Educational Technology

Educational Technology

  • Michael Jennings added an answer:
    What are your thoughts on the emerging theories of learning and the role of technology?

    In the secondary classroom, there is a shift toward implementing ever-increasing amounts of educational technology into curricula. In order to do so meaningfully and to ensure successful learning, it is necessary to reflect upon learning theories. Behaviorist and Constructivist theories provide a base for much of what happens in the technological secondary classroom. These broad theories have many implications for the technological secondary classroom. It is necessary to question these implications so that those involved in the educational (and more specifically, educational technology) fields can work toward bettering education. Are there shifts happening in the secondary classroom today between these two theories? If so, what are they? Which is the more predominant in current educational practices? Is one better for use with educational technologies?

    (by Andrea K. Ebert )

    Michael Jennings · Walden University

    It is my belief that each individual learns differently based on learning styles, and elements of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Unfortunately, educational curriculums and pedagogical methods seek parsimonious approaches to education and individualized, structured approaches seem to be out of the question. While the impact of technology on learning, retention, and achievement is mixed, as Dr. Spires has mentioned, others like Tyler (2002) are in agreement. Will the day ever come when political and other self-interests do not dictate the accessibility and quality of education for all learners, and especially for the underrepresented? I doubt it.

    Tyler, T. R. (2002). Is the Internet changing social life? It seems the more things change, the more they stay the same. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), pp. 195-205.

  • John Franklin Wilhite added an answer:
    When and where should we use technology for education--in the classroom, outside the classroom, or both?

    I think most of us would agree that Technology Assisted Education (TAE), including both general technology and technology specifically for educational purposes, is of immense value for students of any age in any Learning Environment (LE).  However, the attached article points out some serious impediments to learning when allowing free and open access to laptops, tablets, and smart phones in the classroom.  Should these be "banned" from classrooms?  Should technology for education be focused primarily on outside class activities--homework, research, group activities, reading, testing, and the like? 

    John Franklin Wilhite · University of Tennessee

    The cited article and the question refer specifically to student-owned and student-operated technology ("laptops, tablets, and smart phones in the classroom") that is used for personal rather than class activity.  These are the items and the personal uses that the article and the question refer to with the suggestion that this not be allowed in class.  Naturally, any technology used by the professor to conduct class falls outside the "prohibited use" scenario.  In some cases even a lap top would be permitted when the professor and the students are "on the same 'web' page." 

  • Colin A Smith added an answer:
    Should we use so much technology in teaching?
    It is a blind presumption that more technology is better – yet in a recent course, I found I could present much better by abandoning slides and working through examples on the board.
    Colin A Smith · The University of Edinburgh

    In some circumstances, technology might increase contact between student and teacher - facilitate communication where the student has some form of disability, or make communication at a distance possible, for example. As many contributions have implied already, it is the use of technology for specific pedagogical purposes that is important, not its use for its own sake. Unfortunately,teachers are often encouraged to use technology for its own sake, or themselves use it uncritically because it is new and therefore 'better'.

  • Olabisi Kuboni added an answer:
    What are some viable alternatives to the threaded structure of asynchronous discussions in online learning?
    Most learning management systems still use a similar structure of threading discussions for asynchronous student-to-student and student-to-instructor dialogue. Working from the assumption that robust dialogue is a necessary component of instruction designed within a social constructivist environment, are there any viable, existing or emerging alternatives to the threaded structure of discussions?
    Olabisi Kuboni · University Of The West Indies, Open Campus

    I too prefer the idea of an environment that can provide a 'course home', in particular for off-campus/distance students. And most CMSs/LMSs are designed to provide structured access to all the elements that comprise the online learning experience in a formal education setting. But I dont agree that using a LMS restricts you to threaded asynchronous discussion tool for interaction among participants. The institution I worked with invested in Blackboard Collaborate that was used as a plug in to Moodle for synchronous discussions, and it could also accommodate powerpoint slides for group presentations. In terms of video clips, we simply inserted a UTube link on the course site, whether the production was done in-house or came from an external source. Once the link was appropriately positioned in the LMS, I don't think there were any major problems for students to access it to support any type of activity. And there is the blog, which is part of most LMSs, but may also be accessed as a plug in.

  • John Franklin Wilhite asked a question:
    Is student privacy with technology/educational technology use an important issue?

    Legislation is slowly being enacted to safeguard student privacy in light of the use of Technology Assisted Education (TAE) becoming more widespread.  Since governmental legislation is unbearably slow, what can be done in the meantime to protect student privacy?

  • Hendrika Vande Kemp added an answer:
    When was ethics clearance mandatory for social sciences research?

    I remembered when I did my Masters in 06/07, it was not necessary. When I resume PhD studies in 2010, it was mandatory.

    Is there an official document / historical archive?

    Previn, Glad you found it  helpful.

  • Dave Catlin added an answer:
    Is k-12 public education a business? What is a viable model for education?

    I agree with the writer that education is not a business.  I don't agree with the comments on educational technology.  Ed tech can be misused and overused but when integrated judiciously it offers great benefits to students in K-12 and beyond. 

    Do you agree with the writer's model for "personalization/socialization" in education?  Would that plus ed tech provide a viable model?  What other elements should be included?

    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/opinion/sunday/teaching-is-not-a-business.html?action=click&contentCollection=Opinion&region=Footer&module=MoreInSection&pgtype=Blogs

    Dave Catlin · Valiant Technology Ltd

    John's points about skills has made me think a little more about some of the issues.  In the UK we used to have a thing called the Eleven Plus.  An examination sat by all 11 year old students to decide whether they went to Grammar School or Secondary School.  Grammar School students were destined for academia and Secondary School students were for blue collar work.  In middle class families the stigma of failing the exam was horrendous.  There were cases where children committed suicide because they failed by as little as 1%, 

    I failed the exam.  But still managed to find a route to University ironically was through an old fashioned apprenticeship.  There company sent people to school for 1 day a week and we also had to attend one night a week.  The important thing here was that all of a sudden what we were learning was authentic and practical.  i always felt that the situation was genuinely about my advancement.

    So John, I am not sure that the issue can be broken down into trade or academic.  It is all about the attitude the politicians, business and education institutions.  Is the experience designed to help the students live a fulfilling life or perpetuate the status quo.

    Some years ago a right wing think tank issued a report on how poor mathematics was in the UK.  It included comments from business leaders who reported that they were having to go abroad to get people with the mathematical skills needed.  I wondered whether these business people could do the mathematics themselves.  They were of course bankers.  It made me think that they wanted a better class of servant and did not want to go through the process of training them.

    Do not get me wrong.  I am in business and believe in business.  But the purpose of education is not about training someone to do a job.  Well educated people will always manage to get jobs and do them well. 

  • Senthilvel Vasudevan added an answer:
    Can I test the null and final models of HLM (two-level) using spss?
    To see the differences of variances explained by two models. Because most researchers use the additional software like MLwin etc.
    Senthilvel Vasudevan · King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

    Hi,

    For your question, kindly see the attachment pdf.

    thank you.

  • Leonel Morgado added an answer:
    What is your experience/opinion/reference regarding the use of virtual worlds in education, especially combined with VLEs/LMSs, such as Sloodle?

    +Virtual worlds [1] can be defined as interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of visible avatars. They can support collaborative education.

    What is more, they can be used with VLEs/LMSs, as in the case of the Sloodle project, aiming to combine Second Life with moodle, that is two of the mostly used environments in the realms of virtual worlds & VLEs/LMSs respectively.

    Please share your experience, direct or indirect, or opinion, e.g. advantages, disadvantages, predictions, or interesting references, with respect to the above.

    Please share with us a) your experience, direct or indirect providing any results, or b) opinion, e.g. advantages, disadvantages, comparisons, propositions, predictions, or c) interesting references, with respect to the above three perspectives.

    You may consult [2].

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_world#Education

    2. http://proceedings.informingscience.org/InSITE2008/IISITv5p127-135Kluge459.pdf

    ]

    Leonel Morgado · Universidade Aberta

    I've been using virtual worlds for education since 2006. This includes Second Life, but also Activeworlds, Open Croquet/Cobalt, serious game development with Unity3D and private OpenSimulator installations. I used them for higher education, for primary education and highschools, for on-the-job training of business managers and aircraft mechanics, and for large-scale corporate training providers. They provide unique opportunities for online learning taking advantage of both multiuser presence (as chatrooms) and spatial user arrangement, spatial context and immersion, etc. You can find many papers reporting this. I'm attaching two. One ("Can presence improve collaboration...") is an early effort to demonstrate how the concepts of Presence theory are intertwined with 3D virtual worlds as a new medium. For the more practice-oriented readers, the other one ("The attributes and advantages...") provides the rationale for using virtual worlds in professional training and how it enables trainees to be in contact with real scenarios, not just simulated ones. Finally, if you want a quick list of good practices for trainers using virtual worlds, VITA project's good practices handbook is a very nice resource: http://issuu.com/easpombas/docs/vita-101220-guide_of_good_practices_rev_final?e=0

    The major hurdle is large scale deployment. A small group of enthusiast teachers can deploy and use virtual worlds successfully, but going beyond that to large scale deployment, with non-enthusiasts, requires more administrative support from computing systems and - alas - that is nowhere near readiness. I explain the challenges in a paper from 2013, which summarizes my experience ("Technology challenges...").

    SLOODLE in my view tackles the problem from the wrong end. It mostly provides virtual world users with access to Moodle contents. That helps individual teachers and students. But if you want to deploy virtual worlds for an entire school, company, or region, you need to track events and provide support for all teachers, all trainers, all students. You'll want to manage virtual object repositories across courses and users. Some cumbersome solutions exist, but not straightforward ones.

    In my 2009-2011 project for Portugal Telecom's Innovation arm (PTIn), my team tackled this and provided PTIn with a solution, which was deployed at a large telecom company, but not pursued as an active commercial product. Papers were not drafted then, but were now, and both the software architecture and the list of requirements that was developed throughout this large field effort should see the light of day soon.

  • Blanche Ndlovu added an answer:
    What is your opinion about the advantages and disadvantages of Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI)?
    Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) involves the use of radio to bring curriculum and teacher training to classrooms in some of the most underserved areas globally. It is a cost-effective and widely available medium that has helped rebuild and revitalize education programs in some of the least developed countries
    IRI episodes guide learners through the learning process by means of a progression of activities related to measurable learning objectives.
    Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) is encompased under the more general term Interactive Audio Instruction (IAI), as evolving technology has allowed different forms of delivering these audio programs including CD players and MP3 players.
    Blanche Ndlovu · University of KwaZulu-Natal

    I spent my two first years of teaching in a rural school where development will  take more than two years to reach the area so IRI was the only way we could survive and very interesting for learners not only listening to the teachers's voice. It also worked wonders for learners to be attentive in listening to the information. I can still recommend it for schools in deep rural areas.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    What is your opinion about right brain or Left-brain dominance?.

    In general, the left and right hemispheres of our brain process information in different ways. While we have a natural tendency towards one way of thinking, the two sides of our brain work together in our everyday lives. The right brain of the brain focuses on the visual, and processes information in an intuitive and simultaneous way, looking first at the whole picture then the details. The focus of the left brain is verbal, processing information in an analytical and sequential way, looking first at the pieces then putting them together to get the whole. Left brain thinking is verbal and analytical. Right brain is non-verbal and intuitive, using pictures rather than words. The best illustration of this is to listen to people give directions. The left brain person will say something like “From here, go west three blocks and turn north on Vine Street. Go three or four miles and then turn east onto Broad Street.” The right brain person will sound something like this: “Turn right (pointing right), by the church over there (pointing again). Then you will pass a McDonalds and a Walmart. At the next light, turn right toward the Esso station.” 

    What is your opinion about right brain or Left-brain dominance?. Which side of the brain is used in your filed of research?. 

     

    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,

    For industrial applications, we require both activities of brain on a collective basis. Best Practices such as follows....

    1. Brain storming Activities
    2. Problem solving Techniques
    3. Debates
    4. SGA
    5. TPM
    6. TQM
  • Haslinah khairul azlan added an answer:
    What is your experience/opinion/reference regarding the Jigsaw teaching technique, especially an online version of it, let it be called e-Jigsaw?

    +Welcome.

    The Jigsaw teaching technique [1] supports team learning & empathy by engaging all students in two groups given a topic. First, in their expert group they focus on one aspect of the topic, and afterwards in their jigsaw group they learn the topic wholly. As in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece, that is each student's part, is essential for the completion of the process.

    The e-Jigsaw could be the online, or even blended, implementation of this technique.

    Please share with us your experience or opinion or interesting references with regard to this technique considering also the following questions:

    Could you mention any implementations of the technique?

    At which ages is this technique more effective?

    How can technology support or complement, as e-Jigsaw, this technique?

    Could this technique be analysed into categories?

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jigsaw_(teaching_technique)

    2. http://roamerrobot.tumblr.com/post/27181743875/spacecraft-rescue (Dave)

    3. http://www.jigsaw.org/steps.htm (Shanthi)

    ]

    Haslinah khairul azlan · IPG Kampus Pendidikan Teknik

    I use structure cooperative by spencer kagan in teaching biology with my preservice teacher in semester 1. I like the structure because its content free and engaging my students also enhance the process of learning. The structures I already used are One stray, Numbered Heads Together, Find Someone Who, Talking Chips, Roundtable, Roundrobin,  Pair Check, and Jots Thought. These are simple structures of cooperative which is in my opinion should implement first before using  jigsaw which is more complicated and the students/participants need to be used to it how to maximize learning in a way of cooperative learning.  

  • Raidell Avello Martínez added an answer:
    What is your opinion about the new educational possibilities of 3D Printing?
    A 3D printer makes 3 dimensional solid objects right from a printer. There are endless possibilities for creative 3D objects that our students can make.
    Raidell Avello Martínez · University of Cienfuegos "Carlos Rafael Rodríguez"

    I believe that some fields of knowledge will benefit substantially from this new technology as mechanics, medicine, construction, architecture, etc. However, in other areas such as social sciences, its impact will be less.

  • Leona M. Ungerer added an answer:
    What is your experience/opinion/reference regarding the use of robots in teaching & learning?

    +Welcome.

    Robots can support education in terms of both teaching & learning.

    First, in teaching they can be t1) teachers, t2) teacher assistants, t3) teacher programmable objects, that is constructed in hardware, or programmed in software, or t4) a combination. A key research area in this approach is the creation of robots resembling humans physically, mentally and emotionally. [1] (Educational robots)

    Second, in learning they can also be l1) students, l2) student assistants, l3) student programmable objects or l4) a combination. [2] (Educational robotics) As students they could be involved in team learning activities or even VLEs/LMSs & virtual worlds. (New? proposal)

    Please share with us a) your experience, direct or indirect providing any results, or b) opinion, e.g. advantages, disadvantages, comparisons, propositions, predictions, or c) interesting references, with respect to the above three perspectives.

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot#Educational_robot

    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_robotics

    ]

    Leona M. Ungerer · University of South Africa

    Dear colleagues, the embedded post explains how social storytelling robots are used to assist preschool children in honing their language skills. In this scenario, robots indeed function as somewhat of tutoring assistants, as Vicki suggested. Using robots in contexts such as these may enhance individualization, since it is believed that they may be able to detect some social cues and offer relevant solutions, which may assist children in learning at their own pace.

  • Ben Kehrwald added an answer:
    How has technology impacted the factors of the instructional process, e.g. in the 'Berlin Model' & its phases, e.g. in the 'ADDIE Model'?

    +Welcome.

    Having as a guide the 'Berlin Model' ('Berliner Modell' in German) [1] & the 'ADDIE Model' [2] of the instructional process please share your opinion or experience or interesting references on any of the following questions.

    Which factors of the instructional process, being 2 conditional & 4 decisional according to the 'Berlin Model', & which of its phases, being 5 according to the 'ADDIE Model', have been mostly impacted by technology?

    How has technology impacted each of these factors & phases?

    You may consult [3] (SAMR model), [4, § Introduction], [5, § Features of Online Learning Environment], [6] (Trialogical learning model), [7] (TPACK model), [8] (R2D2 model).

    Which model could be more suitable than the 'Berlin Model', as regards the correlated factors, & the 'ADDIE Model', as regards the phases, of the instructional process?

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Model

    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADDIE_Model

    3. https://sites.google.com/a/msad60.org/technology-is-learning/samr-model

    4. http://proceedings.informingscience.org/InSITE2008/IISITv5p127-135Kluge459.pdf

    5. http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_1/4.pdf

    6. http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Trialogical_learning

    7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_Pedagogical_Content_Knowledge

    8. http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Instructional_design/R2D2

    9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725874/ (Russell)

    ]

    Ben Kehrwald · University of South Australia

    As someone who works with course development teams for flexible blended and online learning every day, this is a question that comes up in every course development process.  While I agree with the other responders that technology has come to the fore in some decision making, in my own work there is an intentional push back against that...but there is clearly a tension between my work and the work of other support staff in our institution.  I'd prefer to run an ADDIE like process to establish a pedagogical approach and then talk about operationalizing it once the pedagogical commitments are in place...Some of my colleagues are more 'pragmatic'...consulting with staff for them means asking 'What are you trying to do?', then recommending a bit of technology to help them achieve that end.  While I'm not suggesting that approach will necessarily 'fail', its my opinion that the institution gets better value from an approach which puts a bit more attention into 'design' and requires some attention the various parts of ADDIE so that we can align what we know about the students and the course with a design that accommodates developments that Russell has highlighted above re cognitive science, learning sciences etc...AND also accommodates an up-to-date notion of good practice in the development and implementation phases...rather than just focusing on 'implementation' with an instrumental application of 'Tool X'

  • Evonne Masters asked a question:
    Is teaching a student how to learn as important as what to learn?

    Medical education has evolved drastically in the past decade pushed by both the volume of information available, as well as educational technologies. Lecturer- centered, single channel methods of education have been replaced with blended learning platforms in many institutions.  What effects does this shift have on attitudes and priorities of medical education? Are we turning out better physicians because of our changes in how we approach the delivery of knowledge?

  • Danil Dintsis added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on digital devices and transformation myths in education?

    Thank you to Cleborne Maddux for sharing this article - it is a perfect fit for a blog post I will be making live on 5 August, and so I have cited a bit of the article in it. (http://interrogatingeducationz.blogspot.co.nz/). I share the creation of this blog with a colleague

    Danil Dintsis · Specialist Computer Training Center

    Dear Leona! thank you many times for the link!

  • Emre Erturk added an answer:
    What Web 2 Tools have you used in teaching and learning and what impact have you made?
    Web 2 tools are available for us to use- to what extent have we adapted them?
    Emre Erturk · Eastern Institute of Technology

    Nice question. There are so many possibilities here. First, my ongoing personal experience in teaching is with Google Drive and OneDrive. They are good for students collaborating and sharing online and working on a common project. There is a lot of interaction between themselves and with me. When we use Google Drive, for example, we take advantage of the other Google Apps as well such as Presentation, Drawing, Google Hangouts, and so on. The other popular tools I have overseen the use of include WordPress blogs and Google Sites, created and maintained by students. Furthermore, Wikipedia is also a good possibility. There are schools and institutions that get their students to contribute to Wikipedia or a similar online repository, especially for new topics or topics previously less covered. YouTube is an option for some students depending on their field of study. For anyone with a Google account, it is easy to upload videos and get feedback and comments on the videos (as well as analysis of how many views and where they came from, and so on). 
    Emre 
    Dr. E 

  • Leona M. Ungerer added an answer:
    What is your experience with Business Simulation Games?
    We are doing research on the topic and would like to learn about different ways in which instructors employed business simulation games with their students.
    Leona M. Ungerer · University of South Africa

    Dear Louis, the attached post supports the value of computer simulation games  in business education. It suggests that by adding gamification to traditional business school teaching, learning can be more productive, meaningful, engaging, and fun.
    Computer simulation games provides a risk-free environment where students can create and run a business, as well as deal with some of the challenges in the business world (but not have to deal with the real-world consequences).

  • Robert Costello added an answer:
    What is your experience/opinion/reference regarding collaborative assistive technology, especially VLEs/LMSs in any kind of special education?

    +Welcome.

    Assistive technology [1] can be defined as the technology used to assist people with disabilities. This question explores the effectiveness of assistive technology used in collaborative environments, which may be called collaborative assistive technology, and especially VLEs/LMSs, such as moodle.

    Please consider making reference to 1) the kind of special education, 2) the name of VLE/LMS you consider, 3) whether it is an adapted conventional VLE/LMS or an ad hoc developed from scratch 4) anything else you consider noteworthy (e.g. characteristics of the whole setting, assessments, comparisons, results) & 5) interesting references.

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assistive_technology

    2. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.606241 (Sotiris)

    ]

    Robert Costello · University of Hull/Free-Lance

    You are right Sotiris Fanou! But it is up to us, academics, researchers, developers and web-site designers to change people conceptual thoughts on SEN, or PWLD.  More research that is carried out, then more, we as Humans can adapt new standards, technologies and guidance's.    It would be nice, if researchers on here collaborated on designs, ideas etc and push forward - like you said, you have already contributed to knowledge.   Rob.  

  • Sipho Shongwe added an answer:
    How is digital storytelling used by teachers?
    I am very interested in the topic of digital storytelling.
    Sipho Shongwe · University of Swaziland

    The approach is of much interest to me but am not sure I understand it well to use it with my students!

  • John Franklin Wilhite added an answer:
    Do the benefits of technology for educational purposes outweigh the potential detriments?

    A new study suggests that there may be some cognitive drawbacks to reading even short works of literature on a screen.

    I've been following ebooks, ebook writing/creation software, ereader devices, platforms, etc. from the beginning of these tech advances with interest in their potential for education.  As a textbook writer and editor I envisioned digital texts with all the capabilities of a professional web site--media, interactivity, etc.  It's been over a decade and we're still not there yet.  Several factors have impeded the development and wide distribution of true educational ebooks--Amazon (Kindle), Apple (ibooks), Barnes & Noble (Nook), tablets, androids, ipads, iphones, mobi, EPUB.

    Now there's a possible new impediment to this type of tech in education as pointed out by the linked article--readers using devices (in this study, Kindle) could not correctly identify plot points compared to readers of paper version. 

    Are the cognitive drawbacks cited in the study due to the technology (digital text) or the type of device (screen too small, for example)?

    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/14/arts/reading-literature-on-screen-a-price-for-convenience.html?_r=3&utm_source=Publishers+Weekly&utm_campaign=9dd3445337-UA-15906914-1&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0bb2959cbb-9dd3445337-304785977

    John Franklin Wilhite · University of Tennessee

    Miranda, thanks for the comment and for the link.  You state the core of education that I also believe:  knowledge, skills, and values.  And you properly emphasized "values" which are a necessity but sorely lacking in schools in the US.

  • Alejandra Mella added an answer:
    What is your opinion on the following classification of instructional approaches in terms of place & time?

    +Welcome.

    The instructional approaches could be classified in terms of the conditional factors place & time as well as other factors.

    Firstly, as regards place they can be P1) in a classroom, called face-to-face (F2F), P2) in a distance, called online or virtual or distant, which can be further discriminated into P2a) long distance & P2b) short distance ones or P3) both in a classroom & in a distance (either in parallel or in different occasions), called blended or hybrid.

    Secondly, regarding time they can be T1) in the same time, called synchronous or live, T2) in different time, called asynchronous or on demand & T3) both in the same & in different time (in parallel or in different occasions), which let be called semi-synchronous.

    Thirdly, with regard to other factors (such as manner, goal & content) there are numerous further classifications, e.g. open or not, which are out of the scope of this question.

    Finally, from the combination of the above result 9 main alternatives: 1) F2F synchronous, i.e. on-site classes, 2) long distance synchronous, i.e. Web live classes, e.g. with videoconferencing or instant messaging, 3) long distance asynchronous, e.g. Web blogs, forums or wikis, 4) long distance semi-synchronous, e.g. MOOCs, 5) short distance synchronous, i.e. intranet live classes, 6) short distance asynchronous, e.g. intranet blogs, forums or wikis, 7) short distance semi-synchronous, e.g. VLEs/LMSs, 8) blended synchronous, i.e. both on-site & online classes & 9) blended semi-synchronous, e.g. both on-site classes & VLEs/LMSs or flipped classes.

    Please share your opinion or remarks on the above classification so that it is improved.

    Thank you.

    Alejandra Mella · University of Buenos Aires

    Alexadrous Rafael Eddie and Egon! We are party

    Ussually took the classification from a Spanish Famous author in distance education, Lorenzo Garcia Aretio 2001, he posed a position in medium Technology. Including: off site, in site. He made a double entrance table. one entrance is distance, the other is time! To fill the table you will find it is easy to include different types of class! He is the one to address the concept of intensity. ( considering the student is working Autonomously) I do not have a paper from him in english. My mistake and also dishonour
    I consider this Author did a great job and consider. the major points. Really, I never find a work from him in English. Garcia Aretio is the only one considering Autonomy (of students) and intensity of the studying work, is it the same to study calculus alone for students of math. Than reflection the values in medical practice in a future. The first is just authonomy The second is presonal maturation. Garcia Arretio is the Author. I only mention a pale reflection. I am not he one that made the work

  • Barbara Miller Hall added an answer:
    What is your experience/opinion/reference regarding educational e-portfolio web applications?

    +Welcome.

    Educational e-portfolio [1] applications facilitate students' reflection on their learning or courses. Through this reflection learning is supported. This approach is referred to as 'learning through reflection'. Please answer to any of the following questions beginning with the first ones.

    Which educational e-portfolio web applications have you used or learned about? Could you provide a ranking or suggestion? Which is their type, for example commercial, open source or ad hoc? Do they feature interoperability with VLEs/LMSs? Do they offer social networking? What does their content management system provide (blogs, resumes, file management, views)?

    You may also provide any interesting references.

    Thank you.

    [ Featured references:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_portfolio

    2. https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=53e37722d685cc09708b460f&key=2a640ca9-22e7-47e2-98bd-a08f05380558 (Barbara)

    3. http://www.icl-conference.org/dl/proceedings/2008/finalpaper/Contribution352_a.pdf (Leona)

    ]

    Barbara Miller Hall · Ashford University

    The easiest one, Leona! <wink>  I would say that WordPress, GoogleSites, and Wix (not listed in my post above) are the most popular. Some students already have their own websites, so they integrate their artifacts into their existing site.

  • Peter Shea added an answer:
    Has anyone experimentally tested "the persona effect"?
    Incorporate animated characters to educational resources or using intelligent pedagogical agents/tutors/bots.
    Peter Shea · University at Albany, The State University of New York

    How about this publication from 2009? 


    Designing multimedia learning environments using animated pedagogical agents: factors and issues.  Woo, H.L. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Jun2009, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p203-218. 16p. 2 Diagrams. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00299.x

    or this one


    Realism is not all! User engagement with task-related interface characters.
    van Vugt, H.C.; Konijn, E.A.; Hoorn, J.F.; Keur, I.; Eliëns, A. Interacting with Computers. Mar2007, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p267-280. 14p. DOI: 10.1016/j.intcom.2006.08.005.

  • Barbara Miller Hall added an answer:
    What are effective ways to design authentic, interactive role-plays using elearning authoring tools?

    While suggestions of preferred authoring tools are welcome, I am most interested in how to design role-plays in which the learner is one of the role-play participants. Thank you.

    Barbara Miller Hall · Ashford University

    Thanks for the suggestion, Bathelemy. What do you think Kineo offers in its LMS that is  particularly appropriate for role-plays?

  • Cesar Casasola added an answer:
    Can we define a collaborative model as a flow of learning activities modeled with IMS Learning Design?

    I've defined learning activities for a course of my university. For modeling I used IMS Learning Design. My question is: This is enough for define a collaborative model? What could miss for be called "model"?

    I'm doing my thesis and title is "Collaborative model for a course using IMS LD". I'm not secure if this is the correct title. If my proposal is to define collaborative activities for a course. What should be the correct title?

    I appreciate your help =)

    Cesar Casasola · National University of San Marcos

    Thanks Barbara. My diagram is based on IMS LD specification.

    I attach more info about it

  • Leona M. Ungerer added an answer:
    Has anyone used Twitter in the classroom and what happened?
    As students use mobile phones and tablets continually while in lecture classes, I am thinking of using Twitter to capitalize on the availability of technology to increase their focus on course theory and applications. I would like to know would anyone consider doing this in future classes.
    Also when teaching large classes (100 to 200 students) and small classes (approximately 40 students) I would like to know if Twitter can be used to encourage student participation, deep engagement, and learning. Any thoughts on how should the lecturer structure the use of Twitter (what activities and when) and manage the feeds (reviewing and responding to tweets) would be appreciated.
    Leona M. Ungerer · University of South Africa

    Dear colleagues, it is interesting how one sometimes learn about something new and then notice it in your own environment. I hope Jennifer won't mind me responding to the question about "Remind 101". I found this information in a recent e-newsletter.

  • Ms. Rajaa Fahad Allhiani added an answer:
    What is your opinion and experiences in Problem-Based Learning?
    From its beginnings, in the Medicine School at McMaster University (Canada), the Problem-Based Learning appears like an innovating educative proposal, that is characterized so that the learning is student centered, promoting significant learning as well as the development of a number of important skills and abilities in the
    present professional surroundings. The process is developed on the basis of small work groups which go through a cooperative learning process, in order to search for a track to solve an initial complex and challenging problem, proposed by the teacher, with the objective to propitiate the self-learning of the students. The professor becomes a facilitator of the learning process. Although this educative proposal was originated and it was adopted first in the Medicine Schools of different prestigious universities, the reached achievements of the method have motivated its implementation in a great variety of institutions and careers anywhere in the world.
    Ms. Rajaa Fahad Allhiani · King Abdulaziz University

    Today's world brings with it a rapid explosion of easily accessible knowledge. Today graduates need to be self directed and possess lifelong learning skills. They need to be critical thinkers, problem solvers and analytical in their approach. The inter-disciplinary nature of work means that they need to be able to integrate knowledge and skills from a number of disciplines as well as have the interpersonal skills to be an effective team member.

    Problem-based learning activities are designed to develop transferable skills and attributes along with the appropriate discipline specific knowledge. Transferable skills/attributes are part of the degree level expectations that represent the intended outcomes for a university education and are being written into program curriculum. Problem-based learning challenges students to develop the ability to think critically, analyze problems, find and use appropriate learning resources.

    A learner-centered educational method; Through PBL learners are progressively given more and more responsibility for their own education and become increasingly independent of the teacher for their education.

    The PBL Learning Process

    In PBL, learners encounter a problem and attempt to solve it with information they already possess allowing them to appreciate what they already know. They also identify what they need to learn to better understand the problem and how to resolve it.

    Once they have worked with the problem as far as possible and identified what they need to learn, the learners engage in self-directed study to research the information needed finding and using a variety of information resources (books, journals, reports, online information, and a variety of people with appropriate areas of expertise). In this way learning is personalized to the needs and learning styles of the individual.

    The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem.

    After they have finished their problem work the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers. Self-assessment is a skill essential to effective independent learning.

    The responsibility of the teacher in PBL is to provide the educational materials and guidance that facilitate learning. The principle role of the teacher in PBL is that of a facilitator or educational coach (often referred to in jargon of PBL as a "tutor") guiding the learners in the PBL process. As learners become more proficient in the PBL learning process the tutor becomes less active.

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