Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Olivier Serrat added an answer:
    What changes in education policy related to technology do you think are necessary to fully embrace its potential for learning?

    In the US at least - we are somewhat hampered by policy related mandates on what should be taught and how it should be taught and assessed. This inhibits the integration of technology for many of the high impact practices that theory would lead us to believe will make a large difference in student learning. What changes do you think need to be put in place to change the current architecture in such a way to afford better technology-mediated/integrated learning? I would love to hear not just about changes to US policy - but also policies that other countries have put in place that are making a difference with respect to the use of technology in the classroom.

    Olivier Serrat

    UNESCO offers helpful guidance on many policy aspects of ICT in education. This includes (i) Transforming Education: The Power of ICT Policies, dated 2011 and available at; (ii) the evolving ICT in Education Policy Makers' Toolkit, information on which is at; and, moving forward, (iii) material related to the International Conference on ICT and Post-2015 Education, available at

  • Todd Eistetter added an answer:
    Do you know of a relationship between agency theory and K-12 principal evaluations?

    Agency theory seems to have been incorporated into the education reformation in New Zealand schools from several years ago and to some degree in the UK.  I am experiencing challenges determining its use in other countries, particularly in Canada where I am. 

    Todd Eistetter

    Thanks again Paul...the link worked.

  • Maria Hamilton added an answer:
    How can we regain and sustain mentorship in academia?

    The non professionals ad para-professionals are taking the field of play.By non professional  I mean those who resorted to academia because they could not find their level in the field they originally chose and chose academia as second choice.Business world is characterised by snake- swallow -snake,the academia is a mentor-ship game.This characteristics is fast fading away in academia.

    Maria Hamilton

    This is a great topic of discussion for educators and scholars. Like I have in former studies, the discussion board/forum is a an excellent means of promoting lecturer-student rapport. This not only allows students to express themselves but also to use academic articles to substantiate their views. That said, this medium tend to build the lecturer-student emotional intelligence, which I believe is one way to regain and sustain mentorship in academia 

  • Victoria Blue added an answer:
    Are there any cases of judgements by law courts which affect curriculum matters (English language or more generally)?

    I am currently writing a paper together with an Indonesian colleague which discusses a case in which the Constitutional Court of Indonesia banned a school programme which had CLIL-like characteristics (CLIL = content and language integrated learning). Is anyone aware of other cases anywhere in the world where LAW COURTS (not legislators in parliaments) made decisions which impacted on education policy and practice, particularly in relation to curriculum? Our interest is not restricted only to the teaching of English. Thank you.

    Victoria Blue

    Hello Hywel,

    Below are several links to the ongoing issue of the Mexican American Studies Program in Tucson, Arizona. USA.  Yes, it is in the courts because the ban was made into law.  The constitutionality of it is being challenged.  I'm not sure if this issue (that began several years ago) is relevant to your research but sending it along.  There is much to discover about the situation including a documentary,  banned books, and an independent audit.



  • Edward-R ONeill added an answer:
    How can we measure the quality of collaborative skill for teacher team?

    We aware that "Communication and Collaboration" is a key skill for 21st century education. I would like to know is there any tool or measurement to test collaborative skill level or quality

    Edward-R ONeill

    Thanks to those who posted links. They were very helpful!

  • Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada added an answer:
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: For the remainder of Volume 23, the Critical Issues section of JLR will be devoted to a discussion of literacy and educational policy. A survey of our editorial advisory board indicated that this topic was one of the critical issues facing the field. Likewise, a survey of the entire membership of the NRC, JLR's sponsoring organization, indicated that members hold strong feelings about whether the organization should “become more proactive on policy issues” (NRC Newsletter, Sept., 1995, p. 10). To further a dialogue about literacy and educational policy, we began by inviting three literacy researchers with diverse perspectives to address the topic of literacy and educational policy (Judith Green, who writes here with her colleague Carol Dixon, P. David Pearson, and Sharon Quint). We asked them to comment on the ideas they believe to be most crucial for policymakers to know about literacy. We also invited Donna Alvermann to read and to react to the three responses. Those familiar with the field will immediately surmise that these individuals represent not only diverse perspectives on literacy research, but that they are imminently qualified to reflect on what implications their research perspectives have for educational policy. Their responses are published here as Part 1 of a three-part series.For the next two issues of JLR, we have invited several individuals who have played a key role in developing and implementing state and national agenda for educational policy to respond to the literacy researchers' views. In addition, because any discussion of literacy and educational policy must eventually attend to the issue of poverty and the socially disadvantaged, we have invited Patrick Shannon to comment on how this issue relates to literacy research.We hope that this series of “Critical Issues” pieces will stimulate increased dialogue about educational policy among researchers interested in literacy and between researchers and policymakers. Toward that end, we encourage readers to ponder the perspectives and ideas presented in this series and to add their own insights by submitting letters to the editor, which will be considered for future publication.
      Journal of Literacy Research 06/1996; 28(2):289-301. DOI:10.1080/10862969609547922
    Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada

    the problem of illiteracy in India which houses the largest number of the world’s 771 million illiterates.

  • Melanie Brand added an answer:
    Can anyone give references for studies/papers related to opinion leadership in (inter)cultural communication?

    I'm searching for recent studies in the field of international/intercultural communication related to the opinion leadership concept or similar papers (educational policy, gatekeeper etc.)

    Melanie Brand

    Thank you all for helping me out!

  • Ropate Qalo added an answer:
    Should we re-frame our education system or just continue with conventional way?

    Our education system is going on in traditional way, as it served us in the past but is no more effective in the present, when knowledge is freely available through the internet and can be accessed just by click, when most thinkers acknowledge that present education system kills the creativity of children etc etc, what should we follow next?

    Ropate Qalo

    Conventional education of the 3Rs and computer literacy will always be basic but taught or disseminated capturing students' interest and passion. What will be new is questioning and answering from a pool of knowledge provided by books and the web. Re-framing the system is basically to dominate learning by allowing questions by students that will be answered by their peer through thoughts that connects knowledge to a logical end at high school level. Of course supervised by qualified people. To do that efficiently in a large scale will be the aim and the challenge of a new system. 

  • Michael Marston added an answer:
    How can we measure teacher`s efficiency?

    I new some variables to include in measuring teacher efficiency.

    Michael Marston

    Very true, which means interpreting teaching evaluations much be done with considerable care and awareness of context and limitations...

  • Jestin Mandumpal added an answer:
    Can you recommend any references which discuss the future of education in developing countries (such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and African countries)?

    I'm looking for references which discuss future of education in countries where lack of education funding is connected to the poor standard of living. I'm curious about how could the circle of poor standard of living and low quality education be resolved in the future or what are generally the possible scenarios in the future for such countries in terms of education and standard of living.

    Jestin Mandumpal

    Ziauddin Zardar's Introducing Philosophy of Science, a graphic guide might give you the background reading as to how one would approach this issue. This book provides some background information regarding the nature of knowledge from different theoretical perspectives. He correlates the imbalance in scientific development to lack of public participation. In the countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh the system of democracy is in infancy, let alone active public participation in science. Interestingly he mentions about Science shop which was first instituted in the Netherlands that helped the country to popularize science and harness science for the sake of betterment of society. 

    This book is not expensive,  very small and contains numerous illustrations.

  • Frank Emmert added an answer:
    Is anyone out there a specialist in legal issues dealing with non-profit (501c3) organizations in the United States?
    I need some guidance in looking up laws and legal cases.
    Frank Emmert

    The Council on International Law and Policy published a book by Joseph Miller in 2013: "Changing Our Approach to Changing the World - Encouraging and Enhancing American Engagement in International Philanthropy Through Tax Law Reform". Miller analyzes the problem in significant detail. The book is available from Amazon for about $28.

    For a purely domestic context, I would recommend the Nolo Series, in particular Anthony Mancuso, How to Form a Nonprofit Corporation, 11th ed 2013. This one sells for about $35 on Amazon.

  • Siddhartha Shankar Ray added an answer:
    How can, and should, we measure the impact of the hegemony of research production and dissemination in English?

    I am wondering what is lost, neglected, omitted and/or diminished but the increasing insistence on publishing primarily or exclusively in English. Does this mean that researchers do not read in, engage with, and publish in other languages? My primary concern is the assumptions, hypotheses and contextual notions that are used, which privilege one language above all others. Similarly, I'm wondering if English-only speakers, or those doing research only in English, are willingly and unwillingly disregarding or underplaying other ways of thinking, other epistemologies, other insights, etc., simply because of the hegemony of language. Whenever I have presented in French and Spanish, I am always heartened and taken aback by the different types of questions, elaborations and approaches, and believe that the lack of engage in different languages and within different linguistic contexts may have a detrimental effect on the salience of the research. Of course, this is not a criticism of research that is produced in English, per se, but is more directly at the systemic underpinning of discounting other types of research. The socio-linguistic literature has raised some interesting concerns in this area. One specific case in point is the way that racism is discussed in different languages, including the theoretical, empirical, linguistic and vernacular expressions that frame the topic (it is quite different in English and French, for example). In sum, more engagement across linguistic, as would be the case in ethno-cultural, racial and other, lines would be a beneficial part, I believe, of any evolving social science research.

    Siddhartha Shankar Ray

    Dear Dr. Joseph Grissom,

    Thanks for your comments about  quality of articles in languages other than English. As far as I can recall, in his famous Current Comments which used to be published in the weekly Current Contents Dr. Eugene Garfield has written in the August 15,  1985 issue about Third World Research Part-I some what the same thing as yours!!

    In those days, a significant number of high quality articles used to be published in Russian Languages in the then USSR and also in Japanese & German languages. High quality French  articles are regularly being published in journals like Population & Development Review. indeed there are a couple of 'Rich' languages other than English. One can find  several 'World Class' articles in Spanish/Portuguese language journals of Central American Countries. Still, admittedly, their 'global visibility' are significantly low than those in English. Your approach for re-introduction of cultural pluralism is quite commendable but it requires ways and means for researchers in other parts of the world to learn and understand these languages. And as I personally feel, it seems to be rather difficult for a practicing Science researcher in a matured age.

  • Apostolia Matziouri added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest links, sources, articles connecting sexism and school leadership?

    I suppose there must be some kind of mechanisms, racism or whatever that discourages women from vindicating a post in school leadership and explains the very low percentages of women school leaders in the educational system.

    Apostolia Matziouri


  • Peak E Ong added an answer:
    Does instruction offered in English motivate students to continue their education abroad?

    There is a discussion about EMI and students' choices of studying in the United States. Is there a correlation between using English as a language of instruction in primary/secondary education and the number of students who choose to continue their education abroad (English-speaking countries)?

    • Source
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      ABSTRACT: This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic content is provided through the medium of English after a preparatory year, (2) English aided instruction (EAI), in which Turkish is used for lectures and English for exams and materials such as books and articles with the support of preparatory and post preparatory English courses, and (3) Turkish medium instruction (TMI), in which Turkish is used in all of the academic areas supported with preparatory and post preparatory English courses. The research was conducted in the Faculties of Economics and Administrative Sciences of three universities which used these approaches. The student and lecturer data concerning their perceptions of the use of English in the different faculty/language of instruction combinations were mainly collected by means of questionnaires and interviews in the 2003–2004 academic year. The population for this research consisted of 527 fourth-year students and 87 teaching staff. Although EMI is found to be the most effective of all in terms of language skill development, none of the approaches is considered to be sufficient and efficient to teach English alongside academic content. And, it is also considered that EMI fails to provide the academic content effectively.
      System 06/2008; 36(2-36):156-171. DOI:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.006
    Peak E Ong

    Do not think this is a big academic question, given China, one of the richest nations and with many millionaires and multimillianaires, their priority is having their children overseas to show they are above others.  The expensive tuition fees and living needs mean most probably, children of those who can afford will go overseas. There are tallent children with less fortunate background can be very much more intellengent compared to their rich friends, carry on with life at home and no bother with English language.

  • Craig Wood added an answer:
    Are there studies that document educator voting behaviors in the USA, UK, or Australia?
    I would be interested in local and national elections.
    Craig Wood

    Have you read some of David Henderson's work on teachers in Texas?

  • Tom Maxwell added an answer:
    What type of research methodology is suitable to study the experiences of science teachers at secondary level?

    Science Teacher Educators, Policy researchers, Science Teacher Leaders

    Tom Maxwell

    To follow up again.  While mixed methodology is a strong general response to this issue the key is to clearly articulate the research question(s) and then think about design and methodology.

  • Carlinda Leite added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Carlinda Leite

    In Portugal the Pisa’s results and the place in the ranking has a huge impact. On the other hand, the Pisa report has a strong influence in curricular policies and in the schools work

  • Michael Marston added an answer:
    Can anyone comment on the intersection of student evaluation and NPM ?

    I am interested in seeing to what extent, if any, attitudes to the student evaluation of teaching even if purportedly for formative purposes are influenced by academics' attitudes to the new public management

    Michael Marston

    Many thanks Krishnan, it's a very interesting article indeed.

  • Erez Grinboim added an answer:
    What should be recognized as the most suitable Post-MDG (millennium development goals) indicators for measuring progress in health and education?
    MDG indicators are often criticized because they focus too much on access and put less importance on quality. Measuring quality is of course difficult and more so compared across countries, but we need to move forward. For example, enrollment in primary education barely tells the whole story, so what is the ideal indicator that captures the quality of basic education?
    Erez Grinboim

    Dear Sudipta Mondal

    One of the best indicators for measuring progress in both health and education is Well-Being. Recent researches shows that the Well Being of a person strengthens the immunity system and abilities to overcome difficulties. Therefore, I would propose Well-Being as an excellent – even though oblique Post-MDG indicator. Coming from my studies of the 5 natural human intelligences, here are five indirect & somewhat surprising dimensions that can be employed in measuring a person’s Well-Being: 1. Creative and regenerative abilities. 2. Leadership and Emotional Management abilities. 3. Clarity of mind and ability to uphold one’s Principles. 4. Self-confidence and practical application abilities. 5. The Charisma of one’s own knowledge of themselves and what they know.

  • Bobby Waring added an answer:
    What is Educational or Pupil Assessment, what is being assessed/measured and what does an "outstanding" assessment system look like?
    To what extent can effective assessment improve pupil performance?
    Bobby Waring

    Not quite a revolt in the UK, however, we are British of course ;)

  • Jess Gregory added an answer:
    What quantitative variables/approaches have been used to measure the marketization of education?
    Increasingly educational systems are turning to market practices to improve efficiency. I was wondering what quantitative variables have been used to measure the market environment in which these practices (i.e. school choice) take place? There seems to be a decent amount on higher education but I am interested primarily in primary/secondary education.
  • Janet Hanson added an answer:
    Do you know of any publications on the feasability of the Omaha System for outcome evaluation (used in nursing) of educational practices?

    I recently stumbled upon the Omaha System for diagnosis, intervention and evaluation of nursing practice in health care. It occurred to me that this may well be a system that could be adapted for use in education. Lots of research in education only is aimed at narrow definitions of effectiveness (ie in terms of students' test results), and there are no (to my knowledge) standards that describe teachers' way of assessing educational needs, the interventions that they 'use', and to which results (in a broad sense) this leads. I wondered if anyone has knowledge of a similar system as the Omaha System exists within educational research, or whether this has been adapted before.

    Janet Hanson

    Your Welcome!

    I found the article and I think you will like it!

     Understanding the Role of Communities of Practice in Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Public Health



  • Tarkeshwar Kumar added an answer:
    How easy is it to develop a positive communication between the oil and gas and the educational industries?

    After attending and presenting in the last GetEnergy Abu Dhabi meeting, how easy is it to develop a productive communication between the oil and gas and the educational industries. This help to identify the gap and find ways to close it considering the expectations of the oil and gas industry. 

    Tarkeshwar Kumar

    The question raised here is very pertinent. In the most countries the situation is quite similar. However one has to understand the compulsions of the industry to balance between the need to interact with educational institutions and the commitment to fund to the institutions. In a limited sense of providing and sharing knowledge to faculty and students the industry has been always helpful. However when the institutions expect inflow of funds to the institutions then the issue of cost benefit becomes overriding.

  • Todd A. DeMitchell added an answer:
    What influences do teacher unions have in organised labor in the status of the teaching profession?

    I am writing a paper about the public status of teachers and the teaching proffession. I would like to get similar information from other countries where teacher unions are strongly active or that they are very weak and the consequences. I would like to see if there is correlation between the strength of these "Trade Unions" and the professional status of teaching.

    Todd A. DeMitchell

    Dear Professor Stein,
    Unions and their impact on the public schools in America is, in my estimation, an understudied area. Teaching is one of the most heavily unionized work forces, yet little is understood about its effects. Opinions proliferate, but research supporting those opinions often lags.Your request extends the need for research and dialogue.

    In response to your query, Case Cobb, University of Connecticut, and I studied the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of being a professional and being a member of a union. It was an exploratory study. Our conclusion is that it is tangled. Teachers think of themselves as professionals, yet they want the protection of a union. They want a contract but they perceive that the contract cannot reach those difficult places of professional practice. Some find the protection that a union provides to be necessary to their sense of professionalism while others find that the union to often protects incompetence thus diminishing their sense of professionalism. Teachers act as professionals and shift to acting as union members when there is a perceived threat.

    If you would like to review our findings, you can find them at the following.
    DeMitchell, T.A. & Cobb, C.D. Teachers: Their union and their profession. A tangled relationship. 212 Education Law Reporter 1 (2006).
    DeMitchell, T.A. & Cobb, C.D. Teacher as Union Member and Teacher as Professional: The Voice of the Teacher. 220 Education Law Reporter 25(2007).

    The issue of the impact of teacher unions on other school effects is discussed by such writers as Caroline Hoxby and Terry M. Moe. I found Tom Loveless’ edited volume, Conflicting Mission? Teachers Unions and Education Reform, to be quite informative and useful.

    Thanks for starting this conversation. The responses from our colleagues are helpful as I work on the second edition of my book, Labor Relations in Education: Policies, Politics, and Practices.
    Todd A. DeMitchell
    John and H. Irene Peters Professor of Education
    Department of Education & the Justice Program
    University of New Hampshire

  • Bill R. Miller added an answer:
    Should a developing country allow universities from the developed countries to establish branches in their territory?
    Education is a very important sector that is the target of all the power groups (multinational companies these days) because such control will enable them to establish control on the total economy of a country. This is so because education is a process by which knowledge gets transferred to a person or a group. Beside mental development education provides social security for the poor. If education can be controlled, the relevant pedagogy may also be tailored in such a manner that the poor people may be exploited. Therefore sovereignty related to education is a must for a nation. My question is “should a developing country allow universities from the developed countries to establish branches in their territory?” Because if it is allowed then this may put higher education at risk which in turn would jeopardize the industrial development of the developing country. Also should the multinational/foreign companies be allowed to launch control on the national education policy from outside even in the name of consultancy?
    Bill R. Miller

    Education, like the tide, lifts all boats.  Else, it is not education, but is likely meant to indoctrinate rather than inform.   Freedom of access to  Information must be the hallmark of development

  • Bronwyn Jewell added an answer:
    What is the impact of educational policy on a University?
    It shapes the direction of the University.
    Bronwyn Jewell

    In Australia, although each state government havs an education policy, universities are not controlled by them. The federal government has uncapped the number of places in university courses. The universities set the entry requirements into courses and the number of students. The Qld  government is currently working with the state's universities to increase the quality of preservice teachers

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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