Elemental Analysis

Elemental Analysis

  • M. A. Gondal added an answer:
    Can we determine elemental analysis of a material by using femtosecond laser and attosecond lasers as we see in the case of LIBS?

    As we know LIBS is mainly used for the elemental analysis of a material. Is it possible to use femto-second and atto-second lasers? If it is possible then which is a suitable technique and why? Is there any papers related to the elemental analysis by femto-second and atto-second lasers technique? Please give the reference also. Thanks.

    M. A. Gondal · King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    yes , you can do with femtosecond laser as well auto second laser in principle  and there are quite good number of publications using Femtosecond LIBS  systems.

  • John George Hardy added an answer:
    How can I quantify modified arginine-chitosan without the use of elemental analysis?

    FTIR data is clearly showing modification of polymer, but i need a method for determination of quantification of arginine without use of elemental analysis.. 

  • Anand Babu asked a question:
    How can I find the type of oxides present and their percentage based on EDX elemental analysis of a surface?

    Element- Weight%- Atomic%

    C - 8.77- 22.56
    O - 15.60- 30.13
    Al - 6.70- 7.67
    Si - 2.18 -2.40
    P -  0.32- 0.32
    S -  0.41 -0.40
    Fe - 66.02- 36.53

  • Harsh Yadav added an answer:
    Why elemental analysis is not possible with X ray diffraction?

    Why is it that only phase analysis is possible using XRD?

    Harsh Yadav · University of Delhi

    The intensity of the XRD is depend on the structure factor. If you are exactly calculate electron density form its structure factor then you are able to show the exact concern atom belongs the fixed electron density point. The above routine is more accurate in single crystal XRD than powder XRD.

  • Rohit Ranganathan Gaddam added an answer:
    Which is better technique to detect the presence of 0.2 to 1% Nitrogen in the sample- elemental analysis or EDX analysis?

    Either elemental analysis or EDX analysis is better for identification low percentage nitrogen element. To me no need of quantitative accuracy also. Exact information on either present or not is required.  

    Rohit Ranganathan Gaddam · Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

    I agree with Dr. Kantheti. However you could also use EDAX to know the atmoic % of elements.

  • Jan Gunneweg added an answer:
    What is non-destructive sampling in Cultural Heritage?
    According to my view, even the mere opening of a drawer or a cupboard is already damaging to cultural remains. The shock of opening a drawer, the changing environment between the inside and the outside of a drawer, as well as a sudden light that falls on an artifact that has been in the dark is damaging to any item, especially to parchment, papyrus and paper.

    When it comes to 'taking a sample' needed for applying a analytical technique to an artifact, one can only speak of less and more destructive, because destructive it is.

    For example in Neutron Activation and Petrography, one needs either an amount of 80 mg of pottery powder or a thin-section before submitting the sample either as powder or as a pellet to a nuclear reactor or to a glass slide to be looked at under a microscope.

    I think that the formula "non-destructive sampling technique" was invented by scientists to obtain samples they needed from a curator or conservator. I, therefore, suggest to omit the word "non-destructive" from the Cultural Heritage vocabulary.
    Jan Gunneweg · Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    Andreas, yes you are right that stone can be analysed by using magnifying glasses and portable XRF. Splendid for stone that will not suffer very much by such analyses.

    But what if you do that on parchment or on a drawing? The magnifying glass is not providing the requested information, whereas XRF portable or stable will damage the objects. XRF measured secondary X-Rays that return from an item after having been bombarded by primary X-Rays and the latter--irrespective how large the bombarded area--is not and will not beneficial for the artefact. Whether science has to stop or continue to work with X-Rays or even Gamma-rays is another question.

    I am of the opinion that sometimes--when it is really needed--one must analyze by destructive sampling. Getting results by virtual sampling is as yet impossible, hence my first remark that the term non-destructive sampling is obsolete

  • Kaj Heydorn added an answer:
    Can one use CRM other than NIST standards in Neutron Activation Analysis? if he did, can this jeopardise the results?

    Some researchers insist on the presence of a NIST standards in each Neutron Activation Analysis, saying: “ Certified Reference Material GBW 0xxxx (for example) cannot be used as standard. It can be only used as Reference Material for the estimation of precision and accuracy of results”.

    Why? Is it really inevitable to use a NIST standards, if so what is the use in the IAEA standards - for example-?

    NAA is for elemental analysis, and calibration is therefore best carried out using weighed amounts of pure elements from any reliable supplier of analytical reagents.

    For QC/QA it is recognized practice to demonstrate validity by analyzing a CRM with approximately the same composition as the samples you analyze. All these matters are clarified if you read ISO 17025 or any similar local standard used for accredtitation.

  • Naveen Agrawal asked a question:
    Which state of Fe element has more conductance Fe+2 or Fe+3 ?

    Pls reply

  • Dirk Luetzenkirchen-Hecht added an answer:
    How can I use EDS for my thin films on several different substrates?

    I have Cu2ZnSnS4 films on soda lime glass and Silicium wafer. I choose Si wafer for correct measurement of elemental analysis. In EDS analysis how can I ignore (or remove) Si from spectrum? Is it reliable measurement for other metals' composition. Any other reliable and robust method will be appreciated (not XRF beacuse I have no XRF facility in our lab).

    Dirk Luetzenkirchen-Hecht · Bergische Universität Wuppertal

    I would like to mention that Si K-emission lines do not overlap with any other EDX-signal from Zn, Cu, Sn and S! So it should not be a problem to separate the different elemental contributions!

    All the best, Dirk

  • Ian J Slipper added an answer:
    Can anyone explain me the difference between elemental mapping and EDS in SEM?

    Thanks in advance.

    Ian J Slipper · Greenwich University

    Another point to bear in mind when mapping is peak overlaps. It is very easy to misinterpret a simple X-ray element map. For example we have studied heavy mineral suites which contain zircon (ZrSiO4) and fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F). But the La line for Zr is 2.042 keV and the Ka line for P is 2.012 keV. Any energy window created for P will overlap that of Zr.

    So the simple X-ray maps for P and Zr will appear identical and you will not be able to distinguish the zircon from the apatite from this alone. In these cases is in essential to perform spectral deconvolution at each pixel to remove peak overlaps in order to see the true elemental distribution.

    Other well known overlaps are Na Ka and Zn La, Al Ka and Br La, Si Ka and W Ma, S Ka and Mo La and Pb Ma, Ti Ka and Ba La. If your systems contain any of these combinations beware of simple X-ray maps.

  • Dhrubajyoti Gupta added an answer:
    What is the main differences between NORM elemental analysis by using XRF technique and EDX technique ?

    I performed my analysis by using both techniques, one of them is sufficient or not.

    Dhrubajyoti Gupta · Inha University

    To add to what @Duke says above:

    In XRF bulk major element is done using fused sample pellets (for minerals or rocks its Std practice). However you can also get minor and trace elemental concentrations using powdered pellets made with the help of binders or palletizing aids. So the heterogeneous composition of the sample can be checked by SEM-EDX while XRF will treat the sample as a homogeneous bulk....its almost what @Duke already stated above :)

  • Aseel B Al-Zubaidi added an answer:
    Are EDS and elemental analysis techniques should give the same results of % composition for the same compound?

    Are EDS and elemental analysis techniques should give the same results of % composition for the same compound?

    Also, for EDS when calculating atomic% for C, N and O of my sample  were 33.72%, -0.33%, 66.61%. What is mean of negative value ??

    Aseel B Al-Zubaidi · University of Technology, Iraq

    EDS is used for chemical identification of elements and their concentration. XRD is used to identify spatial arrangements of atoms in crystalline phases.

    In EDS, electrons knock out electrons from atoms, producing X-rays of characteristic wavelength. These X-Rays are then detected to identify the element from which they were produced. In XRD, X-rays of known wavelength are used to probe the structure of the material, using the lattice as a diffraction grating.

    To perform an EDS you need an electron source. For XRD you need an X-ray source.

    If you are looking for chemical composition, concentration gradients, or solute segregation, use EDS.

    If you are looking for phase distribution, lattice strain fields or stored defect content, use XRD.

  • Yijun Zhong added an answer:
    How do I evaluate the sulfur mass % in S-C material of a lithium-sulfur attery cathode?

    Which characterization is more precise in evaluating the Sulfur mass % in S-C material of a lithium-sulfur battery cathode? TGA or elemental analysis?

    Yijun Zhong · Nanjing University of Technology

    Thanks so much for Dr. Claus's and Dr. Stephen's suggestions, but in what way can Elemental Sulfur and Elemental Carbon be dispersed and dissolved in solution?

  • Nauman Rahim Khan added an answer:
    Can anybody help with copper ibuprofen complex preparation?

    I prepared a copper ibuprofen complex according to published paper in U.S.A in 1981 and I found that the elemental analysis and IR are in agreement with that in the paper, but the UV absorbance measured by my self  is 700 nm while in paper it is 644 nm, so I am confused is my preparation is right or not.

    Nauman Rahim Khan · Gomal University

    Dear Youssef

    Are you sure you are following that paper protocol 100%???like instrument, instrument model, specifications, solutions, chemicals of same grade, same manufacturer bla bla bla....I am sure you are NOT following that 100%...then no need to worry. Wave length of a compound can vary while using different instrument, different grade chemicals etc.....so its doesn't matter, if you are sure what drug you are using...and secondly UV method of analysis allows +-20 nm variations in lambda max...

  • Javier Miranda added an answer:
    What is the most preferable technique for elemental analysis on aluminum impactor stages for aerosols?

    I have a Berner impactor with aluminum foil as a collection media. I want to know different methods of elemental analysis composition of aerosols.   

    Javier Miranda · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    If you do not want to destroy your samples, XRF is most recommended, as well as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). As explained by D. Gupta, corrections for the filter itself can be done. EPMA may not be very useful, because it focuses mostly on single particle analysis and often the electron beam penetration is smaller than particle size. This is not the case for XRF or PIXE.

    However, for PIXE it is much better to use polycarbonate filters.

    IC or ICP are destructive techniques. IC is limited to only a few ions.

  • Erik Olsson added an answer:
    How can I calculate the cross linking density of a polymer?

    How can I calculate the cross linking density of a polymer? Give simple example.

    Erik Olsson · Karlstads universitet

    There are many standard/general meassurements that can be used for this application such as swelling or modulus which will work for all types of cross-linked materials but might be a bit blunt and then there are a number of specific methods where you for instance can detect the amount of specific molecules or specific bonds. Read some articles about your specific system and then you will be able to find what the preffered methods are for your system.

  • Claudia Bizi added an answer:
    What techniques are suitable for determining cross-linking density in a polymer?

    We have some O-rings made of perfluoroelastomer (FFKM) from a different vendors and we would like to determine the cross-linking density to correlate with performance. Can anyone suggest a suitable technique?

    Claudia Bizi · Pirelli Pneus Ltda

    You can use TD-NMR.  The relaxation time will give you an estimative value of cross-linking density. Just remember that the results obtained are comparable with compounds with the same chemistry base.

  • Jaja mat sarip added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a protocol for working with Elementar vario el cube?

    Does someone have a protocol about using this machine? Although it should not be to challenging, I'd like to be sure I'm doing everything correct.

    Thank you in advance

    Jaja mat sarip · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Hye Olena

    I just attend commissioning for this equipment, the person suggest use 10mg weight of soil sample but in real i just try around 5mg of sample. it still give a good result. 

    the sample 1st must be grind, sieve around 200micron.

  • Bernhard Schäfer added an answer:
    Problems with ruthenium complexes and reflux temperature. Can anyone lend their expertise?

    I am asking about the range of temperature during reflux of Ru(DMSO) 4Cl2 with schiff base ligands because the elemental analysis after reflux at temperature near 150 shows that the complex may be decomposed or may be a schiff base. Maybe I only need to stir without heating?

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer:
    I need formulla for calculating the degree of siubstitution on the basis of percentage calculated by elemental analysis?

    Actually I need to calculate the degree of substitution of polymeric compounds by using elemental analysis data on the basis of percentage  of elements calculated through elemental analysis.

    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    Fill/ Click
    degree of substituion of polymers from elemental analysis
    Reach:
    Determination of the degree of substitution (DS) of ... - Core
    core.kmi.open.ac.uk/download/pdf/12038814.pdf

    by C VACA-GARCIA - ‎Cited by 35 - ‎Related articles
    Equations for transforming the results of elemental analysis (EA) into degree ... For instance, cellulose acetates are polymers that require a plasticizer.


    Click/ Find the reference
    Determination of the degree of substitution (DS) of
    mixed cellulose esters by elemental analysis.
    VACA-GARCIA, C.; BORREDON, M.E.*; GASET A.
    Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, (UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET)
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques,
    Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse.
    118, route de Narbonne – 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 – FRANCE
    Look in :PP 4-6.

  • Morteza Borhanipour added an answer:
    How to find the H/C ratio of soot samples with CHN test (elemental analysis)?

    Greetings dear scientists,

    I have soot samples from Diesel and Biodiesel with results of CHN test(elemental analyze). Is it possible to calculate the H/C ratio of each samples with this kinda data or do I need to do FTIR test?

    Morteza Borhanipour · King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

    Thanks a lot for your kind  answers and guidance 

  • Muhammad Youssef added an answer:
    Can anyone help with preparation of Ru complexes?

    I am facing a big problem in preparing Ru complexes. Elemental analysis and thermal analysis always show that my complexes are not pure. I know that it may need purification with column chromatography but the problem is that in my lab  there are no columns, also the facilities are not high and I cannot solve this problem. If anyone can introduce a solution for me it will be great, and if I use my complexes in my work can I publish with these impurities?

    Muhammad Youssef · Assiut University

    It is complexes based on Ru(DMSO)4Cl2 as precursor then I replace DMSO with variety of ligands Because DMSO is mono dent ate and can easily substituted 

  • Sushant Goel added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on decomposition of stresses in shell elements -membrane and bending stresses?

    Hello everyone,

    I am using Ansys SHELL181 element for analysis of a dome structure in MAPDL. I want to decompose the total stresses into membrane and bending stresses. In the APDL element tables for SHELL181, SMISC 34-36 give membrane stresses and SMISC 37-39 give bending stresses.

    In Ansys theory reference, section '19.4. POST1 - Stress Linearization' talks about separation of stresses through a section into constant (membrane) and linear (bending) stresses by commands like PRSECT, PLSECT, or FSSECT.

    Which of these should be used to get an overview of whether the dome is in a very good membrane state (negligible bending) or significant bending state?

    Best regards,

    Sushant Goel

    Sushant Goel · Universität Stuttgart

    Thank you for your prompt reply Mr Ramsay!

  • fenghua Chen added an answer:
    What are the rules of measuring mass elements in composition?

    Hello everyone, 

    I want to find the percentage of each elements in my thin film, the composition in my thin film is a mix of Al-Cu-Fe. I know,  I can measuring by ICP-MS or XRF. but I have two question:

    1st: Is the percentage for each elements different before and after annealing (temperature is around 800'c) or not?

    2nd: Do you know another methods for measuring the percentages or volumes for each elements (the max error for my composition is less  than 0.1% )?

    fenghua Chen · Taiyuan University of Science and Technology

    I used to always use EDAX system,EDS. Being the film ordinary not alone, it may have the substrate, may affect the result.

    If your film have the phase  transition, annealing temperature may affect the crystal structure, but the whole composition may not change.

  • Thomas Brietzke added an answer:
    Can anyone help with ruthenium complexes?

    I have a problem in preparing some ruthenium complexes. I tried to prepare some Ru complexes and I failed many times. Elemental analysis does not match. I don't know what is the problem. I succeed to prepare Ru(DMSO)4Cl2 as a precursor complexes and then try to replace (DMSO) with other ligands after reflux for certain times by addition of some reagents. I could precipitate a complexes, but when I do elemental analysis for it I found that there are no match between calculated and found data. I don't know what is the reason for that. I tried many times but I failed in all of them. Can anyone help me please ?

  • Johan Dr Andre Mars added an answer:
    Can knives contaminate fruit samples in elements analysis?

    I have been recently asked to join a project dealing with measurements of nutrients and trace elements (e.g. Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, V etc.) in fruits. This is not my greatest area of expertise, thus I am sorry if my question may look trivial. When peeling and/or cutting the fruits, would it make a difference if I would use a stainless steel knife or a glass (porcelain) knife? I have been told by some other people in my department that any contact with metal during the preparation of the samples will alter the final results. Is this true? And, if yes, which is the magnitude and for what elements? I would like also to have any reference to papers dealing with this topic.

    Johan Dr Andre Mars · Cape Peninsula University of Technology

    Hi. It depends on the amount of the element present in the matter (sample etc.) if the concentration is greater than, say, 50 ppm, then using a clean clean clean steel knife would not affect the concentration (absorbed into the standard deviation). For lower concentrations please used a titanium knife (you would have to (to have) one made specially (there is no titanium in the body and plants except plants that are used for metal remediation). But then you would be sure that there is no contamination. We use a normal scalpel, but the blade is made of pure titanium. In any event having the this knife and the blades made will ensure not contamination.

  • Atilla Atli added an answer:
    Can anybody help me to determine the % elemental composition from XPS data?

    I am working with bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis. To further confirm whether the Bimetallic nanoparticle are in core-shell or alloy I will have to link the EDAX and XPS results.

    Atilla Atli · École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers

    Be careful, as said above, XPS probes a few or tenth of atomic layer on the surface however EDAX does in micron scale. It is possible that you can get different results by these two methods.

    In XPS, you can estimate the relative concentration of a bimetallic AB structure. As said above, you have to do some corrections on the area under each peak coming from element A and element B. If you chose a pic of element A close to the pic of element B in energy, the you can avoid the escape depth problem.

    You can easly find the intensity  equation in XPS in several surface science books and publications.     

  • Abdullah Alghamdi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the best matrix modifier for cadmium analysis in biological and non-biological samples using flame or graphite AAS ?
    I am trying to analyze Cadmium and Selenium in herbal samples using an atomic absorption analyzer. The characteristic value for 5 mg/L Cadmium standard is always far from the reference value. I guess I need appropriate matrix modifier to increase the signal and get the comparative characteristic value close to the reference one.
    Abdullah Alghamdi · Prince Sultan Riyadh Military Medical City

    Thanks alot Dr. Krause for your valuable comments.  Indeed I recently tried to run Cd without modifier solution and the validation results I got were very acceptable.

    Best regards

  • Ales Haz added an answer:
    How can I analyze low contents of sulphur in carbon black using CHNS?
    In CHNS, how can we determine sulphur less than 0.1% has to be analyzed in carbon black
    Ales Haz · Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

    Youy can analysed it with device as VarioMacro cube with sample size around 500/1000mg, or rise concentration by thermal tretment of your carbon black

  • Roberta Brancher Franco added an answer:
    Is it possible to dry silage samples at 105°C and still determine the N content in the sample with an elemental analyser?
    Normally, we dry our samples for the analyzer at 60°C. Will there be a difference in N content between the 105°C dried samples and the 60° C dried samples?
    Roberta Brancher Franco · University of California, Davis
    Hi Frank,
    I agree with them too and actually I have used this paper (see below reference) to correct the losses of volatiles, ammonia and others depending of what temperature you choose to dry your samples.
    - Porter, M., and R. Murray. 2001. The volatility of components of grass silage on oven drying and the inter-relationship between dry-matter content estimated by different analytical methods. Grass Forage Sci. 56:405-411.
    For sure make your sample as heterogeneous as you can and keep in mind that each temperature will cause losses of different compounds in different rates.
    Good luck there!

About Elemental Analysis

Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition. Elemental analysis can be qualitative (determining what elements are present), and it can be quantitative (determining how much of each are present). Elemental analysis falls within the ambit of analytical chemistry, the set of instruments involved in deciphering the chemical nature of our world.

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