Educational Theory

Educational Theory

  • Leonard Mehlmauer added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to measure the indication of the successful implementation of character education among students of secondary school?

    Dear Madam/Sir,

    I have am having some trouble regarding the measurement of such indication for the successful implementation of character education, mainly among adolescent in the level of secondary school; is there a standard form of its measurement?

    It is highly appreciated for your cooperation to answer that question.


    Leonard Mehlmauer · California State University, Long Beach

    The best book on character and moral development I have ever read is called The First Three Stages of Life.  I feel certain that within that book you will see how character and moral development can be assessed.  On reflection, I have been so impressed with the power and scope of that book that I have mentioned it to others as in some sense an outline for a whole new civilization.  If "the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world", which, of course, points to the power of education of the young, this is as good a place to start as any I can think of.  


  • Fatima Mitchell added an answer:
    Where can I find anything about inclusive practice for a specific learning environment for a child?

    I would like to learn about a specific learning environment for a child in an inclusive context.

    Many thanks

    Fatima Mitchell · Canterbury Christ Church University

    thank you all for your supports.

  • Kevin Larkin added an answer:
    Which analytical framework is suitable for the study of school-based in-service education and training?

    I am writing a research paper on the implementation of school-based professional development in my country. For quite a time I have struggled with developing the right theoretical framework to analyse the construct "continuous professional development:. I cant figure whether PD is a process, activity, a goal or an outcome. I was considering "socio-cultural perspective", "situated perspective" and "activity theory", they are  so confusing. Should I pick one of these or find something else? Which would be more applicable? Please advise.

    Kevin Larkin · Griffith University

    Hi Masota,

    I used Activity Theory in my thesis to investigate primary school teachers and it worked very well. I am happy to provide some basic references if you think it will help.


  • Judith Gill added an answer:
    Does someone know if Mael et al. have responded to the Pahlke et al. or the Signorella et al. studies?

    In 2005, Mael et al. (see reference below) published a systematic review on the single-sex vs. coeducational schooling topic. They found a little advantage for single-sex schools. However, in 2014, Pahlke et al. contradicted their results through a meta-analysis. Also, Signorella et al. published a study specifically describing the weaknesses of the Mael et al. publication. Does someone know if the 2005 authors had answered any of them? 

    • Mael, F., Alonso, A., Gibson, D., Rogers, K., & Smith, M. (2005). Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review. (No. 2005–01). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service.
    • Pahlke, E., Hyde, J. S., & Allison, C. M. (2014). The Effects of Single-Sex Compared With Coeducational Schooling on Students’ Performance and Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. doi: 10.1037/a0035740
    • Signorella, M., Hayes, A., & Li, Y. (2013). A Meta-Analytic Critique of Mael et al.’s (2005) Review of Single-Sex Schooling. Sex Roles, 69(7-8), 423-441. doi: 10.1007/s11199-013-0288-x
    Judith Gill · University of South Australia

    Comparison between schooling outcomes and school gender context must always attend to time and cultural context. Meta analyses tend to disregard both these features as they assemble numbers of studies across time and place, thus assuming sex differences comprise a constant variable. To some degree this complication explains some of the different outcomes in studies of single sex vs Coeducation and is the reason this old chestnut keeps recurring in research. Fifty years ago many western nations single sex schooling produced higher achievement levels for male and female students. Nowadays in societies less marked by gender differentiated culture one is less likely to find differences in schooling outcomes related to school gender context.

  • Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay added an answer:
    How would you define a "model" within a theoretical research?

    For instance, if you have a particular strategy developed for addressing an education research issue, would you refer to it as a "model" or a "strategy"?

    Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay · Jadavpur University

    @Rob Macduff

    In terms of function definition can we say that

    Theory <=> Function profile

    Model <=> semantics definition

    Strategy <=> implementation method

  • Suhasini Gazula added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest any definitive texts on burnout in teachers?

    I guess it's all in the title really...

    I'm currently lookin in detail at Fried by Borysenko, and Understanding and PReventing Teacher Burnout by Vandenberghe and Huberman. I feel I should include some of Maslach's work and some of Freudenberger as the "masters" of the field, but they've both published lots and I'm trying to isolate key texts.

    Suhasini Gazula · Auckland University of Technology

    Check out this publication and also the references of this. It helps to get the key texts on Burnout of Teachers

    Revisiting First-Year Teacher Burnout: New South Carolina Educators in the Era of Accountability 
    by Ilagan, Daniel J

    ProQuest LLC, 2010, ISBN 1124384162,



  • Julio Ernesto Rojas Mesa added an answer:
    Is it possible to design environments / Networks of glocal agency to learning and knowledge, from to MOOC?

    The MOOC phenomena is not exclusively an issue of Massive Online Open Course, on the conversely, it has become a scenario of new ways of getting learning and knowledge. This is radically affecting the processes of research, innovation and learning management in contemporary high education.
    New constructions of social organization generate these emerging forms. These are our theoretical and methodological ideas. Then, these forms are associated to concepts such as “ciberculture, societies and learning and knowledge ecosystems”. In that sense, MOOCs become a methodological strategy to strengthen the cultural multiplicity and diversity in “glocal” contexts, as well as interface to democratize processes of certification and legitimation of knowledge and learning in great excluded population masses, facilitating their social projection.

    Julio Ernesto Rojas Mesa · Santo Tomás University

    Hello. So sorry for my late answer. I'm building a Knowledge agency concept. This concept is on a glocal context (a simultaneously local and global knowledge) inside of learning process. I will do it through a cyberculture course. In this course, I will research about the affordances proposal by Cope&Kalantzis (2009). 


  • Jacqueline Suzanne Byrket added an answer:
    Any scientific research on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000 ?

    I'm working on an introduction program voor students at the age of 14/ 15 years old in Veldhoven Holland. I use the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) as my fundament in the program. Is there any scientific research that proves that their concept is working. It is evident based, but I can't find any proof.

    Antoon van Wolferen

    Jacqueline Suzanne Byrket · Missouri State University

    I am not sure what your project goals are but assuming you are looking to enhance academic performance, attached are two of my favorite articles that focus on your sample age. Best of Luck!

  • Shafir Lobb added an answer:
    Has anyone used transformative learning in adolescence?
    I am interested in exploring a holistic approach with regards to adolescent identity.
    Shafir Lobb · Northcentral University

    I will be doing some research in this area this coming year.

  • Tholakele Xulu added an answer:
    When and where should we use technology for education--in the classroom, outside the classroom, or both?

    I think most of us would agree that Technology Assisted Education (TAE), including both general technology and technology specifically for educational purposes, is of immense value for students of any age in any Learning Environment (LE).  However, the attached article points out some serious impediments to learning when allowing free and open access to laptops, tablets, and smart phones in the classroom.  Should these be "banned" from classrooms?  Should technology for education be focused primarily on outside class activities--homework, research, group activities, reading, testing, and the like? 

    Tholakele Xulu · Monash University (South Africa)

    Technology in education plays an important role in improving the educational skills and knowledge of the people. This is very important especially those who need improve their knowledge in order for them to achieve a successful life in the future. Technology in education is manifested through the use of computers. This is also a great help for teachers since they can already enhance their teaching skills and strategies every time they are facing their class. This technology is very essential for both the students and the teacher but there are some instances wherein this technology is seen to be disadvantageous for both of them as well. Be that as it may, this facility may also impact in the following:-

    Laziness in Studying
    Since students are already relying more on working and studying in computers they are already relying all the information n the computer. This is not good since there are some claims that computers are not reliable for the students to be learned. They are not anymore reading books and answering their homework since there are already specific answers in the computer.

    Forgetting the Basic Way of Studying
    They would no longer rely on the books that are lent by their teachers for them to study since they are already interested to study using the computer. Even simple problems and homework that they need to answer, they are more of seeking the assistance of computers already.

    Discovering Unusual Things in the Computer
    Allowing the students to surf the internet doesn’t necessarily mean that all the things that they are going to discover are good for their mind and studies. There are several things that are found in the internet which are not good for the students hence they need to be properly guided by their teachers and parents every time they are going to use the computer.

    Technology in education plays an important role in the study habits and skills of your child. But, you need to make sure that you are going to be very careful in allowing them to use their computer and surf the internet for them to avoid discovering things that are not part of their studies. It is always important to let them used some of these technology in education as often as it is in order to prevent forgetting the basic way of studying.

    What needs to be mentioned as well in this digital age is that, it is difficult to think of significant disadvantages when it comes to incorporating computer technology into the class room. Students today "speak computer," and their interest level rises instantly and appreciably when they are allowed to work on the computer. Students learn best by doing instead of listening, and using computers in instruction is hands-on for them, requiring active involvement and participation. Many instructional programs are interactive, giving students the opportunity to answer a question or work a problem and receive immediate feedback. The correlation between feedback and improvement in learning is indisputable.

  • Olga Miščenko added an answer:
    How to quantify users‘ feeling before and after using mobile-enhanced learning environments?

    How to quantify users‘ feelings before and after using mobile-enhanced environments?

    Olga Miščenko · Vilnius Gediminas Technical University

    Certainly, a questionnaire would help you.

    There is one more (not the last, probably) way: logs analysis. It shall take some time, besides needs approach.

    When preparing the article THE IMPORTANCE OF A TEACHER IN A DISTANCE EDUCATION AND THE PROGRESSIVE METHODS OF TEACHING IN A VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT it was necessary to evaluate the results due to the students' interest towards training using the Moodle system. One week trainig demonstrated not only knowledge improvement, but also the students' appretiation of the platform.

  • David William Stewart added an answer:
    Is individual authenticity lost in education?
    We propose to have a child centred approach for much of our education. However, methods remain similar to over 100 years ago. We still seem to value outcome over the individual.
    David William Stewart · Walden University


    First of all thanks for your endorsement of my earlier comments. Coming from you this was high praise indeed. I clearly have a very long way to go in my writing and research ability and contributions. 

    Having said this, I want to compliment your posting here in regards to the concepts of core common ground education.  Your observations are insightful.  Unfortunately I worry about practicality. Why?  Well to put a point on it, I live in Texas, USA. I am a "Native born Texan", which is somewhat akin to proudly stating the same for one's birth status in any country - regrettably, for those born in Texas, our pride - and politics - more or less requires our announcement as to our Texas roots over and above our national affiliation. :) - Yes, I jest, but perhaps not too much on this point.  

    I know this is not a suitable place for political commentary - and I will refrain. I would be remiss, however, to ignore the realities of the education system in the states today. In order to understand American education one has to examine the roots. Early settlement of America resulted from emigration from England - primarily- later France (mainly in Canada), Holland, and so on.  "England" of course includes Ireland, Scotland, Wales, etc.  Naturally education in America followed traditional teaching methods.  Unfortunately the design of American education and education systems  also considered the issues of - to be polite - "the minority question'.  We enjoy some of the greatest social and legal freedoms of any society on Earth. However as I am sure you know, we have literally thousands of school districts - all of which are at the mercy of local political control.  Changes are being made, and maybe one day we will see some consolidation of these many school districts into some kind of a national educational protocol.  As a consequence, I admire your perceptive analysis, but fear practical implementation.



  • Michael W. Marek added an answer:
    Greetings ! Does anyone have any articles about parental involvement/family engagement in education?

    I am working on a professional paper on parental involvement models, particularly, Dr. Maria C. Paredes Academic Parent Teacher Teams (APTT) Model which takes the parent-teacher conferences a step further!

    Michael W. Marek · Wayne State College

    Parental involvement is one of many factors identified as variables in student learning outcomes in this paper:

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    Are there any research studies on views / experiences of young people on Black History Month in the UK?

    I am conducting a reseach on Young people's view on Black History Month in the UK. It seems that BHM is not integrated with the main curriculum in schools and there is no much evidence to show that the history of black people in the UK is covered in history or citizenship classes in the UK. Any thoughts / research papers  on this research concept is highly appreciated. Thanks so much.

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico


    I share the responces as to knowledge of studies made regarding youth and  BHM in the UK. This fact alone tell us something! However. what I am responding to is "integrated into main curriculum"  and a word of caution. Here in the US after a long battle BHM is still not practiced as an integrated important subject matter only the words are.  I think is an important point of demarcation as to BHM being integrated into or still waiting on the periphery.

    In soildarity


  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    Where do I find out about Knowledge Profiling and related theories?

    I am doing a lit review with some focus on knowledge Profiling. Can anyone guide me with regards theories and research documents.

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    The idea of a knowledge profile is an interesting subject. As Mr. Said points out there is a perception as to what counts as knowledge and what does not. Would cultural information or cultural specificknowledge be seen as knowledge by another culture? Would a subjective knowledge be seen as knowledge by a person defining knowledge as objective? Would knowledge derived from non scientic means be counted as knowledge?

    Building a knowledge profile is a thought, but as seen in the three responses issues of what is knowledge and what is not are present. 

    So one suggestion I would make is define and argue for that defination. Alothough this arguement or issue is not new as one can see by examining schooling curriculum

    Good Luck


  • Dipali Mansingrao Kadam added an answer:
    Is there any method to evaluate the joy of students in the classroom teaching-learning process?
    Joy is a term related to Psychology, then how can we evaluate the joy of all students at a time. Can we evaluate through result or feedback or any other method?
    Dipali Mansingrao Kadam · Rajarambapu Institute Of Technology

    Thanks a lot  Mayur Sir & Ahmed for sharing your valuable thoughts.

  • Aysha Bey added an answer:
    Does the way we describe success in education affect students and teachers perception of their roles?

    The notion of 'personal best' drives most athletes to keep training despite the knowledge that they may never be first or best in their field. In other words, they actually maintain their effort by seeking personal improvement and thus competing with themselves. In education the description of success is nearly always in terms of comparison with others. My contention is that this view of success is counterproductive for all but the top half of the cohort and we would be better off if we described success as 'improvement through persistent effort' as an athlete does. I also contend that teachers would benefit from this paradigm shift because it better describes what we should be doing, collaborating with each individual to maximise their potential and that the current paradigm of success confuses the role by positioning us to see lower performing students as having a deficit to be repaired.

    Aysha Bey · University of Alabama at Birmingham

    This is a great topic for discussion!  Filippo makes a strong point about international students who will return to their countries one day--or perhaps return faster than planned if they fail to succeed in the U.S.  I have a class of these foreign-university graduates nearly every semester, preparing to take the graduate exam (GRE) for admission to American grad schools, most often in the natural sciences. They have a year or two to get their language skills up to par and pass the test; if they don't, they return with no hope of doing graduate work in the West. The stress on them is strong especially with the GRE's emphasis upon huge lists of vocabulary.

    But the topic of particular interest to me is the mention of the athletes and any comparison to academics.  More than 10 years ago, I worked with the football offensive coordinator of our university team on developing an academic adaptation of what he did to teach his athletes from rookie to senior level or even the pros. Since no athlete has a football or basketball brain, there must be a way to use their unusually excellent transfer skills.  For instance, football players use symbolic transfer every time they read their playbook, think out the play, and then execute it. Transfer skills outside the natural sciences and math (like math and physics) are terribly difficult to teach.  I have developed some programs effective in standardized testing that use some of these "coaching" methods.  It is much harder to work with transfer skills in humanities and social/behavioral sciences.

    But then in April of this year, the Chronicle of Higher Education published an article "Bringing the Locker Room into the Classroom" by Craig Owens, associate professor of English at Drake University. He had been invited to be the "honorary coach" for the girls' basketball team; entering the locker room, he expected to hear the movie-version of spirited cheering, etc.  Instead, what he saw was " question and answer, discussion and debate, part Socratic dialogue, part collaborative problem solving."  Based on the collaborative learning he saw, he developed a program called "Coaching in the Classroom" that brings professors from all over the campus to work with coaches in football, basketball, soccer, and golf. Professors were shocked at the amount of independence even in freshmen players and their quickness to "internalize the rhythm of practice."  The coaches explained that they first "taught the players the system."  Most of our students come into classes without the jargon and the background of the discipline in which they are taking classes.  I believe one of the toughest parts of the core curriculum is the variety of disciplines, each with its own language and way of thinking, presented to students all at one time (our athletes carry 15 credits per semester).  

    Dr. Owen decided to model the literary - critical system of Shakespeare to his class and quickly found that students began to respond to one another (and not just to him), following lines of thought and developing their own ideas. Moving through unfamiliar context in literature is not much different than moving through the unfamiliar landscape of a new playbook. But we academics do lack the power of muscle memory--and the power of that athlete's individual motivation. But considering the NCAA's tight rules on GPAs, eligibility and most universities' rules about repeated classes, most athletes are willing to work to get good grades, to gain skills they didn't know they had.

    Dan has hit the nail on the head about levels of performance and feedback (a major element of all sports practice, games, and team meetings).  But there is no reason why those same elements cannot be used in a classroom; of course, in a lit course, for example, we have to develop some level of relevancy to the world today--and that is not difficult since literature nearly always speaks to the human condition in one way or another.  I do believe that academic instructors can and should learn more from their coaches, who have much more experience in motivating, enhancing and developing young men and women than most of us do.

    Aysha Bey

    University of Alabama/Birmingham

  • John F. Wilhite added an answer:
    Does anyone have advice on online course development collaboration?

    Is anyone familiar with research on online course development collaboration between instructional designers and faculty developers/Subject Matter Experts? I'm looking to lit review what is known about the course development in that setting.

    John F. Wilhite · University of Tennessee


    I've seen that phrase "instructional design(ers)" used a few times but never bothered to pursue what that entails.  Your use of it has sparked an idea.  If you have time could you describe/explain it?  Is it a new major?  (You can tell I've been retired a long time!)



  • Jose Carlos Barceló added an answer:
    What hardware equipment can you recommend for capturing and streaming audio and video from lectures (microphones, webcams, streaming devices)?

    We plan to record and stream video from lectures (room for 20 students, one teacher with notebook connected to data projector). Can you recommend hardware for capturing voice of teacher and students and video of teacher and image from data projector? We do not need to record teacher and signal from data projector separately. Do you have experience with special hardware for capturing and streaming of lectures?

    Jose Carlos Barceló · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    I think there are two different styles of  producing video conferences,

    Some people pretend produce videoconferences and lectures like television, uses profesional video cameras, green screens, lavaliere microphones etc.

    In the other hand  is  the low cost style, using web cams, cheap microphones, screen sharing and/0r screncast software,

    Every one have advantages and disadvantages, the firth looks more professional and  could be great in certain topics like medicine were image quality is critical.

    While the second is more flexible and can be organized by he teachers without any technical support and at a very low cost.

    Echo 360 and Camstacia or  Adobe Captivate with Adobe Conect

  • Nick Eaves added an answer:
    Has anyone used a particularly powerful allegory for narrative reflection in relation to the adolescent 'journey?'
    Allegory for adolescence?
    Nick Eaves · Curtin University Australia

    Hi Douglas,

    I really appreciate this information.  Thanks so much.

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    Is it possible to incorporate social learning theories into one active learning process, to carry out an extensive research?
    I actually need some idea (a project) to cover a vast area of educational theories and curriculum.
    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    I agree with Mr. Gillespie,

    Taking a shoot in the dark however, one could examine how social theories, educational theories, teacher education, and curricula all have failed to stop or even slow down the reproduction of both educational and social inequities already in existence? 

  • Antonio Lucero added an answer:
    What are some of the implications of changing the mindset of teachers to their mission being to induce physical changes in their students brains?
    When people learn, new neural connections and new neurons are produced.

    An interesting concept I came across recently speaks about MENTAL BANDWIDTH.

    The idea is that one has only a limited amount of mental processing capacity. If one's processing capacity is consumed with tasks such as: survival, multi-tasking, making ends meet in your family budget, care-taking, overcoming a large challenge, doing mounds of homework, then your brain does not have left-over capacity to put things in perspective, to be innovative, to be creative, and to think critically.

  • Victor Lopez-Cabrera added an answer:
    How can we build the European Teacher Model and a strong relationship with partner institutes?
    The VOICE of European Teachers (VOICES) network will give schools, teachers, students, teacher trainers, researchers and representatives of other institution in the field of education the possibility to stay in contact, work together, start new projects and share best practice. Collaboration during projects and reflection on our activities are the keys in the learning processes within the network.
    Victor Lopez-Cabrera · Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá

    Imho, improving intercultural affairs.

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    What really is "the Flipped Classroom" and how is it any different from methods that utilise the constructivists/constructionists realm?
    I received my core education in the Caribbean which is based on the UK model, and then had some US based education for my Masters and PhD. Based on this, I'm trying to understand what are the core concepts of the Flipped Classroom - it seems quite similar to my core education experiences.
    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Foreign language classes undertaken through immersion have often been intrinsically flipped when communicative competence is key to course design, development, and practice.  This has been going on for decade--long before the term flipped was used.  

    The same goes for a variety of classroom projects done in social studies dating back to before the 1980s or 1970s.  Simulations also require this practice wherever they have been carried out--in a workshop, in office or in a classroom.

  • Kathy Scott-Morris added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest or point me in the direction of recent research in the field of student data-driven practices?
    I am looking for qualitative or quantitative research on the use of data by students to drive their own learning in the classroom.
    Kathy Scott-Morris · Walden University

    Hoy, Anita Woolfolk and Hoy, Wayne Kolter (2009). Instructional Leadership: A Research-Based Guide to Learning in Schools, Third Edition. Classroom Instruction and Management (p. 161), by R. I. Arends, New York: McGraw-Hill. Reproduced with permission for Instructional Leadership (1997).  Boston: Published by Allyn and Bacon. Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Keith Hatcher added an answer:
    Can we implement students' character index into higher education?
    Character education has been an issues for a century and been reinforced by the Indonesian MOE. It comes up with degradation of moral value and character. I've been doing research by creating a framework for assessment and give a score of students' character in elementary students. The purpose is to map students with special needs and proportionally distribute those students in parallel levels, no class will have more special needs students. It works, and helps out the teacher give an objective assessment. I'm trying to build one for higher education that will be linked the characters such as soft skills that are needed by the industry, such as communication, discipline, trustworthiness, caring and teamwork. This will be called the student's character index and it will come up as another transcript like GPA. This will try to assure lectures also map a student's character not only academically.
    Problems arise when trying to figure out how you can objectify something that is usually as subjective as character. I need your opinions and suggestions on this topic in order to broaden my views and enrich my research.
    Keith Hatcher · California State University, Los Angeles

    At the turn of the 20th century, John Dewey and Horace Mann led movements to upgrade education, as religious training in public schools vehemently clashed with ideals associated with character training. Dewey’s progressive approach included instruction “marked by honesty, self-control, friendliness, decency, selflessness, fairness, respect, responsibility, compassion, loyalty, empathy, and a cooperative spirit” (Davis, 2006, p. 1).  

    Much literature attends to character education’s development and breeding within programs that promote academic achievement, long-term test scores, and classroom behavior, which agreeably perpetuate success in college and career. Usually slighted are the “softer” attributes of education, such as good character. Character education contends that the making of a good person is fostered by social equality. Milliren and Messer (2009) refer to Alfred Adler’s belief that acquiring character is a conscious effort made possible through pedagogy, when converted into use-able abilities and skills for both post-secondary college and career successes.Kevin C. Costley (2012) defines character education as “widely shared, pivotally important, core ethical values…[including] caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility, respect for self and others, diligence, a strong work ethic, and perseverance” (p. 1).

    Costley (2012) continues, “students need [character] to function in school as well as outside of school” (p. 1). Brannon (2008) mentions, “character education programs have a postitive effect on achievement, classroom behaviors, and long-term test scores” (p. 2), as well as enhancing students’ awareness of sound ethics and positive social values learned outside of school. Lickona, et al (2007) in evaluating 11 principles of effective character, begin with this text: “There is no single effective character education, but there are some important basic principles” (p. 1) for students as they strive for good citizenship. Tony Sanchez (2005) illustrates character education as a “…long term process of helping young people develop good character, i.e., knowing , caring about,…values such as fairness, honesty, compassion, responsibility, and respect for self…” (p. 1). Davis (2006) asserts that morality, honesty, respect, responsibility, friendliness, and self-control are descriptors of good character. Additionally, the Josephson Institute (2009) ascribes to fairness, caring, trustworthiness, and citizenship, on its list of character descriptors, in the same way Milliren and Messer (2009) include cooperation, accomplishment, confidence, success, approachability, and self-respect, as “flavors-added”, to their collective character education keys. 

    In my research on how non-cognitive/soft skills are developed, shaped, and fostered in college prep programs for "disadvantaged" youth, I discovered that character is seldom used as a descriptor because its potential conflict between church and state.

  • Israt Jahan added an answer:
    What do you think of heuristic or discovery learning in classrooms?
    Heuristic education is based on discovering and experiencing things for yourself. As the English would say: Teach learners fishing instead of giving them fish. How is it possible to apply heuristic learning in classroom situations instead of spoon-feeding the learners?
    Israt Jahan · University of New South Wales

    Before using any method, heuristic or anything else, it is important to decide for which age group of students we will use it. What is the purpose of using this particular method for this particular topic? What kind of information students will need to start their adventure of learning? To what extent students will be engaged with this particular method?

    For younger kids the purpose is not that they will come up with a new theory or law due to using heuristic method. The focus is let them to work through this method and get used to think independently and look at things from different perspectives. Once they are accustomed with this method who knows what they will come up with in future. 

    As Madeleine mentioned, it needs time and careful plans to employ heuristic method. However, it will be successful if we think thoroughly and create a good plan before jumping into the actual practice.

  • How to create an interactive environment in the classroom, particularly when the your are teaching research to graduate students?
    Research is the kind of discipline which needs creativity all the time, therefore student and teacher are required to be more interactive.
    Dr. Kiran Ramchandra Ranadive · Waghire College, Saswad
    Dear sir, I think first you can tell them what is research? Second very important thing that if you could take them out for some science excursion once at the starting of the academic year then i think your academic and research bonding with student will develop and later on if you will continue your class room teaching then i think you will definitely get excellent involvement of all students.Read their Psychology Please try. All the best.

About Educational Theory

Educational theory can refer to either speculative educational thought in general or to a theory of education as something that guides, explains, or describes educational practice.

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