Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Paul R. Carr added an answer:
    How can, and should, we measure the impact of the hegemony of research production and dissemination in English?

    I am wondering what is lost, neglected, omitted and/or diminished but the increasing insistence on publishing primarily or exclusively in English. Does this mean that researchers do not read in, engage with, and publish in other languages? My primary concern is the assumptions, hypotheses and contextual notions that are used, which privilege one language above all others. Similarly, I'm wondering if English-only speakers, or those doing research only in English, are willingly and unwillingly disregarding or underplaying other ways of thinking, other epistemologies, other insights, etc., simply because of the hegemony of language. Whenever I have presented in French and Spanish, I am always heartened and taken aback by the different types of questions, elaborations and approaches, and believe that the lack of engage in different languages and within different linguistic contexts may have a detrimental effect on the salience of the research. Of course, this is not a criticism of research that is produced in English, per se, but is more directly at the systemic underpinning of discounting other types of research. The socio-linguistic literature has raised some interesting concerns in this area. One specific case in point is the way that racism is discussed in different languages, including the theoretical, empirical, linguistic and vernacular expressions that frame the topic (it is quite different in English and French, for example). In sum, more engagement across linguistic, as would be the case in ethno-cultural, racial and other, lines would be a beneficial part, I believe, of any evolving social science research.

    Paul R. Carr · Université du Québec en Outaouais

    Hola Philipp y Carlos,

    Espero que no sea un problema de escribir un poco en español para decirles que aprecio mucho sus respuestas y también para notar que, como dice Philipp, es casi imposible de hacer estudios de área, como estudios latinos o hispánicos, sin entender y apreciar la lengua y el contexto sociolingüística, y también, como dice Carlos, que esta hegemonía lingüística resulta en un universalismo peligroso por la elaboración del conocimiento. Podría añadir que, como los EE.UU juega un papel muy importante en esta lucha hegemónica al nivel de la lengua, la ideología, la epistemología, la política y la economía de este pais de lengua inglesa se vuelve casi irresistible y sofocante para las otras lenguas y, con respecto de nuestra discusión, la gente de otras perspectivas y, claro, de otras lenguas.

    Saludos cordiales


  • Ijeoma Anumaka added an answer:
    What quantitative variables/approaches have been used to measure the marketization of education?
    Increasingly educational systems are turning to market practices to improve efficiency. I was wondering what quantitative variables have been used to measure the market environment in which these practices (i.e. school choice) take place? There seems to be a decent amount on higher education but I am interested primarily in primary/secondary education.
    Ijeoma Anumaka · Kampala International University (KIU)

    There are standardized rating scale for schools & colleges in most regions.The research unit in state or district has these ratings,they have to do with achievement levl of students,external efficiency,whcih can be measured if schools keep track of their alumini.External efficiency provided the best option for marketization and customer service in Education.So i suggest ,you develop a reseracher made tool using indicators of external efficiency which include labour market surveys for school leavers,Using COHORT METHOD.HOPE THERE IS AN INSIGHT HERE SIR 

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    In terms of educational system integration, how does the ASEAN strategy differ from that of the European Union?

    The ASEAN Integration 2015 compels member countries to align and harmonize their educational system with each other.  How will it affect an individual's preferred profession or career?  How much will be the financial burden of a country in relation to its capacity to pay, i.e., cost of schooling per capita?  What would be its expected impact to the culture and social standing of the population?  In what way will an educational system integration empower the people to make them active participants of political processes and governance?

    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Dear Gerry,

    Would you say that some countries are much further along in following ASEAN guidelines in education than others?  For example, let us say we would or could  compare all the ASEAN countries--which are the most often attempting to follow the guidelines in various fields

  • Marte Blikstad-Balas added an answer:
    In your country or region in the last 20 years, have schools offered courses focused on computing, computers, digital technologies or any equivalent?

    In Brazil it has never been offered a scholar curriculum focused on digital literacy as a National Educational Policy. This makes difficult for students and teachers achieve the benefits of use digital technologies in education. How the schools in your country have been faced this situation? and what are the nowadays tendencies of the schools in your country concerning the teaching digital technologies?

    Marte Blikstad-Balas · University of Oslo

    The key litterature on this issue from a Norwegian perspective would be:

    Erstad, Ola (2006). A new direction? Digital literacy, student participation and curriculum reform in Norway.. Education and Information Technologies : Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education. ISSN 1360-2357.

    My own research is mostly concerned with students' literacy practices in high school. For instance, I have done research about how students use their laptops during lessons (open access), see link below, how they use Wikipedia for school tasks (see link). Thus, my research points to some of the problems associated with Internet and computers in education.

    I would be delighted to read your paper! I do read portuguese quite well, but I am not able to write it in an academic variety myself :)

  • Mustafa Yilmaz added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Mustafa Yilmaz · University of Kansas

    Dear Dr. Johnson,

    (I have typed a longer version of my comment, but then my internet browser caused me loose it. Here is I wanted say with that comment in summary)

    First, I appreciate your valuable comment and recommendation, but respectfully I do not want to keep the discussion turning around the association between the failure/success of the US in international assessments and its economic achievements because I believe time will be a better judge in that concern. The only thing I want to add is that I DID READ Tienken's paper, and as you may have seen in my previous posting, I have a lot of question about the methodology specifically when I consider the strong opinion the author has at the end of the analysis even though I see the point he wants to make. I wanted to mention what I think about the research because I believe what PEOPLE THINK about a hypothesis or a study is the ONLY thing that MATTERS to establish and advance of way of thinking and making correct decisions about phenomenons. As I mentioned in my previous posting I understand the value of the Tienken's study and I accept it as a preliminary analysis for future studies, but the analysis does not take me to the point the paper intended to reach basically because it has too shallow statistical examination of the extremely complex relation between a country's educational outcome and its economic position. I have a lot more to discuss, but I do not want to be disrespectful to the main topic of the discussion question. That is why it is all I want to add now.



  • Yuk king Lau added an answer:
    Are we faced with an education emergency concerning homophobia at school? What is the role and function of teachers?

    The school setting is characterized by a long tradition of educational policies and legislations in support of differences and inclusion, but homosexuality is still a very thorny and controversial topic.
    School is the place wherein intolerance towards homosexuals grows and it develops: it is the context where homophobic behaviors can be expressed with greater ease and, especially, homophobic attitudes are pervasive and begin in the early school years.
    The most common attitude is the heteronormativity: denial and disestablishment of non-heterosexual behaviors.

    Yuk king Lau · The Chinese University of Hong Kong

    As a teacher, I teach my students in the undergraduate and post-graudate programme about the social construction of gender and gender ideologies including normality in gender role, sexuliaty and heterosexual marriage arrangement. I accept the diversity of personal values over sexuality and sexual orientation, however, i perceive that it is a teacher's role to equip student with more critical and reflexive perspective on the dominant ideologies on sexuality and sexual orientation that related to the homophobia.

    Yuk King Lau

    Professional Consultant

    Department of Social Work

    The Chinese University of Hong Kong  

  • Sandra Richards added an answer:
    What is Educational or Pupil Assessment, what is being assessed/measured and what does an "outstanding" assessment system look like?
    To what extent can effective assessment improve pupil performance?
    Sandra Richards · Excelsior Community College

    One must first of all make the distinction between assessment and measurement. Measurement is concerned with the development, administration, and scoring procedures use to gather data about students.   Assessment is the process of using the data gathered to make inferences about students/teachers/schools etc.

    What should be measured is the level of mastery a student has achieved of what is set out by the course syllabus. An "outstanding" measurement instrument gathers data that has a high level of validity and reliability. If, for example, student scores 90% on a test. The score would indicate that the student has achieved mastery of 90% of the syllabus content.  

    If the teacher had opted to teach other than what is on the syllabus, and set the test to measure what was taught, rather than what is on the syllabus, then the score would not be valid.

    Testing agencies have procedures in place to ensure validity and reliability in their scores.  Classroom teachers may not.  One good place to start may be to ensure content validity through the use of a properly constructed table of specification.

  • Palani Shanmugasundaram added an answer:
    Which country's National Educational Policy is the Best and Why?

    Education system of every nation is based on many committees' recommendation.Subsequently they frame and implement the "National Educational Policy" of their Nation. I  would like to know which country's National Educational Policy is the Best

    Palani Shanmugasundaram · Vels University

    Dear Sirs,

    I wish to thank one and all for their advisory answers to me.

    Dr. Shanmugasundaram P

  • Saqer Jabali added an answer:
    Social innovation projects: has anyone been engaged in qualitative research for public policy?
    There seems to be a preference for quantitative research. I am interested in applying ethnographic methods to this area.
    Saqer Jabali · An-Najah National University
  • Asmat Ali added an answer:
    Why the governments do not understand the most effective way for social development is to increase their investment for education?

    Many of good examples in the world show that higher investment into education results higher development in society, just have a look on statistics of "The East Asian Tigers" or Scandinavian countries too. They have changed their attitudes toward education and they received its rewards.
    Tell me please, how many international studies governments need to change their education policy?

    Asmat Ali · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

     I believe, governments do well understand the importance of investment in education sector for socio-economic development.. But, it is a long term strategy and today's fragile political environment in most of such countries hampers to invest in sectors like education. Therefore, such governments prefer to gain short terms goals by immediately providing benefits  to the public, I think so.

  • Doreen Saidpace added an answer:
    What are the strengths (beneficial aspects) and weaknesses (negative aspects) of international educational assessments (e.g., PISA, TIMSS, etc.)?

    Sorry, this question is off.

    Doreen Saidpace · The University of Sheffield

    In Malta we had a barrage of initiatives as we performed badly in both PISA and TIMSS. It came out strongly that the country needs to work on higher order and thinking skills. Some teachers argue that it was not a fair measure as neither they nor the students were prepared for these types of tests. I argue do we need a test to uplift the current teaching pedagogies.

  • Hemanta K. Baruah added an answer:
    Is it a must to achieve a foreign degree for teaching foreigners studying at one's local/home institutions?
    Or its good enough to teach with a local degree, experience and skills?
    Hemanta K. Baruah · Bodoland University

    A degree should not possibly be graded with reference to countries. Not every institute of a country are of the same standard!

  • Ian Kennedy added an answer:
    Theses on research productivity other than bibliometric studies

    Can you please suggest topics / papers on research productivity other than quantitative studies for me to review literature

    Ian Kennedy · Independent Researcher

    Try giving the following to Google and also Scholar:

    "research productivity" -index

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    How do we as policy makers facilitate full access to secondary education while at the same time ensuring that quality of schooling is not compromised?
    As educational planners we should never allow goals of increasing access to over shadow the ultimate goal of individual student success. If investments in education are built on the premise that investing in human potential will lead to increased human value, greater productivity, and ultimately national development then the focus must be on ensuring that education meets each child where he or she is at (despite wide disparities in abilities, interests, and needs), and then seek to improve that child. This is the only way that we can ensure education contributes directly to development. The newly revised OECS Education Sector Strategy (OESS, 2012) seeks to address this shortcoming in emphasizing that the over arching theme for educational developments in the OECS region for 2012 - 2021 will be "Every Learner Succeeds."
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Again, the culture is the issue, and teachers are not the only ones at fault. It is an unfortunate consequence of a spevific set of circumstances born (possibly) of the self esteem movement and exacerbated by the elitist movement. So yes, I cam but agree that in many cases education misses the mark through good intent and bad decisions. Howeer, I don't think the solution is a swing towards a risky elitist approach. My research showed that a middle ground is possible, where rigour can coexist with personal growth, but it requires a paradigm shift, a big ask as we are aware. Perhaps in the States, because of the particular trajectory of your society through the self esteem movement vs elitism, a swing in the opposite direction may be needed to set the ball rolling. But that doesnt mean that one or other of the education paradigms (low demand low threat vs high demand high threat) is correct. Just that getting to the middle road of high demand low threat is difficult and needs constant attention.
  • Sajid Ahmed added an answer:
    Privatisation of education in India is a slow poison.
    With the educational sector going in to hands of polticians and business men, there is a possibility of class and caste war, and social disparity.
    Sajid Ahmed · Onward Tanning Tech
    Government Aided School is the better and best solution. Private and Govt Participation is the best way to kill material world of Privatization in Schools and Education. NGOs and Govt participation, Society and Govt participation, are the some of the way to get out from web of Business men and Politicians.
  • Monica Bhattacharjee added an answer:
    What are the Components of Quality Education?
    Some researchers think Quality Education is the target while some others think it is the means to reach the target/goal.
    Monica Bhattacharjee · Simon Fraser University
    Adding to that list:
    ~INtegrative learning, synthesizing different disciples so that students are able to draw better connections and understand how 'attention to detail' also corresponds with the bigger picture
    ~Fluency in multiple media; in order to understand how meaning is negotiated in context in authentic settings
    ~Ethical reasoning and responsibility
  • Is the European Dimension in Education a key concept for European Countries to promote peace?
    From its very beginning, the Council of Europe & the European Union had promoted an EDE (European Dimension in Education) that reinforces the European identity, interculturalism, citizenship, active and critical participation, etc. in search of greater socio-political and structural cohesion, which ultimately leads to an integration project whose main aim is keeping peace in Europe. Notwithstanding, the EDE should not be interpreted as a euro-nationalist attempt to overlook the national education, culture, society or identity of European countries, but to gather them within a diverse Europe as well as to prevent inflammable nationalist and xenophobs movements, which conceive education as a tool for ideological control and survival of their movements idiosyncrasy. Now, in the European context, is it the time to really include the EDE in educational policies?
    Alfonso Diestro Fernández · National Distance Education University
    Thanks for the answer Markus!
    Almost all the European countries never have trusting in the potential of the European Dimension in Education to build the integration process. European countries always wanted to keep their competences in education and progressively they forgot its responsibility with the building European process. Like Delors said; nobody falling in love with a big market...
    But now, the election's results of the Euro-parliament revealed the need to establish a supranational political process on education to prevent further spacing among European countries (north vs centric vs south). The new European Commission would have to promote the education as a shared common policy with a minimal frameworks in all the European educational systems (primary and secondary). In the recent history of the European educational policy there is a lot of normative documents (EU & COE rapports, resolutions, recommendations, etc.) that could seed a new collaboration in the supranational context in education. It would be positive to know and analyse how the European dimension have been integrated in the national educational systems and the success obtained.
    Finally, We dont must forget that the European process, the building of the new Europe, was born like a peace process. The education is a fundamental pillar of the European process. If the countries dont understand it, Europe only will be a big market.
    Best regards.
  • Adel Amer added an answer:
    To what extent is the quality approach in higher education a good or a wrong approach?
    What we gain and what we loose by adopting it?
    Adel Amer · Alexandria University and Taibah University
    Let me say that I have been working at different universities in two different parts of the world. Ones are highly dynamic and the others were until very recently highly static. Of course, quality approach in higher education is good for the latter. The latter started selecting benchmark from highly elite universities which have high output to civilization and societies' development , thanks for the internet which opened the gates to visit international universities' curriculum and management modules. So, we have the gaps narrowed between educational institutes thus serving to produce more qualified professionals to the world work market.
  • Adriana Gorga added an answer:
    What constitutes plagiarism in your opinion and practice?
    The debate on plagiarism is very lively, especially in the academic world. Is there a universally accepted definition of plagiarism? In practice, how is that plagiarism is treated: indulgeance or intransigence?
    Adriana Gorga · University of Lausanne
    But when you copies of your own texts, there is plagiarism or not?
  • Adriana Gorga added an answer:
    Do academic disciplines still exist nowadays? If not, why not, and if so, what are the most striking features?
    Today, we often talk about the weakening of the power of academic disciplines in the university following the strong rise of utilitarian thinking. To what extent is this observation true in your academic practices? How and in what ways have you observed it?
    Adriana Gorga · University of Lausanne
    I fail to understand: the University is not an institution? And the Senate it is one of its institutional units?
    What exactelly is the institution that prescribe social practices?
  • Mehwish Noor added an answer:
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    Mehwish Noor · University of Gujrat
    The same situation with different circumstances prevails in Pakistan as well. Pakistan is a multilingual country where the native speakers of its national language are about 7.5 % of the total population. Urdu (national language of Pakistan) enjoys a prestigious status after English here whilst other mother tongues are denounced to use in formal communication. The educated parents are avoiding to talk to their children at home in their mother tongue. Many Indo Aryan languages are at a serious threat by owing to this situation. Medium of instruction in public sector is mostly Urdu while in some Model schools it is English. In private sector the medium of instruction is English. Children in their schools are asked not to use their mother tongue in schools. Consequently, a negative attitude has been arisen towards languages other than English and Urdu (which are the official languages of Pakistan). The said situation also hinders children of rural areas to get n any of the education. Most of such learners leave their education due to poor language proficiency in both or any of the prestigious langugaes.
  • Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari added an answer:
    What is the impact of educational policy on a University?
    It shapes the direction of the University.
    Aieman Ahmad Al-Omari · Hashemite University
    Thank you Thomas for your question. In Jordan Higher education policy controlled by Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Also there is a strategic plan for higher education for public and private universities. But these policies and plans left some margins for each university to deal with.
  • Adriana Gorga asked a question:
    Why any romanian university is not in top 100 institutions of higher education ?
    "Higher education in Romania is less centralized than in many countries in the West, with every university having its own internal policies regarding admission, exams and conditions for graduation. With historically established universities in major cities such as Iași, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Târgu Mureș, Craiova, Romania's higher education institutions form a much looser network than in other European countries, albeit offering most of the qualifications sought after by today's high-school graduates."
  • William C. Smith asked a question:
    Can parent trigger laws increase parental voice and decrease the exit of the most involved parents?
    See our take using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework.
  • Qin Zhu added an answer:
    DO you know of papers or research on ethics in education?
    I'm taking a class on Ethics & Safety in Education. I am looking for articles or papers or research in this area.
    Qin Zhu · Purdue University
    This is probably too broad. Do you have a specific topic or if you want to know engineering ethics in a national context (e.g., U.S., China)?
  • Ellen F Weber added an answer:
    When you indicate that the teachers were trained can you explain what you mean i.e. teacher training or subject or both ?
    I am carrying out research regarding the skills and knowledge required to teach at level 4 −6 in a mixed programme which requires delivery of academic,vocational and practice based learning
    Ellen F Weber · St. John Fisher College
    Teachers I work with tell me they have few resources other than lectures that they feel can "cover curriculum," I developed brain based task cards that students can take to any lectures - and these active prompts help to transition teachers from talking or delivering to coaching and supporting innovative discoveries in class. It's fun when you take the leap -- but takes support until that time. Here's what I see as 100 reasons to run from lectures:-)

    Others likely have better reasons:-) Thoughts? Ellen
  • Angelo Melo asked a question:
    What level do you think pedagogic management is at in Europe's schools?
  • Hatem Maraqah added an answer:
    What is the biggest challenge facing higher education institution leaders today?
    I mean by "a leader of higher education institution" all of the faculty members who are working in the academic institution, with administrative position or not. You are facing different challenges; internal and external ones. From your perspective what is the biggest one?
    Hatem Maraqah · Hebron University
    The biggest challenge is the markest because you want to get very highly with the requirement of the market
  • Curtis Brewer asked a question:
    Are there studies that document educator voting behaviors in the USA, UK, or Australia?
    I would be interested in local and national elections.

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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