Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    What is Educational or Pupil Assessment, what is being assessed/measured and what does an "outstanding" assessment system look like?
    To what extent can effective assessment improve pupil performance?
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    to complete my first post, an outstanding system would (reasonably) accurately measure learning in a multivariate format so that the learning path could be tailored to meet student needs. It would describe a paradigm where students recognised the link between effort and success and success is defined as progress. The paradigm would speak to students of the collaborative nature of learning, so that the teacher was recognised as the learning expert, and students recognised and valued their guidance. The best outcome of the system would be that students valued 'doing a good job' above getting a good mark. For this to happen a key parameter needs changing in the current paradigm - how success is reported. Reporting on performance comparative to others is anathema to good assessment. Reporting needs to be of position along a continuum of learning for all of the relevant variables. This focusses the student on progress, while still allowing comparison when needed.

  • Asmat Ali added an answer:
    Why the governments do not understand the most effective way for social development is to increase their investment for education?

    Many of good examples in the world show that higher investment into education results higher development in society, just have a look on statistics of "The East Asian Tigers" or Scandinavian countries too. They have changed their attitudes toward education and they received its rewards.
    Tell me please, how many international studies governments need to change their education policy?

    Asmat Ali · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

     I believe, governments do well understand the importance of investment in education sector for socio-economic development.. But, it is a long term strategy and today's fragile political environment in most of such countries hampers to invest in sectors like education. Therefore, such governments prefer to gain short terms goals by immediately providing benefits  to the public, I think so.

  • Doreen Saidpace added an answer:
    What are the strengths (beneficial aspects) and weaknesses (negative aspects) of international educational assessments (e.g., PISA, TIMSS, etc.)?

    Sorry, this question is off.

    Doreen Saidpace · The University of Sheffield

    In Malta we had a barrage of initiatives as we performed badly in both PISA and TIMSS. It came out strongly that the country needs to work on higher order and thinking skills. Some teachers argue that it was not a fair measure as neither they nor the students were prepared for these types of tests. I argue do we need a test to uplift the current teaching pedagogies.

  • Mustafa Yilmaz added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Mustafa Yilmaz · University of Kansas

    I my thesis I am examining how the achievement gap between low, medium and high SES groups changed during the time in PISA, and what economic, political, and sociological factors have been determining these changes in each PISA attendant country. The final product of the statistical analysis of my research will be suggesting some country specific strategies educational policy makers needs to consider in each country. I have selected this topic for my thesis because I have been observing a continually increasing attention of policy makers and academics on PISA from many countries since I have started my PhD. From literature we know the pressure of effect PISA results has created in many European countries such as England and Germany, and it has spread to other countries like the US. It is not hard to oversee that OECD will continue shaping countries educational policies through the PISA at least for another decade not only because of the its success (even though this is still debatable in some countries), but also because of its intelligence in creating new measurement tools for countries educational success such as adult assessment program, and teaching and learning survey. Therefore, my presumption is that OECD and PISA will go on being the next thing in educational assessment, and probably  even in educational policies for countries one from another.

  • Hemanta K. Baruah added an answer:
    Is it a must to achieve a foreign degree for teaching foreigners studying at one's local/home institutions?
    Or its good enough to teach with a local degree, experience and skills?
    Hemanta K. Baruah · Bodoland University

    A degree should not possibly be graded with reference to countries. Not every institute of a country are of the same standard!

  • Ian Kennedy added an answer:
    Theses on research productivity other than bibliometric studies

    Can you please suggest topics / papers on research productivity other than quantitative studies for me to review literature

    Ian Kennedy · Independent Researcher

    Try giving the following to Google and also Scholar:

    "research productivity" -index

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    How do we as policy makers facilitate full access to secondary education while at the same time ensuring that quality of schooling is not compromised?
    As educational planners we should never allow goals of increasing access to over shadow the ultimate goal of individual student success. If investments in education are built on the premise that investing in human potential will lead to increased human value, greater productivity, and ultimately national development then the focus must be on ensuring that education meets each child where he or she is at (despite wide disparities in abilities, interests, and needs), and then seek to improve that child. This is the only way that we can ensure education contributes directly to development. The newly revised OECS Education Sector Strategy (OESS, 2012) seeks to address this shortcoming in emphasizing that the over arching theme for educational developments in the OECS region for 2012 - 2021 will be "Every Learner Succeeds."
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Again, the culture is the issue, and teachers are not the only ones at fault. It is an unfortunate consequence of a spevific set of circumstances born (possibly) of the self esteem movement and exacerbated by the elitist movement. So yes, I cam but agree that in many cases education misses the mark through good intent and bad decisions. Howeer, I don't think the solution is a swing towards a risky elitist approach. My research showed that a middle ground is possible, where rigour can coexist with personal growth, but it requires a paradigm shift, a big ask as we are aware. Perhaps in the States, because of the particular trajectory of your society through the self esteem movement vs elitism, a swing in the opposite direction may be needed to set the ball rolling. But that doesnt mean that one or other of the education paradigms (low demand low threat vs high demand high threat) is correct. Just that getting to the middle road of high demand low threat is difficult and needs constant attention.
  • Sajid Ahmed added an answer:
    Privatisation of education in India is a slow poison.
    With the educational sector going in to hands of polticians and business men, there is a possibility of class and caste war, and social disparity.
    Sajid Ahmed · Onward Tanning Tech
    Government Aided School is the better and best solution. Private and Govt Participation is the best way to kill material world of Privatization in Schools and Education. NGOs and Govt participation, Society and Govt participation, are the some of the way to get out from web of Business men and Politicians.
  • Monica Bhattacharjee added an answer:
    What are the Components of Quality Education?
    Some researchers think Quality Education is the target while some others think it is the means to reach the target/goal.
    Monica Bhattacharjee · Simon Fraser University
    Adding to that list:
    ~INtegrative learning, synthesizing different disciples so that students are able to draw better connections and understand how 'attention to detail' also corresponds with the bigger picture
    ~Fluency in multiple media; in order to understand how meaning is negotiated in context in authentic settings
    ~Ethical reasoning and responsibility
  • Is the European Dimension in Education a key concept for European Countries to promote peace?
    From its very beginning, the Council of Europe & the European Union had promoted an EDE (European Dimension in Education) that reinforces the European identity, interculturalism, citizenship, active and critical participation, etc. in search of greater socio-political and structural cohesion, which ultimately leads to an integration project whose main aim is keeping peace in Europe. Notwithstanding, the EDE should not be interpreted as a euro-nationalist attempt to overlook the national education, culture, society or identity of European countries, but to gather them within a diverse Europe as well as to prevent inflammable nationalist and xenophobs movements, which conceive education as a tool for ideological control and survival of their movements idiosyncrasy. Now, in the European context, is it the time to really include the EDE in educational policies?
    Alfonso Diestro Fernández · National Distance Education University
    Thanks for the answer Markus!
    Almost all the European countries never have trusting in the potential of the European Dimension in Education to build the integration process. European countries always wanted to keep their competences in education and progressively they forgot its responsibility with the building European process. Like Delors said; nobody falling in love with a big market...
    But now, the election's results of the Euro-parliament revealed the need to establish a supranational political process on education to prevent further spacing among European countries (north vs centric vs south). The new European Commission would have to promote the education as a shared common policy with a minimal frameworks in all the European educational systems (primary and secondary). In the recent history of the European educational policy there is a lot of normative documents (EU & COE rapports, resolutions, recommendations, etc.) that could seed a new collaboration in the supranational context in education. It would be positive to know and analyse how the European dimension have been integrated in the national educational systems and the success obtained.
    Finally, We dont must forget that the European process, the building of the new Europe, was born like a peace process. The education is a fundamental pillar of the European process. If the countries dont understand it, Europe only will be a big market.
    Best regards.
  • William C. Smith asked a question:
    What quantitative variables/approaches have been used to measure the marketization of education?
    Increasingly educational systems are turning to market practices to improve efficiency. I was wondering what quantitative variables have been used to measure the market environment in which these practices (i.e. school choice) take place? There seems to be a decent amount on higher education but I am interested primarily in primary/secondary education.
  • Adel Amer added an answer:
    To what extent is the quality approach in higher education a good or a wrong approach?
    What we gain and what we loose by adopting it?
    Adel Amer · Alexandria University and Taibah University
    Let me say that I have been working at different universities in two different parts of the world. Ones are highly dynamic and the others were until very recently highly static. Of course, quality approach in higher education is good for the latter. The latter started selecting benchmark from highly elite universities which have high output to civilization and societies' development , thanks for the internet which opened the gates to visit international universities' curriculum and management modules. So, we have the gaps narrowed between educational institutes thus serving to produce more qualified professionals to the world work market.
  • Adriana Gorga added an answer:
    What constitutes plagiarism in your opinion and practice?
    The debate on plagiarism is very lively, especially in the academic world. Is there a universally accepted definition of plagiarism? In practice, how is that plagiarism is treated: indulgeance or intransigence?
    Adriana Gorga · University of Lausanne
    But when you copies of your own texts, there is plagiarism or not?
  • Adriana Gorga added an answer:
    Do academic disciplines still exist nowadays? If not, why not, and if so, what are the most striking features?
    Today, we often talk about the weakening of the power of academic disciplines in the university following the strong rise of utilitarian thinking. To what extent is this observation true in your academic practices? How and in what ways have you observed it?
    Adriana Gorga · University of Lausanne
    I fail to understand: the University is not an institution? And the Senate it is one of its institutional units?
    What exactelly is the institution that prescribe social practices?
  • Mehwish Noor added an answer:
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    Mehwish Noor · University of Gujrat
    The same situation with different circumstances prevails in Pakistan as well. Pakistan is a multilingual country where the native speakers of its national language are about 7.5 % of the total population. Urdu (national language of Pakistan) enjoys a prestigious status after English here whilst other mother tongues are denounced to use in formal communication. The educated parents are avoiding to talk to their children at home in their mother tongue. Many Indo Aryan languages are at a serious threat by owing to this situation. Medium of instruction in public sector is mostly Urdu while in some Model schools it is English. In private sector the medium of instruction is English. Children in their schools are asked not to use their mother tongue in schools. Consequently, a negative attitude has been arisen towards languages other than English and Urdu (which are the official languages of Pakistan). The said situation also hinders children of rural areas to get n any of the education. Most of such learners leave their education due to poor language proficiency in both or any of the prestigious langugaes.
  • Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari added an answer:
    What is the impact of educational policy on a University?
    It shapes the direction of the University.
    Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari · Hashemite University
    Thank you Thomas for your question. In Jordan Higher education policy controlled by Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Also there is a strategic plan for higher education for public and private universities. But these policies and plans left some margins for each university to deal with.
  • Adriana Gorga asked a question:
    Why any romanian university is not in top 100 institutions of higher education ?
    "Higher education in Romania is less centralized than in many countries in the West, with every university having its own internal policies regarding admission, exams and conditions for graduation. With historically established universities in major cities such as Iași, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Târgu Mureș, Craiova, Romania's higher education institutions form a much looser network than in other European countries, albeit offering most of the qualifications sought after by today's high-school graduates."
  • William C. Smith asked a question:
    Can parent trigger laws increase parental voice and decrease the exit of the most involved parents?
    See our take using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework.
  • Qin Zhu added an answer:
    DO you know of papers or research on ethics in education?
    I'm taking a class on Ethics & Safety in Education. I am looking for articles or papers or research in this area.
    Qin Zhu · Purdue University
    This is probably too broad. Do you have a specific topic or if you want to know engineering ethics in a national context (e.g., U.S., China)?
  • Ellen F Weber added an answer:
    When you indicate that the teachers were trained can you explain what you mean i.e. teacher training or subject or both ?
    I am carrying out research regarding the skills and knowledge required to teach at level 4 −6 in a mixed programme which requires delivery of academic,vocational and practice based learning
    Ellen F Weber · St. John Fisher College
    Teachers I work with tell me they have few resources other than lectures that they feel can "cover curriculum," I developed brain based task cards that students can take to any lectures - and these active prompts help to transition teachers from talking or delivering to coaching and supporting innovative discoveries in class. It's fun when you take the leap -- but takes support until that time. Here's what I see as 100 reasons to run from lectures:-)

    Others likely have better reasons:-) Thoughts? Ellen
  • Angelo Melo asked a question:
    What level do you think pedagogic management is at in Europe's schools?
  • Hatem Maraqah added an answer:
    What is the biggest challenge facing higher education institution leaders today?
    I mean by "a leader of higher education institution" all of the faculty members who are working in the academic institution, with administrative position or not. You are facing different challenges; internal and external ones. From your perspective what is the biggest one?
    Hatem Maraqah · Hebron University
    The biggest challenge is the markest because you want to get very highly with the requirement of the market
  • Curtis Brewer asked a question:
    Are there studies that document educator voting behaviors in the USA, UK, or Australia?
    I would be interested in local and national elections.
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Are current assessment practices actually a source of inequity in education?
    Current mandated assessment practices seem to all be of the form where students are given a standard to describe performance at a point in time, ie A, B, C, D or E or similar. Results of my observations, interviews, action and other research over the last 13 years has led me to believe that this form of assessment and reporting actually mitigates against students who begin school with any form of deficit. Deficits can range from the more traditional cognitive and physical to psychological and social issues that plague students from indigenous and low socio-economic status backgrounds. Social deficits can be simple such as 'not being read to' as a child, to complex relationships with society at large. Research into indigenous school outcomes in Australia showed that not only do they begin school 'behind the 8 ball' but that their deficit widens through the years of schooling.
    My limited observations of a different form of assessment and reporting, that of a static continuum of standards though which students move during their schooling, indicates that this approach sends a different message to students, that success is defined as engagement and improvement and that effort is directly linked to success. The latter is critical because the approach does not seem to create the conditions where students feel dis-empowered because they 'fail' despite their best efforts.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Thanks Ellen, I agree that there are ways to design testing that are more equitable and you have described some issues. I think that the way results are reported on is a s7gnificant problem as well.
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    What are the different ways achievement can be reported on?
    Acknowledgement of achievement through some form of grading is a fundamental process in education. Many teachers hate it because they are aware that it has a significant impact on learner wellbeing. And yet, since the purported failure of Outcomes Based Education (and I disagree with this attribution in one important area) there has been no serious examination of the impact of different styles of reporting on students.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Tobias, I finally absorbed the last part of the response. 'How do we measure etc', maybe by giving meaningful/authentic problem based tasks to be completed over a period of time, that require a cognitive demand commensurate with the course demands. The lecturer/tutor collaborates with the students to solve the problem/complete the task. That way he/she knows the thought processes and approach of each student (annotating student work for later assessment is complicated but can be done). I mandate that students send me regular updates that I analyse, comment on etc. If uncertain, a student conference normally clears the mind. A series of questions that students respond to a-la RG could work for some courses.
    With reference the the valued attributes, I find it difficult to separate the different types of high level cognition you mention, so my strategy is to annotate work with reference to each when I am certain, and a generic higher order thinking reference when uncertain. Then I use these to make my final judgement. Low level aspects such as grammar, punctuation, correct referencing style etc do count, but not as much as the higher order thinking. I write down my criteria, then describe what i would expect to see for each criterion for each standard. I don't use any algorithm. In Queensland, Australia, 'most like' judgements on criteria have been shown to be successful for the last 30 years. In other words the student work is judged to be 'most like' a particular standard and can be justified if need be by reference to the standard descriptor.
  • Marianne Kant added an answer:
    Social innovation projects: has anyone been engaged in qualitative research for public policy?
    There seems to be a preference for quantitative research. I am interested in applying ethnographic methods to this area.
    Marianne Kant · European Federation of Psychologists Associations
    Please have a look at this website on the EU funded research project Includ-Ed
    Part of this project deals with characteristics of successful inclusive schools. The results are more than valuable for politicians to develop inclusive education.
  • Jakob Wandall added an answer:
    What will be the real impact of the PISA results for adults?
    The OECD study on the skills of adults, in 24 industrialized countries, has resulted in a report that provides a ranking of considerable interest to the educational systems of different countries. Those countries that have obtained lower ratings may take note of the score and make adjustments in their education systems. Or will they? What measures will be taken?
    Jakob Wandall · NordicMetrics
    A rank bring no real information - especially not in reading (due to differences in cultur and language the test scores are not measuring the same construct, see Kreiner, S., & Christensen, K. B., 2013, Analyses of Model Fit and Robustness. A New Look at the PISA Scaling Model Underlying Ranking of Countries According to Reading Literacy. Psychometrika, 1-22.). What is really interesting is the longitinal aspect. To the Danish sample (5000) have been all the praticipants of PISA2000 (now 27 yrs) and it has resulted in 1800 responses. It is planned to make an equating/linking exercise in order to identify a common PIAAC/PISA2000 scale. When this is done we are able to describe developement in litteracy and correlate this reading developement thru 12 yrs with career in education, Work and other aspects of life (we have very solid data on this in Denmark). By structural equation modelling and graphic models we will try to identify the causal relations. Now this might be interesting information for policy makers as well as researchers.
  • Vicente Chua Reyes added an answer:
    Does anyone know of studies related to evaluation of the public support programs (e.g. from structural funds) specifically in the field of education?
    Or have suggestions on the methods that could be used for such a evaluation.
    Vicente Chua Reyes · University of New England (Australia)
    Hi Miroslav,

    This is a very interesting and highly-relevant question. As someone who has also undertaken some research on evaluating public support programs specifically on education this is a question that I also constantly grapple with.Nowadays and particularly in most of the rapidly growing regions known as the "developing world" public support programs for education have sprouted. Several international multilateral agencies have commissioned independent reviewers to critique the evaluation of national public programs that these agencies support. One example of this would be the Independent Review of Aid Effectiveness commissioned by Australia Aid (AusAID). You can find their report (which provides a substantive discussion on education) from this site:

    Hope this information helps.

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Is there any research into the impacts of different forms of assessment and reporting on student sense of self efficacy and resilience?
    For 12 years now, I have been examining the psycho-social effects of different forms of assessment and reporting on students in middle school setting. The main differences seem to be between an A to E model where results are described as comparison against normative or generic performance, and a continuum model where results are described as movement through a static set of age or developmental standards such as reading levels.
    Most of my observations center around perceptions of success and failure by students, teachers and the wider community, and have links with psychological research into efficacy and resilience.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Prakash, I have been waiting for more responses so have delayed in asking this question, sorry!
    Can you direct me to any of the references you say exist so I can examine them please?

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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