), 3.67 to 5 (high). to do this you should change scoring of your scale from 1 to 5 for each item. then compute the mean of your scale (not sum) and use above method to cut off

  • Ramanathan Krishnan added an answer:
    As a reviewer of a journal, what can/should you do when the author(s) submitted their manuscript simultaneously to two or more journals?
    Yesterday, I comprehensively reviewed a manuscript for a journal. The review took more than 10 hours of my time and I tried to do my best with more than 43 comments. Unfortunately, today I checked the authors' names and noticed that the manuscript has been recently published (with many faults) in another journal. I am EXTREMELY UPSET that these authors submitted their manuscript simultaneously to (at least) two journals. What did/would you do if you were in my shoes?
    Ramanathan Krishnan · French National Centre for Scientific Research

    This is a difficult situation and the answer is not simple. A s one would  qualify this a"much might be siad on bothe sides".

    Since I am a retired person I can speak my mind without any bias. young researchers are assessed by their publications, often by numbers and also by the journals. some journals take more than 6 months even to reply. Their problem is that the referees take time, and or proper referee could noe be found easily. whatever it be the young researcher would lose a year before his paper sees the day light. He gets panicky and  sends his paper to another journal.. I do not sya that I approve of this tactics but i understand. In my active ays I have ben refereeing papers and i know the difficulty involed. you feel vexed that you consider a paper and unfit but another journal publishe dit. So as some others also have expressed it is all in the game. As long as the paper is a copy or contains incoorect information one could tolerate this. further some jourals ared yong to get papers for their journal and they would gladly publsiha a paper without much caring for the quality. So this situation is not new and it existed 40 years ago too. then the choice was limited but now with mushrroming of categories and journals things get complex.

  • Sultan Salah added an answer:
    What type of statistical analysis should be done in a survey study ?
    In a survey done in a large population like about 5000 subjects, how to analyze the results statistically ?
    Sultan Salah

    Input from the statistician will be of immense help in the conduct of the study and will also help in publication of the study in the reputed journal, nowadays there are various ready made software available in the  market . SPSS is widely used in the statistical analysis and accepted by many reputed journals.

  • Jeffrey E. Jarrett added an answer:
    What is the minimum sample size, regardless of total number of population, that can be considered as reliable for performing advanced statistical tests?
    I have 32 patients with tuberculous meningitis, if I determined the sensitivity and specificity of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase and I got significant results, does it mean the result can be generalized? Can I determine the predictors of mortality from this sample?
    Jeffrey E. Jarrett · University of Rhode Island

    Minimum or optimum sample size is related to your risk of incurring  Type ! and Type 2  errors, the assumed standard deviation of the population and the tolerance level. Read a book of statistics of sampling and you will never ask this question again. The issue was solved many years ago.

  • Muhammad Javed added an answer:
    What is being done in your country with the current increase in dengue infection?
    In my country, dengue cases have increased from around 18000+ in 2012, to 28000+ this year. Deaths due to this viral disease has also increased from 21 to more than 60 this year. How about in your country?
    Muhammad Javed · Hamdard University

    Provincial Governments are actively in mass education of community by media  and on improvement of personal health  due to this companion,  and effective fumigation has resulted in decline of dengue fever this year 

  • Sally Hodges added an answer:
    Are there softwares to manage clinical data?
    I would like to have a software to manage large amounts of clinical data.
  • Kuldeep Dhama added an answer:
    Do Religion and Prayer Benefit Health?
    I need evidence-based medicine or research to back up these statements if someone can cite where the evidence can be found it will be very helpful and greatly appreciated.
    Kuldeep Dhama · Indian Veterinary Research Institute

    Religion and prayers are believed by many and most population of world, accepted by majority, and many beliefs and examples certify their beneficial effects on well being and health

  • Amarnath Trivedi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a topic on mental illness among the elderly for my Pg thesis?
    I have a plan to do thesis for my public health master's degree on dementia among elderly people in South India. Please suggest a topic which is of public health importance.
    Amarnath Trivedi · Christian Medical College Vellore

    thank you for the suggestions

  • Annette Anderson added an answer:
    Has anyone seen additional cases of invasive Neisseria macacae disease in humans?
    We treated a child with Neisseria macacae bacteraemia. In the literature I can not find any other published cases. Does anyone recall - from their own clinical practice - similar cases?
    Annette Anderson · Universitätsklinikum Freiburg

    Dear Dr. Schouten; we might have found N. macacae in an oral sample from a Sudanese study participant. But it has only been identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and the 16S sequences of N. macacae,  N. mucosa and N. sicca seem very related. The test person was healthy, so the only conclusion you might draw from this is, that N. macacae might have been part of his oral microbial flora.

    Kind regards,

    A. Anderson

  • Elena Kulikalova added an answer:
    What are your reservations with using GIS for health purposes?
    As it turns, GIS is fast gaining ground with more applications every year. The GIS-health nexus has always been a special one, especially with regard to communicable diseases. As technology drives many facets of health care and research, is the use of GIS still lagging behind? I aim to understand why!
    Elena Kulikalova · Irkutsk Antiplague Research Institute of Siberia and the Far East

    GIS is used not still enough and cause of it is a technical complexity of the product, and lack of IT competence in medical researchers knowledge (there is no information how to use GIS). I think, GIS is not only visualization tool, but also is a possibility for analysis like spatial-temporal spreading and density occurrence of infection disease etc. Researcher can try to use soft EpiInfo 7.0 of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

  • Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma added an answer:
    Waist Circumference cut point for sub-Saharan Africans?

    What are the best ways to develop the Waist Circumference cut point for sub-Saharan Africans? I understand that the current clinical definition of obesity for sub-Saharan Africa according to the IDF is by using the European Waist Circumference cut point.

    Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma · Charles Darwin University

    Hi Sean,

    Thanks heaps for your detailed response and suggestion.



  • Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa added an answer:
    Any good journal for occupational health?
    I am planning to submit a short paper on asbestosis. Is there A good journal on occupational health and diseases that is probably indexed with an impact factor?
    Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa · Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine

    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health


  • Rafael Maria Roman added an answer:
    What is the use of reporting the exact p value in a research paper? Is it necessary?
    If it mentioned in the Material and Methods p<0.05 or p<0.01 then is it stupidity to report the exact p values in the tables or does it have any relevance? If it is not significant then what does it matter if it is changed to 0.2 or 0.3 or 0.5 or 0.9 or 0.99?
    Rafael Maria Roman · University of Zulia

    In hypothesis testing, you have two choises, based on the value of alpha or probability of type I error:
    a) Strongly reject the null hypothesis.
    b) You have no evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

    The decision to accept the null hypothesis can only be considered after calculating the probability of the type II error, also called beta.

    Alpha alpha = 0.05 or 0.01; were established for convenience, the current trend is to report the exact value of p in which there are significant differences. This is a never ending point. I think, that the logical interpretation depends on the understanding, based on the evidence of the and practical implications of your decision.

  • Lekha Pandit added an answer:
    Does anybody use metaxantrone for treatment of multiple sclerosis?
    Lekha Pandit · Nitte University

    Mitoxantrone has a limited role in the treatment of MS in the current scenario.  Apart from the short period that it can be administered, treatment induced leukemia ( even as far as > 5 yrs after treatment) and cardiac toxicity are reasons for not preferring this drug. However in aggressive MS  that has not responded to first line therapy ( for eg. while compliant on Betainterferon , patient develops > 2 severe clinical relapses /yr or has increasing T2 W lesion load or > 2 GAD enhancing lesions) , then there is a limited role for Mitoxantrone to INDUCE Remission , to be followed later by a less toxic first line drug. 

  • Judith N Waudo added an answer:
    Which new technologies are most useful in assessing population dietary intakes?
    Traditional paper-based methods for assessing diet are difficult for people to complete, tend to encourage under-reporting and are expensive to analyse. New technologies, such as web-based or phone-based methods are being developed and look promising. At Leeds University, we are undertaking a review of new technologies to assess diet, and would be interested to hear from any researchers that have methods in development, that are Beta versions, or prototypes that may not be in the scientific literature at present.
    Judith N Waudo · Kenyatta University

    What l have worked on in terms of dietary assessment of a population is to use the 24 hr recall  with standardized household measures for different population groups and supplement this with electronic food photos. The use of dietary diversity score has also been useful and simplier.

About Epidemiology and Public Health

Identifying patterns of health and disease among populations.

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