Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Michael Streifinger added an answer:
    E-learning contra man-guided education?

    E-learning is known as a very good and important instrument in the educational process. But: The role of a teacher will be reduced here to an assisting adviser.The pioneering study of John Hattie (Visible Learning. London, New York 2009) shows, that the personal influence in the educational sight is one of the most important factors of the educational process at all, before all the other influencing conditions in the interdependencies of teaching and learning.
    The success of an educational process results by the efficiency of learning (that means: a good quote of reproduction and a sustainable knowledge) and depends from both motivation and successfully reproduction. The teacher has to teach on the base of a good theoretic knowledge (i.m. cognitive competency) using some age-adapted methods (methodical competency) with an intensive engagement in the interactive cooperation and communication with his students (social competency).
    As a demand you can deduct: A good knowledge of the topics, a good transformation by age-adapted methods and a feeling for the cognitive capacity of the students and their questions round about their whole education situation are the best acquired needs for a good teacher.
    So it seems to be a problem, when an education policy reduces the number of teachers with the argument: E-learning may effect the same success by the students like a teacher.
    So you have to consider carefully: What is better: E-Learning or a learning under traditional conditions?

    Michael Streifinger

    Dear all,

    due to changing educational and educationary processes within all sorts of different school systems on a large scale, the quest for modern teaching methods has just begun. There is no doubt that  media-based triggers like e-learning will of course motivate "new-age" pupils and students more than a straight forward teacher's monologue. However, it must not be forgotten that  teaching nowadays implies an almost unlimited , flexible variety  of different tools, skills, and expert views, depending on classroom atmosphere, conditions and intentions. As a consequence, teachers will certainly not give up their position of being human guides in a technocratic world. In my eyes, their position will even be strengthened! 

    Best regards,


  • José Luis García Vigil added an answer:
    Do you know positive examples where evidence-based education policies have functioned?

    I´m very sceptical about the often propagadet promises of the empirical education research providing evidences, which can be transformed in fruitful developments in education policies.

    My opinion is, that most of the found evidences in studies cannot be generalized for the purpose of politicians.

    At the other side many researchers do not articulate their findings clearly enough for the public and policy or avoid drawing strong conclusions what the found evidences really mean.

    Second, politicians often ignore obvious evidences because they contradict against their ideologies or they pick out only parts of the findings, which they can use for their existing opinions and strategies.

    The empirical findings concerning the negative influences of the selective german school system with the different school types on the achievement of social disadvantaged students are a typical example for ignoring evidences by education policy, especially in Bavaria.

    I´m interesting what are your experiences and opinions about the question: Is evidence based education only an illusion?

    José Luis García Vigil

    The evidence derived from social and legal sciences in particular (Law)

    In medicine it has become operational and carried the designs and methodologies in clinical research, new drug research, epidemiological research and health systems.

    In medical education (training of general practitioners and medical specialists) have developed research models where interventions are the strategies, methods and teaching techniques to enhance and promote learning and evaluate curriculum, study plans and programs, in addition to the academic performance Classroom (operational educational research, action research)

    To operationalize and measure qualitative or categorical variable (as often happens in the field of education), becomes an evidence that can be traced from that one study is designed, when the protocol is initiated and implemented the hypothesis testing in the field (cynical, classroom, community), to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, methods, techniques and tools to measure and assess the development and modification of educational activities.

    Sure you can implement in micro or macro (part of a system or complete system) eg in groups of medical students during their training in the health sector, clinical fields (clinics, hospitals), both in the community (villages sectors targeted population), such as schools or medical schools.

    You can also perform basic research (educational system institutions, health sectors, health or national) to support health policies that improve or correct the current course true or educational paradigm for physicians and other professionals in the health sciences ).

  • Laurie Calvert added an answer:
    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    Laurie Calvert


    Thank you for your response. I'd love to talk with you sometime about your views on the subject. I'm working on a policy white paper on the subject.

    Laurie Calvert

  • Jerrid W Kruse added an answer:
    What changes in education policy related to technology do you think are necessary to fully embrace its potential for learning?

    In the US at least - we are somewhat hampered by policy related mandates on what should be taught and how it should be taught and assessed. This inhibits the integration of technology for many of the high impact practices that theory would lead us to believe will make a large difference in student learning. What changes do you think need to be put in place to change the current architecture in such a way to afford better technology-mediated/integrated learning? I would love to hear not just about changes to US policy - but also policies that other countries have put in place that are making a difference with respect to the use of technology in the classroom.

    Jerrid W Kruse

    Perceptions must change, not policy. Policy does not dictate how content should be taught, but does dictate what should be taught. At the building level, policy needs to be less about buying new tech & making teachers use it & more about encouraging teacher exploration. 

  • Miranda Yeoh added an answer:
    How would you formulate, or modify, education objectives of your community/country to meet the needs of a plural, multicultural, global society?

    Can we have an education system that prepares young minds to be TOLERANT of other cultures and religions?  Can we have an education system that teaches our young people to ACCEPT DIFFERENCES?  

    When I searched for papers on changes in education policies, this was the best match, but it’s just an abstract.  (I have asked for the full text.)

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Neoliberal education policies have altered the operational environments of schools and affected school principals' job descriptions and requirements. As a result of managerialism, decentralisation and marketisation of education, principals are increasingly responsible for profitably, marketing and striving in competition, in addition to their role as pedagogical leaders. In this study, the opinions and views of European principals on the changes in the governing of education, relevance of education, educational transitions and different factors affecting coping with the demands of education are analyzed. The views of the principals do not consistently reflect the structures of the national education systems. Questions related to educational equality highlighted the clearest differences. The more unequal the education system, the more important supporting the students in the weakest positions is to the principals.
      Compare 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/03057925.2015.1086631
    Miranda Yeoh

    Wonderful dear Ljubomir!  I will get through it and learn many things from it to share with you soon.  Let me improve my own paper first :)

  • Igor Babou added an answer:
    Are there similar instances in history where social sciences and humanities were successfuly abolished by the state?

    Recently this year, Japanese Universities are supposed to start scaling back/abolish social science, humanities, and law courses due to intervention from its Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

    My questions specifically are:
    Have there been instances wherein states were able to succcessfully abolish social sciences and humanities from education and pedagogy? Success may be in terms of actual nationwide implementation for the intended schools/universities, even for short periods of time.
    And, how successful were they in terms of achieving its intended goal?
    i.e. in Japan it is supposed to "serve areas that better meet society’s needs", focus and increased productivity on engineering, science, etc.


    Igor Babou

    "Would you say that the fate of French universities was already sealed in the 19th century?"

    I think there are two aspects to bear in mind. First, since its foundation in the early 12th century, the university has always been fighting against all types of power to insure its relative independence. Second, between the 19th and the end of 20th century, there was the may 68 event, the transformation of French university (with new laws ending - or nearly - with the old system of "mandarins"), and the emergence of the French critical theory (Foucault, Sartre, Bourdieu, Barthes, etc.). I think the convergence of those three factors strongly shaped the image of the French university for its actors, for the politicians, and for the general public: the idea of its independence from economical and political powers has been strongly rooted in our minds and practices (even if, sometimes, it can be seen as a sort of foundation myth). That's why I don't think the Napoleonic origin of our institution (and not of the university per se) was such an important thing in our cultural and academic history.

  • Jae Park added an answer:
    In what ways can the Reggio Emilia Approach inform U. S. classrooms ?

    In respect to the Reggio Emilia Approach as a product of Italy and the professionals who have worked so hard to provide such an informative model for the rest of the world.

    U. S. schools continue to utilize teacher-directed, highly structured, and assessment-oriented instruction, even for very young children. 

    How can we seek more balance in our classrooms? Through strategies demonstrated by the Reggio Emilia Municipal Schools that more child-directed learning, in-depth project work, larger chunks of time for children to explore and ask questions, have parents become more integral in our classrooms, and come to value the learning process more than the final product or outcome?

    Jae Park

    I read about it while doing my doctoral studies. I remember that the original idea was systematic efforts to reconstruct education of an Italian region during the post-war period. 

    In the US, there have been new initiatives. For example, this one is not the R. Emilia but it has similar features:

    Berger, R. (2003). An ethic of excellence : building a culture of craftsmanship with students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    The book is a must, in my view

  • S G Deshmukh added an answer:
    How can we regain and sustain mentorship in academia?

    The non professionals ad para-professionals are taking the field of play.By non professional  I mean those who resorted to academia because they could not find their level in the field they originally chose and chose academia as second choice.Business world is characterised by snake- swallow -snake,the academia is a mentor-ship game.This characteristics is fast fading away in academia.

    S G Deshmukh

    A strong sense of nurturing must prevail. Technology can aid in mentoring. Mentoring is a must , especially for young faculty.

    They need to be slowly but steadily introduced to the culture of the workplace and the traditions. Today's generation of faculty  , at times, is patient. I had a senior faculty who used to attend my classes and I also used to attend his classes. Then we used to exchange notes which helped me improve .

  • Todd Eistetter added an answer:
    Do you know of a relationship between agency theory and K-12 principal evaluations?

    Agency theory seems to have been incorporated into the education reformation in New Zealand schools from several years ago and to some degree in the UK.  I am experiencing challenges determining its use in other countries, particularly in Canada where I am. 

    Todd Eistetter

    Thanks again Paul...the link worked.

  • Victoria Blue added an answer:
    Are there any cases of judgements by law courts which affect curriculum matters (English language or more generally)?

    I am currently writing a paper together with an Indonesian colleague which discusses a case in which the Constitutional Court of Indonesia banned a school programme which had CLIL-like characteristics (CLIL = content and language integrated learning). Is anyone aware of other cases anywhere in the world where LAW COURTS (not legislators in parliaments) made decisions which impacted on education policy and practice, particularly in relation to curriculum? Our interest is not restricted only to the teaching of English. Thank you.

    Victoria Blue

    Hello Hywel,

    Below are several links to the ongoing issue of the Mexican American Studies Program in Tucson, Arizona. USA.  Yes, it is in the courts because the ban was made into law.  The constitutionality of it is being challenged.  I'm not sure if this issue (that began several years ago) is relevant to your research but sending it along.  There is much to discover about the situation including a documentary,  banned books, and an independent audit.



  • Edward-R ONeill added an answer:
    How can we measure the quality of collaborative skill for teacher team?

    We aware that "Communication and Collaboration" is a key skill for 21st century education. I would like to know is there any tool or measurement to test collaborative skill level or quality

    Edward-R ONeill

    Thanks to those who posted links. They were very helpful!

  • Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada added an answer:
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: For the remainder of Volume 23, the Critical Issues section of JLR will be devoted to a discussion of literacy and educational policy. A survey of our editorial advisory board indicated that this topic was one of the critical issues facing the field. Likewise, a survey of the entire membership of the NRC, JLR's sponsoring organization, indicated that members hold strong feelings about whether the organization should “become more proactive on policy issues” (NRC Newsletter, Sept., 1995, p. 10). To further a dialogue about literacy and educational policy, we began by inviting three literacy researchers with diverse perspectives to address the topic of literacy and educational policy (Judith Green, who writes here with her colleague Carol Dixon, P. David Pearson, and Sharon Quint). We asked them to comment on the ideas they believe to be most crucial for policymakers to know about literacy. We also invited Donna Alvermann to read and to react to the three responses. Those familiar with the field will immediately surmise that these individuals represent not only diverse perspectives on literacy research, but that they are imminently qualified to reflect on what implications their research perspectives have for educational policy. Their responses are published here as Part 1 of a three-part series.For the next two issues of JLR, we have invited several individuals who have played a key role in developing and implementing state and national agenda for educational policy to respond to the literacy researchers' views. In addition, because any discussion of literacy and educational policy must eventually attend to the issue of poverty and the socially disadvantaged, we have invited Patrick Shannon to comment on how this issue relates to literacy research.We hope that this series of “Critical Issues” pieces will stimulate increased dialogue about educational policy among researchers interested in literacy and between researchers and policymakers. Toward that end, we encourage readers to ponder the perspectives and ideas presented in this series and to add their own insights by submitting letters to the editor, which will be considered for future publication.
      Journal of Literacy Research 06/1996; 28(2):289-301. DOI:10.1080/10862969609547922
    Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada

    the problem of illiteracy in India which houses the largest number of the world’s 771 million illiterates.

  • Melanie Brand added an answer:
    Can anyone give references for studies/papers related to opinion leadership in (inter)cultural communication?

    I'm searching for recent studies in the field of international/intercultural communication related to the opinion leadership concept or similar papers (educational policy, gatekeeper etc.)

    Melanie Brand

    Thank you all for helping me out!

  • Ropate Qalo added an answer:
    Should we re-frame our education system or just continue with conventional way?

    Our education system is going on in traditional way, as it served us in the past but is no more effective in the present, when knowledge is freely available through the internet and can be accessed just by click, when most thinkers acknowledge that present education system kills the creativity of children etc etc, what should we follow next?

    Ropate Qalo

    Conventional education of the 3Rs and computer literacy will always be basic but taught or disseminated capturing students' interest and passion. What will be new is questioning and answering from a pool of knowledge provided by books and the web. Re-framing the system is basically to dominate learning by allowing questions by students that will be answered by their peer through thoughts that connects knowledge to a logical end at high school level. Of course supervised by qualified people. To do that efficiently in a large scale will be the aim and the challenge of a new system. 

  • Michael Marston added an answer:
    How can we measure teacher`s efficiency?

    I new some variables to include in measuring teacher efficiency.

    Michael Marston

    Very true, which means interpreting teaching evaluations much be done with considerable care and awareness of context and limitations...

  • Jestin Mandumpal added an answer:
    Can you recommend any references which discuss the future of education in developing countries (such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and African countries)?

    I'm looking for references which discuss future of education in countries where lack of education funding is connected to the poor standard of living. I'm curious about how could the circle of poor standard of living and low quality education be resolved in the future or what are generally the possible scenarios in the future for such countries in terms of education and standard of living.

    Jestin Mandumpal

    Ziauddin Zardar's Introducing Philosophy of Science, a graphic guide might give you the background reading as to how one would approach this issue. This book provides some background information regarding the nature of knowledge from different theoretical perspectives. He correlates the imbalance in scientific development to lack of public participation. In the countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh the system of democracy is in infancy, let alone active public participation in science. Interestingly he mentions about Science shop which was first instituted in the Netherlands that helped the country to popularize science and harness science for the sake of betterment of society. 

    This book is not expensive,  very small and contains numerous illustrations.

  • Frank Emmert added an answer:
    Is anyone out there a specialist in legal issues dealing with non-profit (501c3) organizations in the United States?
    I need some guidance in looking up laws and legal cases.
    Frank Emmert

    The Council on International Law and Policy published a book by Joseph Miller in 2013: "Changing Our Approach to Changing the World - Encouraging and Enhancing American Engagement in International Philanthropy Through Tax Law Reform". Miller analyzes the problem in significant detail. The book is available from Amazon for about $28.

    For a purely domestic context, I would recommend the Nolo Series, in particular Anthony Mancuso, How to Form a Nonprofit Corporation, 11th ed 2013. This one sells for about $35 on Amazon.

  • Siddhartha Shankar Ray added an answer:
    How can, and should, we measure the impact of the hegemony of research production and dissemination in English?

    I am wondering what is lost, neglected, omitted and/or diminished but the increasing insistence on publishing primarily or exclusively in English. Does this mean that researchers do not read in, engage with, and publish in other languages? My primary concern is the assumptions, hypotheses and contextual notions that are used, which privilege one language above all others. Similarly, I'm wondering if English-only speakers, or those doing research only in English, are willingly and unwillingly disregarding or underplaying other ways of thinking, other epistemologies, other insights, etc., simply because of the hegemony of language. Whenever I have presented in French and Spanish, I am always heartened and taken aback by the different types of questions, elaborations and approaches, and believe that the lack of engage in different languages and within different linguistic contexts may have a detrimental effect on the salience of the research. Of course, this is not a criticism of research that is produced in English, per se, but is more directly at the systemic underpinning of discounting other types of research. The socio-linguistic literature has raised some interesting concerns in this area. One specific case in point is the way that racism is discussed in different languages, including the theoretical, empirical, linguistic and vernacular expressions that frame the topic (it is quite different in English and French, for example). In sum, more engagement across linguistic, as would be the case in ethno-cultural, racial and other, lines would be a beneficial part, I believe, of any evolving social science research.

    Siddhartha Shankar Ray

    Dear Dr. Joseph Grissom,

    Thanks for your comments about  quality of articles in languages other than English. As far as I can recall, in his famous Current Comments which used to be published in the weekly Current Contents Dr. Eugene Garfield has written in the August 15,  1985 issue about Third World Research Part-I some what the same thing as yours!!

    In those days, a significant number of high quality articles used to be published in Russian Languages in the then USSR and also in Japanese & German languages. High quality French  articles are regularly being published in journals like Population & Development Review. indeed there are a couple of 'Rich' languages other than English. One can find  several 'World Class' articles in Spanish/Portuguese language journals of Central American Countries. Still, admittedly, their 'global visibility' are significantly low than those in English. Your approach for re-introduction of cultural pluralism is quite commendable but it requires ways and means for researchers in other parts of the world to learn and understand these languages. And as I personally feel, it seems to be rather difficult for a practicing Science researcher in a matured age.

  • Apostolia Matziouri added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest links, sources, articles connecting sexism and school leadership?

    I suppose there must be some kind of mechanisms, racism or whatever that discourages women from vindicating a post in school leadership and explains the very low percentages of women school leaders in the educational system.

    Apostolia Matziouri


  • Peak E Ong added an answer:
    Does instruction offered in English motivate students to continue their education abroad?

    There is a discussion about EMI and students' choices of studying in the United States. Is there a correlation between using English as a language of instruction in primary/secondary education and the number of students who choose to continue their education abroad (English-speaking countries)?

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic content is provided through the medium of English after a preparatory year, (2) English aided instruction (EAI), in which Turkish is used for lectures and English for exams and materials such as books and articles with the support of preparatory and post preparatory English courses, and (3) Turkish medium instruction (TMI), in which Turkish is used in all of the academic areas supported with preparatory and post preparatory English courses. The research was conducted in the Faculties of Economics and Administrative Sciences of three universities which used these approaches. The student and lecturer data concerning their perceptions of the use of English in the different faculty/language of instruction combinations were mainly collected by means of questionnaires and interviews in the 2003–2004 academic year. The population for this research consisted of 527 fourth-year students and 87 teaching staff. Although EMI is found to be the most effective of all in terms of language skill development, none of the approaches is considered to be sufficient and efficient to teach English alongside academic content. And, it is also considered that EMI fails to provide the academic content effectively.
      System 06/2008; 36(2-36):156-171. DOI:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.006
    Peak E Ong

    Do not think this is a big academic question, given China, one of the richest nations and with many millionaires and multimillianaires, their priority is having their children overseas to show they are above others.  The expensive tuition fees and living needs mean most probably, children of those who can afford will go overseas. There are tallent children with less fortunate background can be very much more intellengent compared to their rich friends, carry on with life at home and no bother with English language.

  • Craig Wood added an answer:
    Are there studies that document educator voting behaviors in the USA, UK, or Australia?
    I would be interested in local and national elections.
    Craig Wood

    Have you read some of David Henderson's work on teachers in Texas?

  • Tom Maxwell added an answer:
    What type of research methodology is suitable to study the experiences of science teachers at secondary level?

    Science Teacher Educators, Policy researchers, Science Teacher Leaders

    Tom Maxwell

    To follow up again.  While mixed methodology is a strong general response to this issue the key is to clearly articulate the research question(s) and then think about design and methodology.

  • Carlinda Leite added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Carlinda Leite

    In Portugal the Pisa’s results and the place in the ranking has a huge impact. On the other hand, the Pisa report has a strong influence in curricular policies and in the schools work

  • Michael Marston added an answer:
    Can anyone comment on the intersection of student evaluation and NPM ?

    I am interested in seeing to what extent, if any, attitudes to the student evaluation of teaching even if purportedly for formative purposes are influenced by academics' attitudes to the new public management

    Michael Marston

    Many thanks Krishnan, it's a very interesting article indeed.

  • Erez Grinboim added an answer:
    What should be recognized as the most suitable Post-MDG (millennium development goals) indicators for measuring progress in health and education?
    MDG indicators are often criticized because they focus too much on access and put less importance on quality. Measuring quality is of course difficult and more so compared across countries, but we need to move forward. For example, enrollment in primary education barely tells the whole story, so what is the ideal indicator that captures the quality of basic education?
    Erez Grinboim

    Dear Sudipta Mondal

    One of the best indicators for measuring progress in both health and education is Well-Being. Recent researches shows that the Well Being of a person strengthens the immunity system and abilities to overcome difficulties. Therefore, I would propose Well-Being as an excellent – even though oblique Post-MDG indicator. Coming from my studies of the 5 natural human intelligences, here are five indirect & somewhat surprising dimensions that can be employed in measuring a person’s Well-Being: 1. Creative and regenerative abilities. 2. Leadership and Emotional Management abilities. 3. Clarity of mind and ability to uphold one’s Principles. 4. Self-confidence and practical application abilities. 5. The Charisma of one’s own knowledge of themselves and what they know.

  • Bobby Waring added an answer:
    What is Educational or Pupil Assessment, what is being assessed/measured and what does an "outstanding" assessment system look like?
    To what extent can effective assessment improve pupil performance?
    Bobby Waring

    Not quite a revolt in the UK, however, we are British of course ;)

  • Jess Gregory added an answer:
    What quantitative variables/approaches have been used to measure the marketization of education?
    Increasingly educational systems are turning to market practices to improve efficiency. I was wondering what quantitative variables have been used to measure the market environment in which these practices (i.e. school choice) take place? There seems to be a decent amount on higher education but I am interested primarily in primary/secondary education.

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

Topic followers (21,424) See all