Environmental Analysis

Environmental Analysis

  • Steve Hatfield-Dodds added an answer:
    What are some current Decision Support Systems or other tools which can assist in the land use decision making process?
    I am working on a literature review of current DSS or tools used in land use decision making. So I'm keen to hear about any DSS/tools used or developed around the world to help with making land use decisions, focusing on economics, environmental benefits/risks, social benefits/risks, cultural factors, etc.
    Steve Hatfield-Dodds · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    I wrote a paper on this in 2005 which provides a flow chart for matching different tools to different types of decision context.  It pays particular attention coping with multiple types of impacts (in-market and non-market) and the degree fof consensus about the problem being managed. You might find this useful. Cheers - Steve 

  • What is the relationship between SIA (Social Impact Assessment) and SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) ?
    Dr. Bashkim Mal Lushaj: SIA is defined as an activity designed to identify and predict the impact on the biogeophysical environment and on man's health and well-being of legislative proposals, policies, programs, projects, and operational procedures, and to interpret and communicate information about the impacts and their effects(Dr. Bashkim Mal Lushaj) and SEA is a systematic decision support process, aiming to ensure that environmental and possibly other sustainability aspects are considered effectively in policy, plan and programme making. (Fischer, 2007)
    Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar · University of Sistan and Baluchestan

    In accordant to dear colleagues, SEA (Strategic Impact Assessment) is focused on the substantive and critical parts of environment (both Natural and Anthropogenic branches) which have extensive amplitude and intensive magnitude. SEA is the innovative modification of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) which can be included SIA (Social Impact Assessment), HIA (Health Impact Assessment), etc.

  • David Hernandez-Moreno added an answer:
    Does anyone know the specific and best characteristics of water to develop assays with Daphnia magna?
    I need to develop some experiments with D. magna and I need to know the properties that should have the water according to official guidelines. In the OCDE TG I did not find much information.
    David Hernandez-Moreno · Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria

    Thank you Valentina. The problem I have with Elendt medium is the interaction between EDTA and metals. We will probably choose the ASTM water.

  • Katheem Kiyasudeen added an answer:
    Can I do phosphorous analysis by Molybdovanadate acid persulfate digestion method for my powder sample?

    Usually water or wastewater is analysed using Molybdovanadate acid persulfate digestion. Can I apply this protocol for my solid sample?. I have the HACH kit for phosphorous analysis. Kindly suggest.

    Katheem Kiyasudeen · Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malayisa

    Thank you so  much Kunal. It was really helpful. :-)

  • Ivo Achu Nges added an answer:
    How can we measure biogas production inside an anaerobic reator? Is it possible to do a empirical estimation?

    The theoretical calculation of methane production in an anaerobic process does not allows the estimation of another reactions that uses COD too, as sulfate reduction. Does any one knows a work that already developed most complete empirical calculations?

    Ivo Achu Nges · Lund University

    You can only estimate the methane production in a digester if you know the composition of the feedstock. Yes, 1 g COD = 350 ml CH4 but with the compositional analysis, one can predict the total methane yield using Buswell formula (Check this out, it also takes into account H2S production)...... or Carbohydrates (1 g) will yield 415 ml CH4, protein about 490 ml CH4 and lipids 1000 ml CH4. Consider also that about 10% of the feedstock may go into biomass and heat.

  • Petros Theodorou added an answer:
    Does scenarios planning help in strategic risk management?

    Organizational risk identification and assessment of probable impact is essential to workout suitable responses for enterprise risk management. In addition to business environment analysis, scenarios are part of strategic planning process. The question is about its usefulness in strategic risk management, particularly in uncertain business environment.

    Petros Theodorou · Athens University of Economics and Business

    Unfortunatelly scenario planning is not actually helpfull since ignores the interaction among exogenous variables. I hardly remember anyone from my business experience to have a good understanding of the correlation among exogenous vars as well as how this correlation changes. Simulation is a step further whcih is actually a must for the banking sector. Simulation grasps all intermediate levels as well as tail risks. If someone goes to the tail risks by scenarios will be in extremes and receive a huge bandwidth of the criterio vars.

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    Traditional vs integrated waste management system…who’s the winner in your country?

    Traditional waste management systems is based on landfill of waste (often non-compliant sites with environmental regulations) and mixed waste collection with poor facilities for recycling and waste recovery. On the other hand, the integrated waste management systems are based on separate collection, 3R policy (reduce ,reuse, recycle) and energy recovery. Which systems prevail in your country? And what are the proper solutions in order to provide the transition to an integrated waste management system?

    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

      @ Dear Rodrigo,

      Incineration a is very controversial topic because of environmental and health threats to surroundings areas outlined also by several papers in literature or media. Does household waste composition favor incineration process in Valencia region? What about composting and recycling facilities ?

  • Gbenga Odukale added an answer:
    What collection system should be more efficient in a rural mountain region? “Door to door” or through collection points ?

    While I was studying the illegal dumping issue in rural areas of Neamt County (Romania) I noticed that type of waste collection services may influence the behavior of inhabitants regarding the waste disposal. Frequently, the linear morphology of villages (built-up areas) along the rivers and tributaries favor the waste dumping on their banks near the households. In case the localities are served by sanitation services it seems that “ door to door” system is more effective than collection points. In the latter case the proper location of these points within a village is crucial in order to avoid the illegal dumping. Also, there can be a combination between these two systems..such as “door to door” system for mixed wastes and collection point for recyclables. What is your opinion about these collection systems ..? Which of those should be more effective in a mountain region?

    Gbenga Odukale · <GSO Systems Services>

    Dear Florin Constantin Mihai.
    Firstly, man creates its own problems; and secondly, makes himself miserable trying to solve them. You cannot apply, generally, any method of waste collection system develop for any particular set of people or for any particular region.

    Reason: difference in people's sense-of-decency, sense-of-orderliness, sense-of-hygiene, knowledge/understanding on consequences of bad practices and a ready-willingness to follow order. You cannot develop a system from thinking as if people live in a box. I am not too sure if rural settings were considered when developing the “Door to door” and "Collection Points" methods.

    If you need to collect waste in any particular way:
    Firstly, observe the target location and the manner/type of waste generation,
    Secondly, develop your model/method of collection for deployment to this location,
    Thirdly, educate the people concerned to gather their waste in that particular way.

    This is no rocket science. You are dealing with human beings with initiatives and capable of decisions. Don't just clone a method from one metropolitan location and then dump it in this rural mountain location.

    Don't just deploy a method. Deploy a SOLUTION with Love in your HEART.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    How to calculate the climate comfort index?

    I am working on ecotourism in Maharashtra and in this regard I want to find out climate comfort zone and to use climate comfort index. How to calculate it?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,

    The fundamental premise of the CEI is that humans require a reasonably  consistent degree of comfort and the energy required to achieve the comfort can be used to quantify the climatic impact on a building by outside air. The CEI is  calculated based on psychrometric chart. It calculates the energy required to  condition any weather hourly ordinate to the nearest boundary of a human comfort zone and operates on a unitary air flow. The human comfort zone was derived from  existing comfort ranges including ASHRAE Standard 55 and previous research  outcomes.

    The subsequent, the human comfort zone of the CEI is defined based on the following assumptions:
    PMV: -0.5 to +1.0
    Moisture content: 0.004 kg/kg
    Relative humidity: 70 %
    Ta (air temperature) = Tr (mean radiant temperature)
    Clothing insulation: 1.0
    Metabolic rate: 1.1
    Air velocity: 0.1 m/s
    It is noted that the upper limit of PMV is set as +1.0, which is higher than that in ASHRAE Standard 55. This takes into account the actual acclimatization and
    comfort expectations of the inhabitants and also reflects slightly relaxed summer conditions which are generally accepted in sustainable building designs.
    In addition, in contrast to ASHRAE standard, there is a lower limit of moisture content (0.004 kg/kg) introduced to the comfort zone to address some potentially discomfort factors, such as skin drying, irritation of mucus membranes, dryness of the eyes and static electricity generation.

    Human comfort zone used in the CEI provides a reasonable representation of good human comfort on a global scale, determined using the PMV formula which is set out in  ISO 7730 along with the above assumptions

  • Krystallia K. Kalimeri added an answer:
    What are the steps for using a Radiello passive sampler for analysing BTEX in outdoor air?
    What are the steps for using a Radiello passive sampler for analysing BTEX in outdoor air?
    Krystallia K. Kalimeri · University of Western Macedonia

    The most important is to protect your sampler from direct sunlight and extreme weather conditions; you can use the radiello shelter for that or something similar. Make sure you chose the appropriate sampling site in order to protect your sampler from human interaction and prevent its loss during the measurement. If the sampling site is at an environment with a lot of dust, you may have to clean the diffusive body of the sampler from outside during the measurement period. Don't forget to record the temperature during the measurement. You can use a data logger for that; you can try HOBO or TESTO. You will need the average temperature in order to calculate your concentration by the respective equation given at the Radiello brochure.

    When you put the sampler don't forget to record the date and time. You should do the same when you collect it. You will also need the exact measurement period for your calculations.   

  • Lai Zhang added an answer:
    How can I estimate genetic differentiation with Matlab?

    I am using an individual based stochastic model to explore the impact of environmental changes on speciation. In this model individuals forage in two different habitats with a probability determined by the profitability of the habitat. Apart from the ecological and mating loci, I have a certain number of non-coding neutral loci that are used to follow genetic signatures of evolutionary divergence. The neutral loci act like microsatellites, with high maturation rates. My question is how to calculate Fst in Matlab? Are there any softwares that can be used in Matlab not in R?

    Lai Zhang · Umeå University

    Thank all of you for your kind help. It helps me a lot.

  • Ganesh Chandra added an answer:
    Can someone help me to identify the ecological services of wetlands in a tropical ecosystem?
    Ecological services offered by wetlands are intangible in nature and quantification has been a tedious job. Though efforts of the researchers continue, there is still no perfect methodology which has been devised and can be employed straightway.
    Ganesh Chandra · Indian Council of Agricultural Research

    ecological values of wetlands may include 1. the value as aquifers, to maintain the water table of the area. 2. water sink & storage for irrigation water as well as survival of the aquatic community, 3. wetland as a component of water cycle 

  • Iyenemi Ibimina Kakulu added an answer:
    What are the land management and environmental factors that must be considered in site selection for Abattoir construction in sub saharan Africa?
    An ongoing study on the location of abattoirs in selected towns in West and Central Africa shows a pattern of locating them adjacent to creeks and other water bodies for ease in the discharge of the meat production waste, mostly untreated, into receiving water bodies. This is a serious land management and health issue.
    Iyenemi Ibimina Kakulu · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Is anyone familiar with this issue?

  • Jai Ghosh added an answer:
    How do you digest the exposed 47mm Quartz Fiber filters for analyzing ions an ion chromatography?
    See above
    Jai Ghosh · Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    Why do you want to digest the fibers. Just gently sonicate it with ultrasonic probesin presence of water and your work is done.

  • Lai Zhang added an answer:
    How can I carry out quantification of speciation stage?

    I am considering how environmental disturbance affects the final fate of the trait evolution when it comes in different stage of speciation. I use a stochastic individual based model with prey and predator interactions and only predator evolves. Two phenotype traits are consider: ecological trait governing food utilisation, and assertive mating trait. Each of them is governed by a certain number of unlinked and additive diallelic loci. 

    I am wondering how to quantify the stage of speciation, that is, how far speculation has gone, such as 1/3, 1/2, 3/4 and finished (initial stage is one population with well mixed individuals of different traits). Can anyone help me?

    Lai Zhang · Umeå University

    Thank you so much for your information. I think the way of measuring the degree of reproductive isolation is the best for my model. This method was mentioned in paper here. 

  • Laura Corazza added an answer:
    Is there a sustainability metrics for SMEs operational management?
    Sustainability metrics for monitoring adoption and implementation of sustainability practices across corporates and conglomerates are now available. But, the main issue here is monitoring the implementation of sustainability by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), who are critical partners in any global supply chain. Complete sustainability across a supply chain necessitates monitoring of adoption on all levels of business transactions. Is there any metrics developed for measurement of sustainability across these small partners?
    Laura Corazza · Università degli Studi di Torino

    Dear Ms Vijayan,

    if I can provide you an interesting example, I have developed an online tool to ameliorate the self-consciousness of sustainability performances in SMEs and their evaluation. I am going to present a paper in several conferences these year to discuss it with other colleagues. If you are interested, you can check my project CSR4UTOOL. The tool is based ona profound benchmarking on existent standards.

  • Sundarrajan Marimuthu added an answer:
    Is there any free software to not only view FTIR spectra or peaks but also contain mineral databases in it?

    I have obtained the peaks or wave numbers after FTIR analysis of my sediment samples but I am not able to find out the minerals associated with those peaks. Apart from finding minerals name from references,  is there any software which can have minerals databases also.?

    Sundarrajan Marimuthu · Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya University

    Really nice Mr. Theo. I will go through those and come for further moments.

  • Axel Hugelmann added an answer:
    Who is the most influential person in the sustainability community?

    If you had to spend a dinner with the most influential people with a view to sustainability who would you like to sit next to and talk to all evening long? If you had to make an interview, who would be your target person?

    Axel Hugelmann · Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien

    Ulrich Grober is a journalist & philosopher and made as his latest book a "socio"-historic review starting at the "clerical" and "economical" roots of sustainability and about its development in the past 40 years. Grober shows in his book that the forerunners of "sustainability" in the past were always thinking way beyond their times.

    Grober concludes that the word sustainability has enough gravity and elasticity to be around for a long time. Even though many reforms never happen in the way they were intended to nor should sustainability be reduced to the CO2 reduction issue (as is too often focused on).

  • Florin Constantin Mihai added an answer:
    Is illegal dumping a major environmental threat in your country?

    Waste dumping on surroundings of human settlements (rivers & tributaries, local roadsides, public areas, forests , pastures, old geological sites etc) are still current bad practices in urban (peripheral areas) and rural territories. Several articles outline such bad practices across the world (including for poor or developed countries). This threat has complex implications for society and environment (social, economical, technical, cultural, administrative, political, geographical etc) including several waste fractions ( household, industrial , agricultural wastes, WEEE, old tires, batteries, construction and demolition waste etc) and the solutions may vary from one country to other. In this context, is illegal dumping a major environmental threat in your country? Please highlight the best solutions applied in order to mitigate this threat…

    Florin Constantin Mihai · Romanian Environment Association (ARM-1998)

    Small cities (< 20 000 inhabitants) are often predisposed to illegal dumping due to improper waste management facilities. Also rural localities included in territorial administrative units of cities are facing the illegal dumping issue. Illegal rural dumpsites should be closed and rehabilitated until 16 July 2009 according to EU rules. Following this deadline…local authorities were obliged to provide regular waste collection services and to transport the wastes to urban landfills in the proximity until transfer stations will be operational ( part of regional integrated waste management systems financed through EU funds) This scenario is rarely seen on the field… the lack of proper waste management facilities ( or delaying in their implementations) lead to “reactivation” of these old sites by citizens . However..several improvements were made in the last years but the rhythm is easy-going. Thus, the illegal dumping issue remains a major environmental threat in rural Romania.

  • Peter W Holder added an answer:
    Is tracing insect origin possible with novel Hi-Fi methods for trace element analysis?
    Insects feed on leaves of plants which accumulate trace elements from soil. The profile of trace elements of insects is expected to depend upon their geographic origin. Will comparative high-resolution detection of trace elements profiles from insect, plant and soil be useful to prove a particular geographic origin of an insect?
    Peter W Holder · Lincoln University New Zealand

    Hi Yuri

    I have researched this question along with the use of H, Sr and Pb isotopes, and the results can be found here

    There was also a small body of research looking at just TE in the 1990’s; refs given in above.

    In brief, TE of insects can give spatial discrimination, but the signals are very heterogeneous regionally – so, in my opinion, only likely to be practical for within region discrimination. Also TE expression in insects may be confounded by biological factors (gender, age, stress) (but these can be minimised, eg., only use recently emerged individuals of one gender). On the other hand, isotope systems are much more powerful discriminators, which can further improved when considered, multivariate-wise, with TE. If you pursue this field of research, have many insects per treatment and take into account/ minimise factors than may confound signal expression.

  • Hamidah Abdullah added an answer:
    How can I simply measure methanol in aqueous solutions?
    I'm looking for a relatively simple analytical method (colorimetric analysis etc.) for measuring methanol in aqueous solutions in the concentration of about 100 µM ?
    Hamidah Abdullah · National University of Malaysia

    Hi Ronen Bar-Ziv and Henricus Verhoeven...I can't download the article. Can both of you please send me the articles to my email..hamidah@siswa.ukm.edu.my...Tq..

  • Anming Hu asked a question:
    Does any one know the latest review of EC on the application of nano materials?

    Electrochemical methods have widely applied for industrial manufacturing, energy devices, bio and environmental analysis.

  • Pierluigi De Rosa added an answer:
    How can I automatically define bankfull limits from high resolution LiDAR DEM?

    I'm looking for an approach to automatically define the bankfull limits of a river channel  having an High resolution DEM.

    I used the approach proposed by: Williams, Garnett P. "Bank‐full discharge of rivers." Water resources research 14.6 (1978): 1141-1154. as could be found in my paper but I'm looking for other approach coupling also other type of data or approach.


    Pierluigi De Rosa · Università degli Studi di Perugia


    very intresting tool. My idea was to implement a gis software extension able to compute the bankfull limits.

    Could you please address to a resource where the approach used is explained?


  • How to concentrate aqueous suspension without heating?
    Nanoparticles in water suspension but in concentrations below detection limit of several techniques, thermal treatment may change chemistry of nanoparticles
    Eleazar M. Escamilla-Silva · Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya

    What kind of nanoparticles do have? after I can know the nano particles may be I may help to you.

  • Prithvi Simha added an answer:
    What can we as 'Individuals' and NOT researchers or students and preachers of Science do to effect a positive change in our Environment?

    History has shown us that the seeds of change for any mass movement were sown by a few individuals or a group of people with common goals. Hence, my question to all of us here on RG is this;

    a) What steps must each of us as Human Beings take to improve our correlations and interactions with our environment? Please suggest steps that you consider are important to you and your community be it waste segregation or organic farming.


    b) What are the small-small changes that you can bring about in your way of life or please share the activities that you already have done to improve your relationship with the Environment.

    c) What changes can we as 'individuals' bring in our Environment and our surroundings through such individual efforts, be it in attitude/character/nature/actions/behavior? What will be the effect of such steps/actions where you live?


    d) Why do you think these changes will be important to you and your surroundings?


    e) Can the steps you take be scaled up and applied to your entire community and how will you go about doing this?


    Prithvi Simha · Central European University

    @Asmat Ali,

    Thanks for the contribution. An interesting view on smoking (air pollution) and noise pollution. As reported in Tobacco Control, the air pollution emitted by cigarettes is 10 times greater than diesel car exhaust, suggests a controlled experiment! 

    Introspection and Corrective Action seems to be a good way to move forward. 

  • Asmat Ali added an answer:
    Developed Countries Vs Developing Countries? Who according to you should play a more sacrificial/active role in ensuring Global Environmental Harmony?

    A very controversial question but I would like all on RG to give their viewpoints and the viewpoints of each of your countries to this question; 

    Do you think developed countries should be the once that sacrifice to ensure global environmental harmony by imposing strict environmental regulations on their own citizens while allowing developing countries to develop without interference? 


    Do you think that developed countries are right in expecting developing countries to shun development focused agendas and move towards environmentally favorable policies? Do you think that developing countries must accept sanctions that developed countries try to impose through world-wide organizations like the UN and through international summits? Surely, Environment must be a priority to sustain the future of mankind as a whole!


    Do you think developing countries must continue to focus on their economic development as this will address more serious problems that they face such as poverty, lack of hygiene, unemployment, low human development index, inadequate sanitation, safe drinking water, inadequate nutritional food, etc. Surely, securing and promoting the life of citizens of thier own countries too must be a priority for the respective governments! And a vibrant economy and prosperous citizens can at a later time focus on Environmental Problems like the developed countries are now doing?

    Whatever way you look at the above questions it boils down to a very narrow viewpoint; Developing Countries pitted against Developed Countries to ensure Global Environmental Management. 

    I hope to have your insights to these questions and hope to see both sides of the question supported and argued for.


    Asmat Ali · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

    Theoretically, developed countries should play a more sacrificial/active role in ensuring Global Environmental Harmony. Why? Simple, because these countries have more and better resources i.e. technological as well as financial etc. But practically, it is not the case. Every one country has to contribute as most of the respondents argue. 

  • José M. Santiago added an answer:
    Where, please, could we find climatologic evolution models ?

    Concernnig our region, southwestern Mediterranean Sea, in a previous work we've done we've found that the mean temperature has raised by 2 Celsius degrees, but it seems that it is not conform with the rest of the scientific literature.

    According to the gathered data, we've obtained a numerical model developed by interpolation and the trend is to a significant increase in the average temperature pushed mainly by the minimal ones, when the maximal remain relatively stable, in a duration of 30 years. Are there other models that gave same or different results ?

    José M. Santiago · Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

    Hi Sara. I am studying several meteo-stations in Spain and I found changes in minimum air temperatures in some meteorological stations while trends of maximum air temperatures were stable. Absolutely, in climatology is necessary to work with long time series of data to corroborate patterns change. How many years covers your dataset? Sometimes, a reliable reconstruction of temperatures is possible from General Circulation Models to reveal trends for a long-term analysis.

  • Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh added an answer:
    How can I remove water from a solvent (acetonitrile)?
    I'm using acetonitrile as a solvent with water for my HPLC. I take my sample (and both solvents) with a fraction collector and I would like to remove all the traces of water.

    I do not have a lot of material. Only:
    -main desiccant powder
    -evaporator (with nitrogen flow)
    -usual solvent

    Thank you in advance for any information that could help me.
    Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh · Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    You can try use  molecular shives for drying  or try azeotropic distillationn with benzene to remove water.


  • Marthias Silwamba added an answer:
    Which objective function is better for non linear optimization algorithm in EXCEL?
    I used for a non-linear optimization problem the objective function O.F.=Σ(xs-xo)^2, where xs is the simulated value and xo is the observed. The algorithm runs adequately but I would like to know if this objective function is limited only for linear problems or whether it can also be used for non-linear problems.
    Marthias Silwamba · University of the Witwatersrand

    what objective function can I use apart from the linear objective function for me to find the optimum of non-linear model (say parabolic function)? Because the linear the optimum is always on constraints. help me please.

About Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis is the use of analytical chemistry and other techniques to study the environment. The purpose of this is commonly to monitor and study levels of pollutants in the atmosphere, rivers and other specific settings.

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