Educational Theory

Educational Theory

  • Alvin Vista added an answer:
    What hardware equipment can you recommend for capturing and streaming audio and video from lectures (microphones, webcams, streaming devices)?

    We plan to record and stream video from lectures (room for 20 students, one teacher with notebook connected to data projector). Can you recommend hardware for capturing voice of teacher and students and video of teacher and image from data projector? We do not need to record teacher and signal from data projector separately. Do you have experience with special hardware for capturing and streaming of lectures?

    Alvin Vista · University of Melbourne

    If you plan to capture both teacher and students at once, and do not want panning of the camera, it's better to use a camera with wide angle lens, like those used in GoPRo action cams. When streaming lectures, it's better to show the classroom as a whole to capture interaction between students and teacher, and to show a small screen in a corner showing the actual slides as the teacher is lecturing.

  • Nick Eaves added an answer:
    Is individual authenticity lost in education?
    We propose to have a child centred approach for much of our education. However, methods remain similar to over 100 years ago. We still seem to value outcome over the individual.
    Nick Eaves · Curtin University Australia

    Robyn and Gloria, as a middle and senior school teacher, it makes me very happy to hear your views.  I feel if we can get through this overly reductionist phase in education, perhaps the focus will shift to the development of the individual.

  • Sujeet Mishra added an answer:
    When and where should we use technology for education--in the classroom, outside the classroom, or both?

    I think most of us would agree that Technology Assisted Education (TAE), including both general technology and technology specifically for educational purposes, is of immense value for students of any age in any Learning Environment (LE).  However, the attached article points out some serious impediments to learning when allowing free and open access to laptops, tablets, and smart phones in the classroom.  Should these be "banned" from classrooms?  Should technology for education be focused primarily on outside class activities--homework, research, group activities, reading, testing, and the like? 

    Sujeet Mishra · Guru Ghasidas University

    We can use technology during classroom teaching ,First, when we start the introduction of our lecture ,Second, when we developing content through explanation or description, Third, when we create thought processing in students mind and finally we use the technology when does the evaluation of delivering lecture.

  • Subramaniam M added an answer:
    Is it possible to design environments / Networks of glocal agency to learning and knowledge, from to MOOC?

    The MOOC phenomena is not exclusively an issue of Massive Online Open Course, on the conversely, it has become a scenario of new ways of getting learning and knowledge. This is radically affecting the processes of research, innovation and learning management in contemporary high education.
    New constructions of social organization generate these emerging forms. These are our theoretical and methodological ideas. Then, these forms are associated to concepts such as “ciberculture, societies and learning and knowledge ecosystems”. In that sense, MOOCs become a methodological strategy to strengthen the cultural multiplicity and diversity in “glocal” contexts, as well as interface to democratize processes of certification and legitimation of knowledge and learning in great excluded population masses, facilitating their social projection.

    Subramaniam M · Bharathiar University

    Please clarify your question.

  • Dan kenneth Apple added an answer:
    Does the way we describe success in education affect students and teachers perception of their roles?

    The notion of 'personal best' drives most athletes to keep training despite the knowledge that they may never be first or best in their field. In other words, they actually maintain their effort by seeking personal improvement and thus competing with themselves. In education the description of success is nearly always in terms of comparison with others. My contention is that this view of success is counterproductive for all but the top half of the cohort and we would be better off if we described success as 'improvement through persistent effort' as an athlete does. I also contend that teachers would benefit from this paradigm shift because it better describes what we should be doing, collaborating with each individual to maximise their potential and that the current paradigm of success confuses the role by positioning us to see lower performing students as having a deficit to be repaired.

    Dan kenneth Apple · Pacific Crest

    The parallel to learning with athletes is that performance improvement is what excites the performer. Over 40 years of basketball doesn't leave me any less satisfied today than it did back in high school or college competition - it is about improving your performance and transferring the best you can do into the current context.  By providing a set of measures to determine the level of performance and then providing means to determine current levels and provide feedback to improve (from self and others) then this learning environment takes on the same level of excitement that sports contain.   The opportunity to continously improve our learning performance (learning to learn) becomes exciting, growth oriented, and something you continously look forward to.

  • Nick Eaves added an answer:
    Has anyone used a particularly powerful allegory for narrative reflection in relation to the adolescent 'journey?'
    Allegory for adolescence?
    Nick Eaves · Curtin University Australia

    Great information. Thanks, Deborah.

  • Victor Lopez-Cabrera added an answer:
    How can we build the European Teacher Model and a strong relationship with partner institutes?
    The VOICE of European Teachers (VOICES) network will give schools, teachers, students, teacher trainers, researchers and representatives of other institution in the field of education the possibility to stay in contact, work together, start new projects and share best practice. Collaboration during projects and reflection on our activities are the keys in the learning processes within the network.
    Victor Lopez-Cabrera · Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá

    Imho, improving intercultural affairs.

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    What really is "the Flipped Classroom" and how is it any different from methods that utilise the constructivists/constructionists realm?
    I received my core education in the Caribbean which is based on the UK model, and then had some US based education for my Masters and PhD. Based on this, I'm trying to understand what are the core concepts of the Flipped Classroom - it seems quite similar to my core education experiences.
    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Foreign language classes undertaken through immersion have often been intrinsically flipped when communicative competence is key to course design, development, and practice.  This has been going on for decade--long before the term flipped was used.  

    The same goes for a variety of classroom projects done in social studies dating back to before the 1980s or 1970s.  Simulations also require this practice wherever they have been carried out--in a workshop, in office or in a classroom.

  • Kathy Scott-Morris added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest or point me in the direction of recent research in the field of student data-driven practices?
    I am looking for qualitative or quantitative research on the use of data by students to drive their own learning in the classroom.
    Kathy Scott-Morris · Walden University

    Hoy, Anita Woolfolk and Hoy, Wayne Kolter (2009). Instructional Leadership: A Research-Based Guide to Learning in Schools, Third Edition. Classroom Instruction and Management (p. 161), by R. I. Arends, New York: McGraw-Hill. Reproduced with permission for Instructional Leadership (1997).  Boston: Published by Allyn and Bacon. Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Keith Hatcher added an answer:
    Can we implement students' character index into higher education?
    Character education has been an issues for a century and been reinforced by the Indonesian MOE. It comes up with degradation of moral value and character. I've been doing research by creating a framework for assessment and give a score of students' character in elementary students. The purpose is to map students with special needs and proportionally distribute those students in parallel levels, no class will have more special needs students. It works, and helps out the teacher give an objective assessment. I'm trying to build one for higher education that will be linked the characters such as soft skills that are needed by the industry, such as communication, discipline, trustworthiness, caring and teamwork. This will be called the student's character index and it will come up as another transcript like GPA. This will try to assure lectures also map a student's character not only academically.
    Problems arise when trying to figure out how you can objectify something that is usually as subjective as character. I need your opinions and suggestions on this topic in order to broaden my views and enrich my research.
    Keith Hatcher · California State University, Los Angeles

    At the turn of the 20th century, John Dewey and Horace Mann led movements to upgrade education, as religious training in public schools vehemently clashed with ideals associated with character training. Dewey’s progressive approach included instruction “marked by honesty, self-control, friendliness, decency, selflessness, fairness, respect, responsibility, compassion, loyalty, empathy, and a cooperative spirit” (Davis, 2006, p. 1).  

    Much literature attends to character education’s development and breeding within programs that promote academic achievement, long-term test scores, and classroom behavior, which agreeably perpetuate success in college and career. Usually slighted are the “softer” attributes of education, such as good character. Character education contends that the making of a good person is fostered by social equality. Milliren and Messer (2009) refer to Alfred Adler’s belief that acquiring character is a conscious effort made possible through pedagogy, when converted into use-able abilities and skills for both post-secondary college and career successes.Kevin C. Costley (2012) defines character education as “widely shared, pivotally important, core ethical values…[including] caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility, respect for self and others, diligence, a strong work ethic, and perseverance” (p. 1).

    Costley (2012) continues, “students need [character] to function in school as well as outside of school” (p. 1). Brannon (2008) mentions, “character education programs have a postitive effect on achievement, classroom behaviors, and long-term test scores” (p. 2), as well as enhancing students’ awareness of sound ethics and positive social values learned outside of school. Lickona, et al (2007) in evaluating 11 principles of effective character, begin with this text: “There is no single effective character education, but there are some important basic principles” (p. 1) for students as they strive for good citizenship. Tony Sanchez (2005) illustrates character education as a “…long term process of helping young people develop good character, i.e., knowing , caring about,…values such as fairness, honesty, compassion, responsibility, and respect for self…” (p. 1). Davis (2006) asserts that morality, honesty, respect, responsibility, friendliness, and self-control are descriptors of good character. Additionally, the Josephson Institute (2009) ascribes to fairness, caring, trustworthiness, and citizenship, on its list of character descriptors, in the same way Milliren and Messer (2009) include cooperation, accomplishment, confidence, success, approachability, and self-respect, as “flavors-added”, to their collective character education keys. 

    In my research on how non-cognitive/soft skills are developed, shaped, and fostered in college prep programs for "disadvantaged" youth, I discovered that character is seldom used as a descriptor because its potential conflict between church and state.

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Is there a fundamental conflict between what happens in assessment & reporting at primary & secondary school and what we say we value from schooling?

    Most compulsory education systems, i.e. primary & secondary schools, purport to value similar outcomes. In Queensland, Australia they are called Attributes of a life long learner, which speaks for itself, and Common Curriculum Elements, which are a list of cognitive skills, such as critical thinking. My question is: Does what & how we actually assess and report on, and hence what & how we teach in our schools, actually conflict with these professed aims? I personally value these purported outcomes and work very hard to keep them at the forefront of my teaching and assessing processes, but feel constrained, especially when I consider reporting as A, B, C etc which feeds back to my teaching and assessing and pushes me away from what I believe in. If I could report differently, I feel that I could teach and assess in a way that truly valued the long term outcomes of compulsory schooling.

    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    Hi Agnes, my problem is not that we do this, but the way we do it. In other words, how we define an A, B, C etc, at younger ages anyway. I think that the way we define or use assessment conflicts with wha we say we value in education, ie thinking skills and attributes of a life long learner.

  • Israt Jahan added an answer:
    What do you think of heuristic or discovery learning in classrooms?
    Heuristic education is based on discovering and experiencing things for yourself. As the English would say: Teach learners fishing instead of giving them fish. How is it possible to apply heuristic learning in classroom situations instead of spoon-feeding the learners?
    Israt Jahan · University of New South Wales

    Before using any method, heuristic or anything else, it is important to decide for which age group of students we will use it. What is the purpose of using this particular method for this particular topic? What kind of information students will need to start their adventure of learning? To what extent students will be engaged with this particular method?

    For younger kids the purpose is not that they will come up with a new theory or law due to using heuristic method. The focus is let them to work through this method and get used to think independently and look at things from different perspectives. Once they are accustomed with this method who knows what they will come up with in future. 

    As Madeleine mentioned, it needs time and careful plans to employ heuristic method. However, it will be successful if we think thoroughly and create a good plan before jumping into the actual practice.

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    21st Century teaching strategies: Another important change(s) we should make on learner-centered learning approach?
    In the learner-centered learning environment, students can connect and communicate with their peers and with the real world easily and they can access the information anywhere anytime. Weimer (2002) illustrated five key changes in a learner-centered classroom: the balance of power, the function of content, the role of the teacher, the responsibility for learning, and the purpose and processes of assessment.
    In this 21st Century, technology innovations change how students learn. Is there another important change(s) we should make on learner-centered learning approach?

    Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Couldn't agree more John. I just wrote the following in a question on comprehension that are relevant.
    'I would add another source of poor compehension, at least in teenage students. I am finding that they have developed one skill in preference to another because they misunderstand the purpose of reading. The ease of access to prewritten text (google) means that they have become highly adept at quick recognition of superficially meaningful text, already prepared by someone else, at the expense of deep reading of text to extract the complex web of meaning they may actually need in their specific context, to understand something fully. This shows up when I ask my students to explain a concept without recourse to the web. They have great difficulty constructing text that explains their thoughts. I am putting in place a strategy to change the approach of students to reading'. AND
    'It seems to me to be a soiological phenomenon, where students choose a strategy based on what they believe is functional and it becomes a habit of mind, or maybe that they lose a particular skill because they never use it and to try to use it becomes more difficult and so less enjoyable and so less practiced. A kind of trajectory of behaviours that leads them to be unskilled in deep reading, but very skilled in skimming and recognising key points. I think it is possible to change the trajectory if structures are put in place in schools as early as possible to favour different habits and reinforce different behaviours.'
    The strategy I am putting in place is sociolgical in nature. I am asking teachers to control their language and assessment practices to reinfoce the notion that ' it's not what you learn, but what you do with it that counts', and to rarely use language proformas so that students have to use their brains to construct text.
  • David Johnson added an answer:
    How to shift students' focus from "passing exams" to "becoming an engineer"?
    Most students seem to focus more on "passing the next exam" than on "developing engineering skills". This seems to go along with a tendency of rote-learning vs. deep learning. Some approaches to counteract rote-learning, such as Project-based Learning, as well as apporaches to increase student motivation have been discussed and published for quite some time. Are there further promising approaches?
    David Johnson · Royal HaskoningDHV
    This is a general attitude of students world-wide. I agree with what Ian proposed. What I can add is that we need to completely review how we package the engineering syllabus. There is talk of students getting exposed to hands-on from day one, although I'm not sure what the progress is with this approach.

    Despite our best efforts, I'm afraid that students are still of an age where they have a very short term view on life, and the next exam fits well within their ability.
  • Monica Bhattacharjee added an answer:
    What are some of the implications of changing the mindset of teachers to their mission being to induce physical changes in their students brains?
    When people learn, new neural connections and new neurons are produced.
    Monica Bhattacharjee · Simon Fraser University
    Thanks! Appreciate it. There is indeed no recipe for pedagogy, rather no fixed recipe. There's richness and value in diversity, each customized to meet the specific learning needs of a specific target audience.
  • How to create an interactive environment in the classroom, particularly when the your are teaching research to graduate students?
    Research is the kind of discipline which needs creativity all the time, therefore student and teacher are required to be more interactive.
    Dr. Kiran Ramchandra Ranadive ·
    Dear sir, I think first you can tell them what is research? Second very important thing that if you could take them out for some science excursion once at the starting of the academic year then i think your academic and research bonding with student will develop and later on if you will continue your class room teaching then i think you will definitely get excellent involvement of all students.Read their Psychology Please try. All the best.
  • Alan Parsons added an answer:
    How can achievement motivation be increased through education?
    Teaching strategy, curriculum, peer activities, etc. can have an influence on students' achievement motivation.
    Alan Parsons · Griffith University
    Autonomy, mastery and purpose. This is what we strive for. Forget the carrot and the stick. Students won't achieve all they are capable of simply out of fear of failure or the rewards of excellent grades. They will achieve excellence when the work they do has purpose, when they are able to achieve mastery of the material through excellence in teaching and when they are given some sense of autonomy and control in determining their future and their academic pathways.
  • Sadagopan Parthasarathy added an answer:
    Is there any method to evaluate the joy of students in the classroom teaching-learning process?
    Joy is a term related to Psychology, then how can we evaluate the joy of all students at a time. Can we evaluate through result or feedback or any other method?
    Joy can be at the individual or group level. The joy of creating their own Bulletin, combining Field Study with theory, creating a short film, student seminar, Projects oriented to student's capabilities and interest but related to the subject of study, Games enlightening theory and so on can multiply joy in learning.
  • Raveendra Nath Yasarapu added an answer:
    Should Yoga, Tai Chi, meditation and diet & nutrition be an essential component in the curriculum of primary and secondary education?
    Although 21st century man has made incredible strides in medicine, science and technology, if we look at the international tables for morbidity, mortality and happiness then what we see (particularly in the urbanized materially wealthy western world) that despite increasing our longevity, it is apparent that we have not made similar progress in increasing our happiness or our levels of mental, emotional and physical well-being i.e. mind and body management.
    Raveendra Nath Yasarapu · Technische Universität München

    Yoga and other mindfulness practices need to be introduced to schools to introduce children into an early journey of looking inward instead of always looking outward for external sense gratification, which is a dismal substitute for Happiness. The current so-called education being imparted in primary schools in the name of western education is only serving to make children literate. We have been programmed to compete in the rat race of materialistic earning & consumption while ignoring the basics of Humanity. Children are taught to excel for the sake of purely materialistic goals which breed competition, imbalance and strife. What about the moral and ethical part, without which graduates are in danger of becoming educated beasts? Even the so called elite schools crank out graduates with only one thing on their minds-How to earn a living, earn a better life so as to acquire all pleasures of life. As the parents spend most of their time earning money, they assume that moral ethics are also taught at school along with literacy and scientific skills.
    Isn't this plain foolish? When we ourselves dont have the time or patience to teach your children ethics, how can we assume that someone else on a salary will teach them morals at school? Thus the rot evident in most current school graduates.
    "Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself-" Leo Tolstoy
    „You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals”-Marie Curie
    "Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens"- Ouspensky
    "No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path" -Gautama, the Buddha
    A simple plan of educating children in the Yoga science basics is attached here.
    Please do comment

  • Nick Eaves added an answer:
    Has anyone used transformative learning in adolescence?
    I am interested in exploring a holistic approach with regards to adolescent identity.
    Nick Eaves · Curtin University Australia
    Wonderful. Do you have any other information regarding research or current practice?
    Thanks so much for your answer. Nick
  • Robert D Goldin asked a question:
    Does anyone know about using multiple choice questions to help students learn?
    There is literature on this but I would like to learn more.
  • Hayes B. Goosey added an answer:
    How do 6-16 science teachers view student-centered vs. teacher-centered learning?
    Employers want students to graduate as ‘critical thinkers’. The President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology specifically recommended focusing on integrating active learning techniques into classrooms. As a partial response to these discussions, the student-centered classroom has taken a bit of center-stage with many U.S. universities transitioning away from traditional lectures (teacher-centered learning) toward a student-centered curriculum. ‘Scaled.Up' is one such example in use. In particular, it would be of value to hear the experiences, pros and cons, from teachers in a K-16 educational setting in regards to student-centered learning. Also, it would be beneficial to hear ideas and receive resource information on how someone, who learned in a teacher-centered environment, can begin to make an exploratory transition toward a student-centered pedagogy.
    Hayes B. Goosey · Montana State University
    Thanks Ayman. Seems there would be more prep time for student centered learning and so at first glance it would seem that teacher centered learning is the easiest for the teacher. This makes me wonder if expending the effort to implement a student centered learning environment would actually make teaching easier for the teacher in terms of daily requirement. My thoughts are that for teacher centered the teacher is on the 'spot' for each prep period. However, with student centered learning it is the students who are more on the 'spot' while the teacher moves around the class in a facilitating fashion. Do you have any experience with this?
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Is it possible to tell students how well they are going at school or university without implying that they have 'passed' or 'failed'?
    Students are commonly rated after assessment as A, B, C, D or E or 1 through 7 etc. Usually there is some rating that is considered 'adequate' or 'pass'. My research and observations of younger students over 30 years is that this is a dysfunctional approach, often resulting in disengagement. At a higher education level this may not be a major problem but for primary or secondary school students, the result is a poorly educated individual, sometimes with few marketable skills, low literacy and numeracy. To make matters worse, evidence in Australia suggests that the most likely students to disengage from school from an early age are those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, exacerbating their disadvantages and preventing social mobility. I believe that it is possible to report on assessment in such a way that students regard themselves as 'on a path to success', rather than 'always a failure'. My question is specifically about systemic reporting ie what comes out on the report card or statement of results, not the feedback given by a teacher to a student after a single piece of work. What do you think? Is there any research into the psychosocial impact of school assessment that is positive.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Colin, - a couple of quick observations/ inferences. Students definitely engage better when they are asked to 'learn, so they can do a better job of applying in context, which then becomes the assessment,' In other words I don't add on assessment, The application & communication of such, becomes the end product, But, while they still seen to feel the sense of failure in response to the report card, they are more willing to try again, No data for that, just years of observation. The issue of ease of recognition driving assessment is also probably true. Paul Vossen's work could be useful here, because it looks at the general forms of decision making during the assessment process. If people understood what they were doing better it might help move towards more authentic assessment types. We are fortunate in Queensland because we have a long history of school based assessment. Not that it guarantees better decisions, but teachers are more comfortable making them, so my job is just to tweak their understanding of what they are doing, My original question is really about the issue of reporting on performance.The most common measure is of what most call 'achievement' or 'how good was the performance?' in a comparative sense. If we reported on performance more in a positional sense, ie it was 'here' on a developmental continuum. I think it could transmit the same or equivalent information to stakeholders while implying to those reported on that they were indeed progressing and more importantly could continue to do so.
  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    Do you sometimes wonder if education theories like Piaget's and Vygotsky still apply to the children of this 21st century? What do you think?
    The environment during Piaget's time, during Vygotsky's time is so different from today. Do you think the Education theories that we have learnt from them still apply wholly or apply partially or don't apply to the children today?
    I hope to hear from educators and from parents.
    Miranda Yeoh · Kolej Matrikulasi Selangor, MALAYSIA (Selangor Matriculation College)
    @Anthony, thanks. I have found materials :)
  • Seema Singh added an answer:
    What can be added to current continuing educational programs to make them sustainable for an everlasting future? What can be taken away?
    We all have noticed the term "Sustainable" revolving around our communities and institutions in various departments. Sustainable efforts have altered and changed our communities in many different ways. As education is on the forefront of changes, sustainability is a highly ranked item needed to be addressed.
    Seema Singh · Delhi Technological University

    A continuing education program must be more responsive to the market demand. So the syllabus and pedagogy must be reviewed quite frequently.  

  • Becky Huggins added an answer:
    Anyone know how I can get the Academic Self Concept Scale?
    I have tried to contact Dr. Reynolds with no luck in getting a copy. I'm running out of options and need the actual scale for the course I am currently taking regarding measurement methods in research.
    Becky Huggins · University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
    No, I didn't. I emailed him and also called his office phone with no return correspondence.
  • Maria Rosa Fenoll-Brunet added an answer:
    Could anyone suggest readings on student engagement in higher education, or does anyone know a research done on this topic?
    I am researching the class room engagement of student nurses in the class room vs the clinical setting.
    Maria Rosa Fenoll-Brunet · Universitat Rovira i Virgili
    In higher education there is growing interest in student engagement.
    A programme has been initiated to recognise international excellence in medical schools. One of the aims is to recognize institucional iniciatives promoting Student engagement in the currículum and in the Medical School. You can find more information at:

About Educational Theory

Educational theory can refer to either speculative educational thought in general or to a theory of education as something that guides, explains, or describes educational practice.

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