Environmental Analysis

Environmental Analysis

  • Reginald B Kogbara added an answer:
    When do I have to analyze physical and chemical parameters of artificially contaminated soil? How do I contaminate artificially the soil sample?

    doing project on remediation of contaminated soil with recovery of heavy metals.so planning to contaminate a sample artificially with heavy metals.

    Reginald B Kogbara

    If you opt for artificial contamination, you would need to spike the metal onto the soil from one of its soluble compounds. For example, lead from lead nitrate (PbNO3), copper from copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O), etc. You must add the metallic compound into water and mix properly before adding the solution to the soil; never add the compounds directly to the soil as they are toxic. If you want real contaminated soils, you can get that from a variety of places including sites where mining and smelting operations are done, areas where waste incineration takes place, areas around oil refineries, chemical/petrochemical production areas, etc.

  • Marcel Balçık added an answer:
    Why the amounts adsorbed of polar gas such as carbon dioxide in MOFs for the experimental measurements are significantly higher than the simulations?

    Sometimes, the amount adsorbed of polar gas such as carbon dioxide in MOFs for the experimental measurements are significantly higher than the simulations, Do you know why?  Note that the MOF in this case is not open metal.

    Marcel Balçık

    Yes, and thats probably because CO2 is the only gas among them that cause swelling.

  • Shabana Khan added an answer:
    FLASH EA 1112 series CHNS analyzer was used for determination of CHN for certain soil samples. How can the results be interpreted in terms of mg/kg?

    The results of the soil samples were expressed in percentage and amount of sample was specified. For example 2 mg of soil the % N  and % C was 0.6 and 5 respectively.

    For 2 mg of soil = 5% C then for 1000 mg of soil = 2500 mg C

    Kindly suggest  if the above direct proportion is correct or is there any instrumental software which calculates for the 1 g of soil as the sample quantity used in the analysis was actually 2 mg.

    how can the same results be converted in terms of mg/kg.

    Shabana Khan

    Thanks for the valuable suggestion.

  • Sara Lebid added an answer:
    Where, please, could we find climatologic evolution models ?

    Concernnig our region, southwestern Mediterranean Sea, in a previous work we've done we've found that the mean temperature has raised by 2 Celsius degrees, but it seems that it is not conform with the rest of the scientific literature.

    According to the gathered data, we've obtained a numerical model developed by interpolation and the trend is to a significant increase in the average temperature pushed mainly by the minimal ones, when the maximal remain relatively stable, in a duration of 30 years. Are there other models that gave same or different results ?

    Sara Lebid

    Thank you very much for your very valuable cooperation. Our region is northwest Africa just towards the Alboran Sea in front of Andalusia in Spain, close to the Moroccan border. We suffer a typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate moderated with the altitude. Our data were given by the local meteorological office and concern a period of 96 years from 1918 till nowadays.

  • Andrey A. Kovalchuk added an answer:
    Is there a recent specific universal primer for Eukaryotics species or protozoan which resides on the oily polluted areas?

    i want find out  the relationship between the ones that was found in oily polluted areas with the one of thee protozoan that i have in our lab that i used for bio-remediation studies. 

    Andrey A. Kovalchuk

    Dear Leonard,

    it seems to me that I understand what you want. Special key for this type of species does'nt exist. The question is the very poor studied, but practical importance is high. Many years ago I was arranged for such problem in Russian Sybiria, as there oil wells smtms had destroying environment for several years. But in this area biological purification mainly not effective due to low temperature over the year.

    You should try to identify your species even to Phylum, or better give us some photos. RG is inhabited with a lot of perfect taxonomist. If not me, somebody will help you, but you should precise your question.


  • Muthukrishnavellaisamy Kumarasamy added an answer:
    How much artificial aeration may be effective on reaeration rate (Ka) of rivers?

    How much artificial aeration methods, such as constructing cascades or weirs, using mechanical aerators, floated plants, or pumping out and discharging again the water, can increase the rearation rate (Ka) of rivers? Is there any practical case study pointing to this fact?

    I know that this depends on various parameters, and I dont need the aeration potential of these methods. I am really looking forward to any literature, case study or report that directly shows Ka is changed from X to Y in rivers.

  • Ruediger Burkhard Richter added an answer:
    What soil tests and improvement techniques can be done to study the feasibility of construction on former landfill areas?

    we have come up with the research topic, to see feasibility of construction in a former landfill areas. our focus here is to study the effect of waste on the soil parameters and what ground improvement techniques can be applied for better construction. we are stuck with how to go about the project, what soil tests are required, how many tests needed to be done and what areas of the topic can be covered during a period of 6 months.

    Thank you

    Ruediger Burkhard Richter

    Next to tests with regard to ground improvement requirements, you also may even have chemo-toxic and radiotoxic impacts. - Core drilling samples down to the next load-bearing layer and a sectional analysis (maybe every meter) could be quite helpful at the beginning and also to make sure, that you are not creating a new "Love Canal" in your country. http://library.buffalo.edu/lovecanal

  • Emilio Ramirez-Juidias added an answer:
    Is it possible to use method of WGEB (markov chain) for downscaling rainfall and change factor for temperature?

    I would like to know if I can use both of these methods (WEGN) for downscaling rainfall and change factor for temperature in the same project.

    Emilio Ramirez-Juidias

    Hello Rasha.

    The answer is yes, it is posible. In the link below you can see the method in a recent paper:




  • Brahm Pal Singh added an answer:
    The Saraswati kup water in Allahabad has EC- 2230 with K , NO3, PO4,Ganga & Yamuna EC- 470 -720 only. Is it a Saraswati Palaeochannel?

    The Saraswati kup water in Allahabad has EC- 2230 with K , NO3, PO4,Ganga & Yamuna EC- 470 -720 only. Is it a Saraswati Palaeochannel?

    Brahm Pal Singh

    Three to five times conductivity increase/change at such a short span of distance seems to be unnatural. It may be nice to elaborate the adopted EC measurement procedure such as EC measured values with respect to measurement location, measurement time and measurement number of times of EC. In case, such a variation in EC is consistant then it would be nice to find the cause of increased EC. A reliable source of measurement for a span of time interval only could/would lead to any conclusion. Otherwise until than the topic may remain just good and interesting for indefinite discussion. Warm regards,

  • Abdoulaye Sarr asked a question:
    Error using subplot for panel plot in grads?

    I am doing a panel plot with grads using subplot.gs and getting the following error:

    [subplot ERROR] # of varying dimensions must be 1 or 2. Current setting is
    X is varying Lon = -24 to 21 X = 1 to 91
    Y is varying Lat = -4.5 to 28 Y = 1 to 66
    Z is fixed Lev = 0 Z = 1
    T is fixed Time = 12Z01JAN1996 T = 1
    E is fixed Ens = 1 E = 1

    I need to plot 10 figures in 2 columns of 5 each.

    The individual plots are created but not in panel.

    Any hint to solve this welcome.

    I call the subplot like this for the first plot:

    'subplot 10 1 '
    '*d tp'

  • Mounir Belloumi added an answer:
    How can I estimate WTA using doubleb command in stata?

     I' m looking for estimation of WTA instead of WTP, that frequently used in studies. In fact I want to estimate the minimum compensation payment that local people are willing to accept for lose their access to mangrove forest due to protection scenarios.

    I' m trying to analyze a dataset with one starting value as part of the CVM study. I have used the double bounded dichotomous method and have succefully installed the doubleb command. In order to estimate WTA, the bid2 (t2) is lower bid when answer1 (answer to initial bid) is equal to 1( i. e. local people have positive response to initial bid for accept as compensation) , and vice versa (conversely in WTP estimation).

    However, when I attempt to use the program with my dataset, Stata returns the following error:

    doubleb bid1 bid2 answer1 answer2

    There is an inconsistency in at least one of your observations.
    Check for situations where the response to the first question is yes but the second bid is lower t
    > han the first
    or for situations where the response to the first question is no but the second bid is higher than
    > the first.
    After solving this issue try the command again.

    My dataset contains no missing values. There are one bid1 values and 2 different bid2 values . answer1 and answer2 are just
    dummy variables.

    Mounir Belloumi

    You should enter your data using Excel and after that you choose to use any econometric package to estimate your model.

  • Pradeep Moudgil added an answer:
    Is there any relationship between BOD (Biochemnical oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand), SS & conductivity in the water analysis parameter?
    We want to find the link between the Water treatment parameters, may be software or it can be a graphical relation.
    Pradeep Moudgil

    thanks for replies:-

    but for the specific effluent these parameters may have the relation. if exist then it can be fixed/established and  then legalized to cross check whether all the analysis done practically or on the actaul ground??

    shall we process or some more work in this regard??

  • Imran AHMED Khan added an answer:
    How can I find out micro-scale soil moisture remote sensing data along with rainfall, soil temperature and evapotranspiration data?

    I want to assess soil moisture role on vegetation dynamics and ecology.

    Moreover, Some additional modelling with flooding and drought conditions in Pakistan.

    Imran AHMED Khan

    Many thanks Giacomo.

  • Naveen Chandra added an answer:
    What are the procedures for calculating the background mixing ratios of CO2, CO and CH4 at an urban city from their one year long time series?

    I have one year long time series of CO2, CO and CH4 over an urban city. I want to remove their background for seeing the actual variability from their local emissions. What is the procedure for calculating the background mixing ratios of these gases on daily and monthly basis?

    Naveen Chandra

    Thank you very much for your kind helps....

  • Bernabé Moreno added an answer:
    Should I normalise every environmental variable on my data-matrix?

    I'm using 04 variables (Water temperature, Dissolved oxygen, Depht & Current speed). All of these were measured at 20m deep.
    Before attempting to do a Principal Component Analysis I should normalise the data. When I do this in PRIMER, the normalised numbers of speed and depth seem to take weird values, but generates better graphics. Should I be concerned about these values?
    I have attached both output graphics. The 1st is the normalised one, the 2nd is not.
    Thanks a lot for the help! 

    + 1 more attachment

    Bernabé Moreno

    You're right about the 2nd X (Xmean
    Normalization is used to treat similarly variables with different scales and units. 
    Log transformation is considered a very strong transformation, sometimes leading to a reduced data variation which can hide some patterns. But, if you've better displayed your samples when log-transformation then you should probably keep on doing it.

    Very useful book by the way. I've just downloaded it.


  • Yahya Shakhatreh added an answer:
    What are innovative ways to adapt to climate change in poor communities of developing countries?
    Climate change adaptation.
    Yahya Shakhatreh

    livelihood integrated approach is the  advisable  way. This will include all the main players and actors in the target area.  

  • Francisco M. Fernández-Latorre added an answer:
    How does cooperation affect environmental sustainability?

    The relationship between cooperation and sustainability seems to be intuitive, but what are the empirical evidences of the impact of  cooperation on environmental sustainability?

    Are there any theories or conceptual frameworks developped on this issue?

    Could you share some examples, references, or inspiring ideas showing the positive interaction between cooperation and environmental sustainability?

    Francisco M. Fernández-Latorre

    Dear Krishan,

    Thank you very much for delivering such a suitable response and accurate reference.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    What are the land management and environmental factors that must be considered in site selection for Abattoir construction in sub saharan Africa?
    An ongoing study on the location of abattoirs in selected towns in West and Central Africa shows a pattern of locating them adjacent to creeks and other water bodies for ease in the discharge of the meat production waste, mostly untreated, into receiving water bodies. This is a serious land management and health issue.
    Krishnan Umachandran

    The central abattoir, which is meant to serve all the 11 local government areas in Ibadan land, is sited on 15 hectares of land, with provisions for manual and mechanical slaughtering of cattle, pigs, goats and sheep.

  • Chenghao Wang added an answer:
    GHG emissions from reservoirs and lakes; What is your opinion on this?
    Environmental pollution
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Organic carbon (OC) can be classified into three main categories: labile, semi labile and refractory. The area of research is primarily focused on the labile organic carbon (LOC) as it is considered highly reactive indicator of green house gas (GHG) emission from reservoirs and lakes. The CO 2 or CH 4 release from sediment OC depends on its source and temperature of the reservoirs. The several analytical methods are available to determine and evaluate LOC based on physical, chemical and biochemical methods. A review of the advantages and disadvantages of each technique has indicated that none of the methods can be used to determine LOC precisely either because a part of the LOC is not involved or its further characterization is apparently missing. The approach is an omnipotent tool for the measurement of LOC. The present paper reviews the methodologies for estimating LOC and other types of organic carbon like LOC which plays crucial role in estimating the GHG emissions from reservoirs /lakes and lays the emphasis only on LOC (DOC, DIC and POC) due to its rapid degradation for the release of GHG compared to other "C" types.
      Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 01/2014; 5(3):653-660.
    Chenghao Wang


    We have done research in this area for many years, we found the GHG emission level should be different in different climate zone. According to the research we did in Three Gorges Reservoir (one of the biggest reservoirs in the world), we found that the GHG emission level will increase when compared with the level before, however it will decrease as time goes by. You can find our publication at DOI: 10.1038/srep04449.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Indoor simulation experiment was carried out to evaluate the formation and consumption rates of methane (CH4) in Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. The results show that both the CH4 formation and consumption rates were significantly positively correlated with temperature. CH4 efflux decreased with rising temperature due to its potential increasing oxidation rate. CH4 oxidation in surface sediments accounted for 51.8% of the total production and it even reached to 77.4% at 35°C. The methane oxidation rate in water column ranged from 1.26 to 4.65 mg/(m(2)h), of which the average and greatest rate accounted for 46.7% and 73.9% of CH4 production respectively under the condition of 30 m water column and 35°C. The methane oxidation may increase by 41.04 mg/(m(2)h) under average water level of TGR (160 m), and most methane resulted from sediments can be oxidized in the water column.
      Scientific Reports 03/2014; 4:4449. DOI:10.1038/srep04449
  • Aidan Farrow asked a question:
    How can I run GEOS-Chem for 1990 using GEOS-4 data and 2010 using GEOS-5 data so that the output is comparable?

    I am running a long time series simulation with GEOS-Chem starting in 1986 and running to the present day. How can I make the simulations directly comparable when some years are forced with GEOS-4, GEOS-5 and current GEOS data? It seems like there is a step change in the emissions input data between GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 (See attached image of global mean NOx from 1986-2010).

  • Vikas Kamal added an answer:
    How can I plot the wilcox diagram in SAR groundwater quality?
    How can I plot the wilcox diagram in SAR groundwater quality? Can I use AquaChem or other else that free program? How much it hard to be used? Thank you very much.
    Vikas Kamal

    Thanks a lot............Khairy sir.

  • Dr. Pragya Rathore added an answer:
    Is there any recent updated method for the most probable number for nitrifier and denitrifier population?

    Rowe et al. 1977 shows that the use of microtiter plates is more useful, efficient in terms of time and space, for measuring nitrifier population, however I have only seen they use it for nitrifiers, and is not constantly used for denitrifiers. 

    I am doing this and the old one for denitrifiers. Is it a good idea to compare an old and updated version of the same technique to obtain the same results? The old version is the one developed by Alexander and Clark (1965).

    If it is not, is there a way to prepare the medium for MPN using microtiter plates, for denitrifier population? 

    Please, any advice?! 



    Dr. Pragya Rathore

    Can anyone please provide me protocol for PHB polymerization??

  • Diego Alarcón added an answer:
    How are protected areas are affected by climate change?
    Protected Areas (PAs) play an important role in the conservation process of the biodiversity in their natural habitat. My question is "is there any threat to the protected areas from the emerging global warming and climate change? If yes, how and what should be the strategy to safeguard these PAs?
    Diego Alarcón

    Even though late, I suggest the following papers you should not miss according to your question:





    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Range shifts due to climate change may cause species to move out of protected areas. Climate change could therefore result in species range dynamics that reduce the relevance of current fixed protected areas in future conservation strategies. Here, we apply species distribution modeling and conservation planning tools in three regions (Mexico, the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, and Western Europe) to examine the need for additional protected areas in light of anticipated species range shifts caused by climate change. We set species representation targets and assessed the area required to meet those targets in the present and in the future, under a moderate climate change scenario. Our findings indicate that protected areas can be an important conservation strategy in such a scenario, and that early action may be both more effective and less costly than inaction or delayed action. According to our projections, costs may vary among regions and none of the three areas studied will fully meet all conservation targets, even under a moderate climate change scenario. This suggests that limiting climate change is an essential complement to adding protected areas for conservation of biodiversity.
      Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 04/2007; 5(3):131-138. DOI:10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[131:PANIAC]2.0.CO;2

    + 3 more attachments

  • Luc LR Int Panis added an answer:
    Any suggestions on a Monte Carlo simulation and effect on the output variable of input variables with increasing uncertainty?

    I am designing a strategy to assess a mechanistic model I have been working on lately, and intend to use Monte Carlo Simulation. My point is whether it is relevant to ask the question: Will the increase in uncertainty of a given input variable cause the uncertainty of the output variable to increase as well? In other words, how is the output variable affected with an increased chance that one (or more) of the input variables is inappropriately sampled? 

    Another question that arrives from the previous one is: If the output variable from the model turned out to be very sensitive to one (or more) input variables, will it also be as sensitive to changing uncertainty levels of such input variables?

    To me it seems that the most obvious answer to this second question is 'yes'. However, the non-linear model is quite complex, so I wonder whether or not there is any reason to expect the opposite outcome.

    Thank you!


    Luc LR Int Panis

    An interesting problem. Collecting the uncertainty ranges (CI, ...) is a problem in itself given that for many of the parameters involved even finding an estimate of the mean can be difficult. We have only used linear approaches and found that most of the uncertainty on the output depends on a very limited number of input parameters, either because they are intrinsically important in the formula or very uncertain or both.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO2. To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.
      Science of The Total Environment 01/2005; 334-335:287-98. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.073

    + 1 more attachment

  • Gianmarco Alberti added an answer:
    Is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    This research is wonderful, congratulations. My question is, is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This study proposes an empirical methodology for modelling and mapping the air temperature (mean maximum, mean and mean minimum) and total precipitation, all of which are monthly and annual, using geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. The method can be seen as an alternative to classical interpolation techniques when spatial information is available. The geographical area used to develop and apply this model is Catalonia (32 000 km2, northeast Spain). We have developed a multiple regression analysis between these meteorological variables as the dependent ones, and some geographical variables (altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), continentality (CON), solar radiation (RAD) and a cloudiness factor (CLO)) as the independent ones. Data for the dependent variables were obtained from meteorological stations, and data for the independent variables were elaborated from a 180 m resolution digital elevation model (DEM). Multiple regression coefficients (bn) were used to build final maps, using digital layers for each independent variable, and applying basic GIS techniques. The results are very satisfactory in the case of mean air temperature and mean minimum air temperature, with coefficients of determination (R2) between 0.79 and 0.97, depending on the month; in the case of mean maximum air temperature, R2 ranges between 0.70 and 0.89, while in the case of precipitation, it ranges between 0.60 and 0.91. Copyright © 2000 Royal Meteorological Society
      International Journal of Climatology 11/2000; 20(14):1823 - 1841. DOI:10.1002/1097-0088(20001130)20:14<1823::AID-JOC566>3.0.CO;2-B
    Gianmarco Alberti

    I had the same problem. The procedure described here did not work for me, maybe for the limitations of dealing with a very huge number of resulting vector point after the first step.

    I managed to get what I was after using another approach. Hope this will be useful sometime in the future to anyone jumping here:

    (1) I loaded a DEM and a shape file corresponding to the same area;

    (2) I created a fishnet (with the ArcGIS tool) with size 500mX500m, making sure to tick the 'create labels';

    (3) I added x and y values to each generated point;

    (4) interpolated the x values by IDW, snapping the resulting raster to the DEM, and using the same processing extent of the region's shapefile. Same applies for y.


    Hope this helps

  • Alan Hesse added an answer:
    Does anyone have anything on ecological impact as a result of land use interventions in private lands?

    I am specifically interested in documenting evidence of the effects of riparian restoration and protection on fauna and / or vegetation community recovery, and also on water quality. Target area is tropical Andes, but data from other regions and biomes would also be great.

    Alan Hesse

    Thank you Kristan.

  • Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin added an answer:
    How is environmental tax calculated for different countries?

    I want to analyze the methodology of calculation in different countries. Please share a link. Thank you

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez Martin

    it's complicated


  • Michelle Fernandes added an answer:
    Would anyone help me calculate percentage supersaturation of methane in surface waters?

    Is there a straight-forward formula?

    Michelle Fernandes

    Dear Robert,

    Thank you so much for the detailed reply. This question is raised on behalf of a PhD student working within our group and your answer was very helpful. Thank you once again.

  • Magnus Schlösser added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with electrochemical preconcentration of tritium in water?

    I would like to preconcentrate tritium in water samples in a electrochemical cell to improve MDA.

    Magnus Schlösser

    Have looked at this article?


  • Remi Sonier added an answer:
    How can I create an annual trend for chlorophyll a concentration for a coastal location, if availability of data is as stated below?

    1. Chlorophyll a concentration at three sampling points of a study coastal location. (The distance between sampling locations from coast varies between 10 - 25 km).

    2. Chlorophyll a concentration taken on one day of different months in a year but one season.

    (For instance, for year 2002 taken on 12-3-2002 and for year 2003 taken on 14-2-2003)

    3. Chlorophyll a measured at 3 depth levels.

    If data availability is in above mentioned manner, can we prepare annual time series for the study location? how?

    Remi Sonier

    Hi Nitish,

    Chlorophyll a in coastal waters is verry variable in time (and often from day to day , or tide to tide). Your sampling interval is, in my own opinion, rather limited. For instance, in my case for a small estuary for one year sampling during ice-free months, the minimum sampling protocol was 7 sampling stations, sampled bi-weekly, in triplicatas, for 7 months and we size fractionned as well.

    Basically I think one season each year is probably not sufficiant to have good statistical confidence in the data.



About Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis is the use of analytical chemistry and other techniques to study the environment. The purpose of this is commonly to monitor and study levels of pollutants in the atmosphere, rivers and other specific settings.

Topic followers (15,197) See all