Environmental Analysis

Environmental Analysis

  • Naveen Chandra added an answer:
    What are the procedures for calculating the background mixing ratios of CO2, CO and CH4 at an urban city from their one year long time series?

    I have one year long time series of CO2, CO and CH4 over an urban city. I want to remove their background for seeing the actual variability from their local emissions. What is the procedure for calculating the background mixing ratios of these gases on daily and monthly basis?

    Naveen Chandra · Physical Research Laboratory

    Thank you very much for your kind helps....

  • Bernabé Moreno added an answer:
    Should I normalise every environmental variable on my data-matrix?

    I'm using 04 variables (Water temperature, Dissolved oxygen, Depht & Current speed). All of these were measured at 20m deep.
    Before attempting to do a Principal Component Analysis I should normalise the data. When I do this in PRIMER, the normalised numbers of speed and depth seem to take weird values, but generates better graphics. Should I be concerned about these values?
    I have attached both output graphics. The 1st is the normalised one, the 2nd is not.
    Thanks a lot for the help! 

    Bernabé Moreno · Universidad Científica del Sur

    You're right about the 2nd X (Xmean
    Normalization is used to treat similarly variables with different scales and units. 
    Log transformation is considered a very strong transformation, sometimes leading to a reduced data variation which can hide some patterns. But, if you've better displayed your samples when log-transformation then you should probably keep on doing it.

    Very useful book by the way. I've just downloaded it.


  • Manoj Kumar Tiwari added an answer:
    What soil tests and improvement techniques can be done to study the feasibility of construction on former landfill areas?

    we have come up with the research topic, to see feasibility of construction in a former landfill areas. our focus here is to study the effect of waste on the soil parameters and what ground improvement techniques can be applied for better construction. we are stuck with how to go about the project, what soil tests are required, how many tests needed to be done and what areas of the topic can be covered during a period of 6 months.

    Thank you

    Manoj Kumar Tiwari · National Institute of Technology Raipur

    Dear Nakul

    strength parameters as well as bearing capacity test will also helpful. It is recommended to conduct plate load test for bearing capacity dertermination.

  • Yahya Shakhatreh added an answer:
    What are innovative ways to adapt to climate change in poor communities of developing countries?
    Climate change adaptation.
    Yahya Shakhatreh · National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension

    livelihood integrated approach is the  advisable  way. This will include all the main players and actors in the target area.  

  • Francisco M. Fernández-Latorre added an answer:
    How does cooperation affect environmental sustainability?

    The relationship between cooperation and sustainability seems to be intuitive, but what are the empirical evidences of the impact of  cooperation on environmental sustainability?

    Are there any theories or conceptual frameworks developped on this issue?

    Could you share some examples, references, or inspiring ideas showing the positive interaction between cooperation and environmental sustainability?

    Francisco M. Fernández-Latorre · Universidad de Sevilla

    Dear Krishan,

    Thank you very much for delivering such a suitable response and accurate reference.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    What are the land management and environmental factors that must be considered in site selection for Abattoir construction in sub saharan Africa?
    An ongoing study on the location of abattoirs in selected towns in West and Central Africa shows a pattern of locating them adjacent to creeks and other water bodies for ease in the discharge of the meat production waste, mostly untreated, into receiving water bodies. This is a serious land management and health issue.
    Krishnan Umachandran · NELCAST

    The central abattoir, which is meant to serve all the 11 local government areas in Ibadan land, is sited on 15 hectares of land, with provisions for manual and mechanical slaughtering of cattle, pigs, goats and sheep.

  • Chenghao Wang added an answer:
    GHG emissions from reservoirs and lakes; What is your opinion on this?
    Environmental pollution
    Chenghao Wang · Arizona State University


    We have done research in this area for many years, we found the GHG emission level should be different in different climate zone. According to the research we did in Three Gorges Reservoir (one of the biggest reservoirs in the world), we found that the GHG emission level will increase when compared with the level before, however it will decrease as time goes by. You can find our publication at DOI: 10.1038/srep04449.

  • Aidan Farrow asked a question:
    How can I run GEOS-Chem for 1990 using GEOS-4 data and 2010 using GEOS-5 data so that the output is comparable?

    I am running a long time series simulation with GEOS-Chem starting in 1986 and running to the present day. How can I make the simulations directly comparable when some years are forced with GEOS-4, GEOS-5 and current GEOS data? It seems like there is a step change in the emissions input data between GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 (See attached image of global mean NOx from 1986-2010).

  • Vikas Kamal added an answer:
    How can I plot the wilcox diagram in SAR groundwater quality?
    How can I plot the wilcox diagram in SAR groundwater quality? Can I use AquaChem or other else that free program? How much it hard to be used? Thank you very much.
    Vikas Kamal · Jawaharlal Nehru University

    Thanks a lot............Khairy sir.

  • Dr. Pragya Rathore added an answer:
    Is there any recent updated method for the most probable number for nitrifier and denitrifier population?

    Rowe et al. 1977 shows that the use of microtiter plates is more useful, efficient in terms of time and space, for measuring nitrifier population, however I have only seen they use it for nitrifiers, and is not constantly used for denitrifiers. 

    I am doing this and the old one for denitrifiers. Is it a good idea to compare an old and updated version of the same technique to obtain the same results? The old version is the one developed by Alexander and Clark (1965).

    If it is not, is there a way to prepare the medium for MPN using microtiter plates, for denitrifier population? 

    Please, any advice?! 



    Dr. Pragya Rathore · Sanghvi Institute of Management & Science

    Can anyone please provide me protocol for PHB polymerization??

  • Diego Alarcón added an answer:
    How are protected areas are affected by climate change?
    Protected Areas (PAs) play an important role in the conservation process of the biodiversity in their natural habitat. My question is "is there any threat to the protected areas from the emerging global warming and climate change? If yes, how and what should be the strategy to safeguard these PAs?
    Diego Alarcón · University of Concepción

    Even though late, I suggest the following papers you should not miss according to your question:





  • Luc LR Int Panis added an answer:
    Any suggestions on a Monte Carlo simulation and effect on the output variable of input variables with increasing uncertainty?

    I am designing a strategy to assess a mechanistic model I have been working on lately, and intend to use Monte Carlo Simulation. My point is whether it is relevant to ask the question: Will the increase in uncertainty of a given input variable cause the uncertainty of the output variable to increase as well? In other words, how is the output variable affected with an increased chance that one (or more) of the input variables is inappropriately sampled? 

    Another question that arrives from the previous one is: If the output variable from the model turned out to be very sensitive to one (or more) input variables, will it also be as sensitive to changing uncertainty levels of such input variables?

    To me it seems that the most obvious answer to this second question is 'yes'. However, the non-linear model is quite complex, so I wonder whether or not there is any reason to expect the opposite outcome.

    Thank you!


    Luc LR Int Panis · Flemish Institute for Technological Research

    An interesting problem. Collecting the uncertainty ranges (CI, ...) is a problem in itself given that for many of the parameters involved even finding an estimate of the mean can be difficult. We have only used linear approaches and found that most of the uncertainty on the output depends on a very limited number of input parameters, either because they are intrinsically important in the formula or very uncertain or both.

  • Gianmarco Alberti added an answer:
    Is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    This research is wonderful, congratulations. My question is, is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    Gianmarco Alberti · University of Malta

    I had the same problem. The procedure described here did not work for me, maybe for the limitations of dealing with a very huge number of resulting vector point after the first step.

    I managed to get what I was after using another approach. Hope this will be useful sometime in the future to anyone jumping here:

    (1) I loaded a DEM and a shape file corresponding to the same area;

    (2) I created a fishnet (with the ArcGIS tool) with size 500mX500m, making sure to tick the 'create labels';

    (3) I added x and y values to each generated point;

    (4) interpolated the x values by IDW, snapping the resulting raster to the DEM, and using the same processing extent of the region's shapefile. Same applies for y.


    Hope this helps

  • Alan Hesse added an answer:
    Does anyone have anything on ecological impact as a result of land use interventions in private lands?

    I am specifically interested in documenting evidence of the effects of riparian restoration and protection on fauna and / or vegetation community recovery, and also on water quality. Target area is tropical Andes, but data from other regions and biomes would also be great.

    Alan Hesse · Rare Conservation

    Thank you Kristan.

  • Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin added an answer:
    How is environmental tax calculated for different countries?

    I want to analyze the methodology of calculation in different countries. Please share a link. Thank you

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin · Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria

    it's complicated


  • Michelle Fernandes added an answer:
    Would anyone help me calculate percentage supersaturation of methane in surface waters?

    Is there a straight-forward formula?

    Michelle Fernandes · CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Goa

    Dear Robert,

    Thank you so much for the detailed reply. This question is raised on behalf of a PhD student working within our group and your answer was very helpful. Thank you once again.

  • Magnus Schlösser added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with electrochemical preconcentration of tritium in water?

    I would like to preconcentrate tritium in water samples in a electrochemical cell to improve MDA.

    Magnus Schlösser · Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    Have looked at this article?


  • Remi Sonier added an answer:
    How can I create an annual trend for chlorophyll a concentration for a coastal location, if availability of data is as stated below?

    1. Chlorophyll a concentration at three sampling points of a study coastal location. (The distance between sampling locations from coast varies between 10 - 25 km).

    2. Chlorophyll a concentration taken on one day of different months in a year but one season.

    (For instance, for year 2002 taken on 12-3-2002 and for year 2003 taken on 14-2-2003)

    3. Chlorophyll a measured at 3 depth levels.

    If data availability is in above mentioned manner, can we prepare annual time series for the study location? how?

    Remi Sonier · Fisheries and Oceans Canada

    Hi Nitish,

    Chlorophyll a in coastal waters is verry variable in time (and often from day to day , or tide to tide). Your sampling interval is, in my own opinion, rather limited. For instance, in my case for a small estuary for one year sampling during ice-free months, the minimum sampling protocol was 7 sampling stations, sampled bi-weekly, in triplicatas, for 7 months and we size fractionned as well.

    Basically I think one season each year is probably not sufficiant to have good statistical confidence in the data.



  • Muhammad Ali added an answer:
    How to calculate "Air temperature" from "land surface temperature"?
    Air temperature from LST (day and night).
    Muhammad Ali · Forschungszentrum Jülich

    Hi Sally,

    Did you get any solution to your query? Any updates on the topic please??

  • Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas added an answer:
    Would you like to propose any mechanism to improve the quality of an EIA study and to increase the usefulness of an EIA report?
    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a valuation of the possible impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment. The study should be focused towards “sustainable development” while having a minimum damage to the environment. This study is done for an assessment of all elements in the environments under physical, biological and social spheres and also comprises an extended cost benefit analyses. The experts involved in this study should work together as a team rather than work as individuals. The resulting EIA report is a valuable document for decision makers, which is used to decide whether or not to proceed with the proposed project. However, many EIA studies are not conducted scientifically and resulting reports are poor in quality, lack of required information; hence decisions makers often face difficulties when they arriving a decision. Would you like to propose any mechanism to improve the quality of an EIA study and to increase the usefulness of an EIA report?
    Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas · Universiteit Twente

    The following review have addressed some aspects of your question: Coping with uncertainty in environmental impact assessments. A multi-field synthesis of literature.

  • Salvatore Chiavarini added an answer:
    Can I use a known concentration of BTEX inside a bottle of 0.5 liter to calibrate SPME or I do need a continuous and constant concentration?

    I am planning to make different SPME passive sampler and calibrate them before using in indoor environments. To do so, first I need constant and known concentration of BTEX. I can easily do that by spiking known mass of BTEX inside a glass bottle of 0.5 l volume. However, I am not sure about consistency of BTEX concentrations over experiment period of possibly 2 or more hours while deploying 5 SPME inside the bottle.

    Salvatore Chiavarini · ENEA

    @Peter, @Jean-François,

    my point is that the SPME fiber depletes the headspace, not the entire solution. The low temperature (high viscosity) and lack of agitation (slow mass transfer rate) are key for this. The SPME does not sample a constant concentration atmosphere, which is what is needed by Sadegh for an ambient sampling - therefore my suggestion: bigger volumes or flow conditions (both for calibration and sampling!!)

    Anyway, SPME is not ideal for quantitative enironmental evaluations

  • M. Balakrishnan added an answer:
    What are the ecological dimensions of land conflict?

    Land conflict effects land use (and deforestation in Brazil).  Can anyone give me good examples of places where contention between groups (e.g., mechanized interests and subsistence farmers) is leading to loss of native wildlands (forests, savannas, etc.).  I wish to generalize my research to a broader, possibly global, perspective.

    M. Balakrishnan · Addis Ababa University

    There are several examples from the African continents, some of these are well studied also.

  • Seyedmohsen Mousavi added an answer:
    What is the relationship between XCO2 observed by GOSAT and CO2 flux measured using static chamber method?

    Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) monitor the dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of atmospheric CO2 (XCO2). What is the difference between this data and the greenhouse gas flux using static chamber method? Is there any relationship or conversion between them?

    Seyedmohsen Mousavi · Tarbiat Modares University


    I think, XCO2 have one percent error but base ground are accurate

  • Gustavo Concari added an answer:
    Does scenarios planning help in strategic risk management?

    Organizational risk identification and assessment of probable impact is essential to workout suitable responses for enterprise risk management. In addition to business environment analysis, scenarios are part of strategic planning process. The question is about its usefulness in strategic risk management, particularly in uncertain business environment.

    Gustavo Concari · Universidad Católica del Uruguay Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga

    Dear Mr. Dattagupta:

                                     Scenario planning is useful for creating new ideas. It was born when the oil crisis in 1973,  during one of the israeli-arab wars. It is very useful for thinking "what may happen if". Shell made scenarios in which arab countries belonging to OPEC would use their bargaining power against petroleum companies. What happened was very similar, although in the context of a war.

                                     The other important example I know was the decision ot the norwegian government to drill/construct an oil platform in the North Atlantic when the URSS existed. They made scenarios in which this country would open itself to western economies, as it eventually did during Gorbachov´s rule.

                                     I would suggest to read these authors: Kees Van der Heijden, Peter Schwartz ("The Art of the Long View", recommended) and articles by Arie de Geus.

                                     To be short, I understand it helps a lot to avoid risks in companies. 


    Gustavo Concari

  • Dayang Xuan added an answer:
    Subsidence modelling
    Which software is the best for coal mining modelling?
    Dayang Xuan · China University of Mining Technology

    You can consider using UDEC.

  • Paul Masselink added an answer:
    Over what time scale can we expect to store carbon through irrigation and photosynthesis in arid land?

    I strongly think and hope very large scale desalination of sea water to irrigate arid zone is the second way to fight against global warming and its consequences as rise in sea level and accelerated desertification of arid.
    Of course, the first is the sustainable behavior; desalination might be performed and funded by ecological means.
    In a previous discussion :
    Pr K. M.Towe said :"There is no way for "photosynthesis" to "pay" for it's subsequent LONG TERM microorganisms aerobic recycling". I must specify : recycling humans, animals and plants carbon. I wonder how is it possible reforestation would not have any significant effect on carbon footprint and over what time period photosynthesis is much greater than the aerobic respiration of microorganisms.
    If respiration of microorganisms always prevailed over that of plants, a long time ago we would have no more oxygen. Do the rainforests have a negative balance sheet of oxygen/carbon?

    At a rate of two dollars per cubic meter of desalinated water, what would be carbon foot print over several years of a cubic meters of desalted water in arid and sunny area? That is the question?

    Paul Masselink · Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
    • find ways to grow plants without additional water, like they did  positive results are guaranteed and proven 

    Final Report of Groasis Waterboxx experiments in Galapagos by Charles Darwin Foundation

    A Summary of the Treesolution with the Groasis Technology

  • Sarah Ali added an answer:
    Is the Lutron 4 in 1 Environment Meter (Airflow, Temp, Light, Humidity) LM8000 effective for assessing microclimatic impacts of urban tree cover?

    Does anyone have experience using it for such similar studies?

    Is the device sufficient to carry out the work?

    Sarah Ali · Indian Institute of Forest Management

    Thank you for your inputs, Megan Foley

  • Uwe Alexander Schneider added an answer:
    Does anyone know the specific and best characteristics of water to develop assays with Daphnia magna?
    I need to develop some experiments with D. magna and I need to know the properties that should have the water according to official guidelines. In the OCDE TG I did not find much information.
    Uwe Alexander Schneider

    You can also check out the guidance manuals published by Environment Canada on toxicity testing for various organisms, including D. magna:

    Environment Canada Guidance Documents, Environmental Protection Series; published by Environmental Protection Service
    (available at http://publications.gc.ca/...., ; or

    e.g., Biological Test Method: Acute Lethality Test Using Daphnia spp. - EPS1/RM/11; 1990/1996

    Also, it is good if you can define/identify your test organism in more detail (i.e., DNA fingerprinting).  D. magna is likely also a "Cryptic Species Group" similar to Hyallela azteca, i.e., there are more than 80 different clades/species classified as H. azteca, with different sensitivities to toxic substances, esp. metals.  See the attached papers.

    D. magna has different sensitivities to metals, depending on the origin of the organism, and prior exposure.

  • Bernabé Moreno added an answer:
    According to the Draftsman-plot: How exactly do I know if I have to transform my environmental data (prior to normalization and PCA)?

    I've attached the Draftsman-plot that I've obtained.
    I'm using 04 variables: Temperature, Dissolved oxygen, Current speed and Depth ('Profundidad' in the attached figure).
    I see no necessity of transforming it, but I just want to be sure if I'm correct or not.
    Thanks and cheers 

    Bernabé Moreno · Universidad Científica del Sur

    Thank you very much Aimeric. Helpful indeed! Now I'm sure how to proceed.

About Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis is the use of analytical chemistry and other techniques to study the environment. The purpose of this is commonly to monitor and study levels of pollutants in the atmosphere, rivers and other specific settings.

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