Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Paul R. Carr added an answer:
    How can, and should, we measure the impact of the hegemony of research production and dissemination in English?

    I am wondering what is lost, neglected, omitted and/or diminished but the increasing insistence on publishing primarily or exclusively in English. Does this mean that researchers do not read in, engage with, and publish in other languages? My primary concern is the assumptions, hypotheses and contextual notions that are used, which privilege one language above all others. Similarly, I'm wondering if English-only speakers, or those doing research only in English, are willingly and unwillingly disregarding or underplaying other ways of thinking, other epistemologies, other insights, etc., simply because of the hegemony of language. Whenever I have presented in French and Spanish, I am always heartened and taken aback by the different types of questions, elaborations and approaches, and believe that the lack of engage in different languages and within different linguistic contexts may have a detrimental effect on the salience of the research. Of course, this is not a criticism of research that is produced in English, per se, but is more directly at the systemic underpinning of discounting other types of research. The socio-linguistic literature has raised some interesting concerns in this area. One specific case in point is the way that racism is discussed in different languages, including the theoretical, empirical, linguistic and vernacular expressions that frame the topic (it is quite different in English and French, for example). In sum, more engagement across linguistic, as would be the case in ethno-cultural, racial and other, lines would be a beneficial part, I believe, of any evolving social science research.

    Paul R. Carr · Université du Québec en Outaouais

    Hi Alexandra,

    Thanks for your message as well as the info on your conference. It looks very interesting, and I wish you well.

    Best regards


  • Bill R. Miller added an answer:
    Should a developing country allow universities from the developed countries to establish branches in their territory?
    Education is a very important sector that is the target of all the power groups (multinational companies these days) because such control will enable them to establish control on the total economy of a country. This is so because education is a process by which knowledge gets transferred to a person or a group. Beside mental development education provides social security for the poor. If education can be controlled, the relevant pedagogy may also be tailored in such a manner that the poor people may be exploited. Therefore sovereignty related to education is a must for a nation. My question is “should a developing country allow universities from the developed countries to establish branches in their territory?” Because if it is allowed then this may put higher education at risk which in turn would jeopardize the industrial development of the developing country. Also should the multinational/foreign companies be allowed to launch control on the national education policy from outside even in the name of consultancy?
    Bill R. Miller · University of Georgia

    Education, like the tide, lifts all boats.  Else, it is not education, but is likely meant to indoctrinate rather than inform.   Freedom of access to  Information must be the hallmark of development

  • Bronwyn Jewell added an answer:
    What is the impact of educational policy on a University?
    It shapes the direction of the University.
    Bronwyn Jewell · Queensland Government

    In Australia, although each state government havs an education policy, universities are not controlled by them. The federal government has uncapped the number of places in university courses. The universities set the entry requirements into courses and the number of students. The Qld  government is currently working with the state's universities to increase the quality of preservice teachers

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    What are the characteristics, pluses, minuses and limitations of action research?
    I love action research (specifically in human relations/education). I have always observed, read, thought, then felt compelled to test by putting the ideas into action and making more observations, analyses etc. As a scientist (chemist) originally, this process in education where I now work seems to me to be akin to the scientific method. Am I right/wrong or is it just different, yielding different outcomes from so called 'pure' research.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    Thanks James. Good info.

  • Ijeoma Anumaka added an answer:
    What quantitative variables/approaches have been used to measure the marketization of education?
    Increasingly educational systems are turning to market practices to improve efficiency. I was wondering what quantitative variables have been used to measure the market environment in which these practices (i.e. school choice) take place? There seems to be a decent amount on higher education but I am interested primarily in primary/secondary education.
    Ijeoma Anumaka · Kampala International University (KIU)

    There are standardized rating scale for schools & colleges in most regions.The research unit in state or district has these ratings,they have to do with achievement levl of students,external efficiency,whcih can be measured if schools keep track of their alumini.External efficiency provided the best option for marketization and customer service in Education.So i suggest ,you develop a reseracher made tool using indicators of external efficiency which include labour market surveys for school leavers,Using COHORT METHOD.HOPE THERE IS AN INSIGHT HERE SIR 

  • Kevin Stoda added an answer:
    In terms of educational system integration, how does the ASEAN strategy differ from that of the European Union?

    The ASEAN Integration 2015 compels member countries to align and harmonize their educational system with each other.  How will it affect an individual's preferred profession or career?  How much will be the financial burden of a country in relation to its capacity to pay, i.e., cost of schooling per capita?  What would be its expected impact to the culture and social standing of the population?  In what way will an educational system integration empower the people to make them active participants of political processes and governance?

    Kevin Stoda · Salalah College of Technology

    Dear Gerry,

    Would you say that some countries are much further along in following ASEAN guidelines in education than others?  For example, let us say we would or could  compare all the ASEAN countries--which are the most often attempting to follow the guidelines in various fields

  • Mustafa Yilmaz added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Mustafa Yilmaz · University of Kansas

    Dear Dr. Johnson,

    (I have typed a longer version of my comment, but then my internet browser caused me loose it. Here is I wanted say with that comment in summary)

    First, I appreciate your valuable comment and recommendation, but respectfully I do not want to keep the discussion turning around the association between the failure/success of the US in international assessments and its economic achievements because I believe time will be a better judge in that concern. The only thing I want to add is that I DID READ Tienken's paper, and as you may have seen in my previous posting, I have a lot of question about the methodology specifically when I consider the strong opinion the author has at the end of the analysis even though I see the point he wants to make. I wanted to mention what I think about the research because I believe what PEOPLE THINK about a hypothesis or a study is the ONLY thing that MATTERS to establish and advance of way of thinking and making correct decisions about phenomenons. As I mentioned in my previous posting I understand the value of the Tienken's study and I accept it as a preliminary analysis for future studies, but the analysis does not take me to the point the paper intended to reach basically because it has too shallow statistical examination of the extremely complex relation between a country's educational outcome and its economic position. I have a lot more to discuss, but I do not want to be disrespectful to the main topic of the discussion question. That is why it is all I want to add now.



  • Sandra Richards added an answer:
    What is Educational or Pupil Assessment, what is being assessed/measured and what does an "outstanding" assessment system look like?
    To what extent can effective assessment improve pupil performance?
    Sandra Richards · Excelsior Community College

    One must first of all make the distinction between assessment and measurement. Measurement is concerned with the development, administration, and scoring procedures use to gather data about students.   Assessment is the process of using the data gathered to make inferences about students/teachers/schools etc.

    What should be measured is the level of mastery a student has achieved of what is set out by the course syllabus. An "outstanding" measurement instrument gathers data that has a high level of validity and reliability. If, for example, student scores 90% on a test. The score would indicate that the student has achieved mastery of 90% of the syllabus content.  

    If the teacher had opted to teach other than what is on the syllabus, and set the test to measure what was taught, rather than what is on the syllabus, then the score would not be valid.

    Testing agencies have procedures in place to ensure validity and reliability in their scores.  Classroom teachers may not.  One good place to start may be to ensure content validity through the use of a properly constructed table of specification.

  • Saqer Jabali added an answer:
    Social innovation projects: has anyone been engaged in qualitative research for public policy?
    There seems to be a preference for quantitative research. I am interested in applying ethnographic methods to this area.
    Saqer Jabali · An-Najah National University
  • Hemanta K. Baruah added an answer:
    Is it a must to achieve a foreign degree for teaching foreigners studying at one's local/home institutions?
    Or its good enough to teach with a local degree, experience and skills?
    Hemanta K. Baruah · Bodoland University

    A degree should not possibly be graded with reference to countries. Not every institute of a country are of the same standard!

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    How do we as policy makers facilitate full access to secondary education while at the same time ensuring that quality of schooling is not compromised?
    As educational planners we should never allow goals of increasing access to over shadow the ultimate goal of individual student success. If investments in education are built on the premise that investing in human potential will lead to increased human value, greater productivity, and ultimately national development then the focus must be on ensuring that education meets each child where he or she is at (despite wide disparities in abilities, interests, and needs), and then seek to improve that child. This is the only way that we can ensure education contributes directly to development. The newly revised OECS Education Sector Strategy (OESS, 2012) seeks to address this shortcoming in emphasizing that the over arching theme for educational developments in the OECS region for 2012 - 2021 will be "Every Learner Succeeds."
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Again, the culture is the issue, and teachers are not the only ones at fault. It is an unfortunate consequence of a spevific set of circumstances born (possibly) of the self esteem movement and exacerbated by the elitist movement. So yes, I cam but agree that in many cases education misses the mark through good intent and bad decisions. Howeer, I don't think the solution is a swing towards a risky elitist approach. My research showed that a middle ground is possible, where rigour can coexist with personal growth, but it requires a paradigm shift, a big ask as we are aware. Perhaps in the States, because of the particular trajectory of your society through the self esteem movement vs elitism, a swing in the opposite direction may be needed to set the ball rolling. But that doesnt mean that one or other of the education paradigms (low demand low threat vs high demand high threat) is correct. Just that getting to the middle road of high demand low threat is difficult and needs constant attention.
  • Sajid Ahmed added an answer:
    Privatisation of education in India is a slow poison.
    With the educational sector going in to hands of polticians and business men, there is a possibility of class and caste war, and social disparity.
    Sajid Ahmed · Onward Tanning Tech
    Government Aided School is the better and best solution. Private and Govt Participation is the best way to kill material world of Privatization in Schools and Education. NGOs and Govt participation, Society and Govt participation, are the some of the way to get out from web of Business men and Politicians.
  • Adel Amer added an answer:
    To what extent is the quality approach in higher education a good or a wrong approach?
    What we gain and what we loose by adopting it?
    Adel Amer · Alexandria University and Taibah University
    Let me say that I have been working at different universities in two different parts of the world. Ones are highly dynamic and the others were until very recently highly static. Of course, quality approach in higher education is good for the latter. The latter started selecting benchmark from highly elite universities which have high output to civilization and societies' development , thanks for the internet which opened the gates to visit international universities' curriculum and management modules. So, we have the gaps narrowed between educational institutes thus serving to produce more qualified professionals to the world work market.
  • Mehwish Noor added an answer:
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    Mehwish Noor · University of Gujrat
    The same situation with different circumstances prevails in Pakistan as well. Pakistan is a multilingual country where the native speakers of its national language are about 7.5 % of the total population. Urdu (national language of Pakistan) enjoys a prestigious status after English here whilst other mother tongues are denounced to use in formal communication. The educated parents are avoiding to talk to their children at home in their mother tongue. Many Indo Aryan languages are at a serious threat by owing to this situation. Medium of instruction in public sector is mostly Urdu while in some Model schools it is English. In private sector the medium of instruction is English. Children in their schools are asked not to use their mother tongue in schools. Consequently, a negative attitude has been arisen towards languages other than English and Urdu (which are the official languages of Pakistan). The said situation also hinders children of rural areas to get n any of the education. Most of such learners leave their education due to poor language proficiency in both or any of the prestigious langugaes.
  • Ellen F Weber added an answer:
    When you indicate that the teachers were trained can you explain what you mean i.e. teacher training or subject or both ?
    I am carrying out research regarding the skills and knowledge required to teach at level 4 −6 in a mixed programme which requires delivery of academic,vocational and practice based learning
    Ellen F Weber · St. John Fisher College
    Teachers I work with tell me they have few resources other than lectures that they feel can "cover curriculum," I developed brain based task cards that students can take to any lectures - and these active prompts help to transition teachers from talking or delivering to coaching and supporting innovative discoveries in class. It's fun when you take the leap -- but takes support until that time. Here's what I see as 100 reasons to run from lectures:-)

    Others likely have better reasons:-) Thoughts? Ellen
  • Curtis Brewer asked a question:
    Are there studies that document educator voting behaviors in the USA, UK, or Australia?
    I would be interested in local and national elections.
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Are current assessment practices actually a source of inequity in education?
    Current mandated assessment practices seem to all be of the form where students are given a standard to describe performance at a point in time, ie A, B, C, D or E or similar. Results of my observations, interviews, action and other research over the last 13 years has led me to believe that this form of assessment and reporting actually mitigates against students who begin school with any form of deficit. Deficits can range from the more traditional cognitive and physical to psychological and social issues that plague students from indigenous and low socio-economic status backgrounds. Social deficits can be simple such as 'not being read to' as a child, to complex relationships with society at large. Research into indigenous school outcomes in Australia showed that not only do they begin school 'behind the 8 ball' but that their deficit widens through the years of schooling.
    My limited observations of a different form of assessment and reporting, that of a static continuum of standards though which students move during their schooling, indicates that this approach sends a different message to students, that success is defined as engagement and improvement and that effort is directly linked to success. The latter is critical because the approach does not seem to create the conditions where students feel dis-empowered because they 'fail' despite their best efforts.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Thanks Ellen, I agree that there are ways to design testing that are more equitable and you have described some issues. I think that the way results are reported on is a s7gnificant problem as well.
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    What are the different ways achievement can be reported on?
    Acknowledgement of achievement through some form of grading is a fundamental process in education. Many teachers hate it because they are aware that it has a significant impact on learner wellbeing. And yet, since the purported failure of Outcomes Based Education (and I disagree with this attribution in one important area) there has been no serious examination of the impact of different styles of reporting on students.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Tobias, I finally absorbed the last part of the response. 'How do we measure etc', maybe by giving meaningful/authentic problem based tasks to be completed over a period of time, that require a cognitive demand commensurate with the course demands. The lecturer/tutor collaborates with the students to solve the problem/complete the task. That way he/she knows the thought processes and approach of each student (annotating student work for later assessment is complicated but can be done). I mandate that students send me regular updates that I analyse, comment on etc. If uncertain, a student conference normally clears the mind. A series of questions that students respond to a-la RG could work for some courses.
    With reference the the valued attributes, I find it difficult to separate the different types of high level cognition you mention, so my strategy is to annotate work with reference to each when I am certain, and a generic higher order thinking reference when uncertain. Then I use these to make my final judgement. Low level aspects such as grammar, punctuation, correct referencing style etc do count, but not as much as the higher order thinking. I write down my criteria, then describe what i would expect to see for each criterion for each standard. I don't use any algorithm. In Queensland, Australia, 'most like' judgements on criteria have been shown to be successful for the last 30 years. In other words the student work is judged to be 'most like' a particular standard and can be justified if need be by reference to the standard descriptor.
  • Jakob Wandall added an answer:
    What will be the real impact of the PISA results for adults?
    The OECD study on the skills of adults, in 24 industrialized countries, has resulted in a report that provides a ranking of considerable interest to the educational systems of different countries. Those countries that have obtained lower ratings may take note of the score and make adjustments in their education systems. Or will they? What measures will be taken?
    Jakob Wandall · NordicMetrics
    A rank bring no real information - especially not in reading (due to differences in cultur and language the test scores are not measuring the same construct, see Kreiner, S., & Christensen, K. B., 2013, Analyses of Model Fit and Robustness. A New Look at the PISA Scaling Model Underlying Ranking of Countries According to Reading Literacy. Psychometrika, 1-22.). What is really interesting is the longitinal aspect. To the Danish sample (5000) have been all the praticipants of PISA2000 (now 27 yrs) and it has resulted in 1800 responses. It is planned to make an equating/linking exercise in order to identify a common PIAAC/PISA2000 scale. When this is done we are able to describe developement in litteracy and correlate this reading developement thru 12 yrs with career in education, Work and other aspects of life (we have very solid data on this in Denmark). By structural equation modelling and graphic models we will try to identify the causal relations. Now this might be interesting information for policy makers as well as researchers.
  • Vicente Chua Reyes added an answer:
    Does anyone know of studies related to evaluation of the public support programs (e.g. from structural funds) specifically in the field of education?
    Or have suggestions on the methods that could be used for such a evaluation.
    Vicente Chua Reyes · University of New England (Australia)
    Hi Miroslav,

    This is a very interesting and highly-relevant question. As someone who has also undertaken some research on evaluating public support programs specifically on education this is a question that I also constantly grapple with.Nowadays and particularly in most of the rapidly growing regions known as the "developing world" public support programs for education have sprouted. Several international multilateral agencies have commissioned independent reviewers to critique the evaluation of national public programs that these agencies support. One example of this would be the Independent Review of Aid Effectiveness commissioned by Australia Aid (AusAID). You can find their report (which provides a substantive discussion on education) from this site:

    Hope this information helps.

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Is there any research into the impacts of different forms of assessment and reporting on student sense of self efficacy and resilience?
    For 12 years now, I have been examining the psycho-social effects of different forms of assessment and reporting on students in middle school setting. The main differences seem to be between an A to E model where results are described as comparison against normative or generic performance, and a continuum model where results are described as movement through a static set of age or developmental standards such as reading levels.
    Most of my observations center around perceptions of success and failure by students, teachers and the wider community, and have links with psychological research into efficacy and resilience.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    Prakash, I have been waiting for more responses so have delayed in asking this question, sorry!
    Can you direct me to any of the references you say exist so I can examine them please?
  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    What are the key characteristics (design parameters) of an effective, equitable education system?
    I regard an effective equitable education system as one that results in high level outcomes for learners, i.e. a good standard of skills that will serve the person well in their future life, AND does not create unnecessary impediments to any learners.
    To expand the intent of the question - I regard the extant education system in Australia to yield high outcomes but only to a proportion of learners. Those learners who begin in the education system with a deficit of any kind, either skills, cognitive, psychological,
    or social have a much higher probability of 'opting out' and 'dropping out' and consequent reduced opportunities for educational attainment.
    The characteristics I am after are design parameters stated as specifically as possible, e.g. an assessment system that does not define learners as winners or losers, pass or fail, would be specific and an assessment system that measures students' progress along a continuum of standards, would be more specific, etc.
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    David and Kevin's responses both spoke to the issue of motivation, which I believe is the key issue. I question, however David's assertion that motivation requires winners and losers. In fact my 30 years' experience in lower performing schools suggests that the opposite may be true. Yes! Students who are competitive prefer competition and thrive in that environment. I would question though the number of students who are truly competitive. Again in my experience, the majority are NOT competitive especially when they realise they can't compete. In other words, after a number of years of schooling and they realise that no matter how hard they try, they will never be best, or even very good in schooling terms. It is exactly the issue of motivation, linked to resilience in the school setting, that I think is the source of inequity. The system in its current form places excessive focus on competition, which demotivates the majority of students, especially those who need the education the most. So, to equity. i find it hard to believe that people still believe that equity means equality of outcomes. Equity means equal access to the possibility of equal outcomes. For this to happen, the system has to ensure that it does not inadvertantly reduce access to the possibility of success in any form but most especially by positioning some students to believe they can't succeed. Western systems generally do a good job of ensuring equity of resources, time etc but i am of the belief that we need to reimagine a system that focusses students on 'doing a good job' rather than being best. 'Best' is just the natural consequence of doing a good job better than anyone else, but everyone else still focusses on doing a good job and getting the credit for that. I have seen this in action and know it is possible.
  • Richard J. Cebula added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend me some articles related to education spending and income inequality?
    Human capital theory suggests that there is a direct relationship between the level of education and income, under this premise, the OECD encourages countries to invest in education to reduce existing wage disparities. However, for developing countries the effects of spending on education tend to be oscillatory. That's when the question arises about whether developing countries should substantially increase the level of spending on education, if so, it would be advisable to do so at all levels?

    Finally, it is possible to reach an optimal level of spending on education, which maximize the benefits of society? if so, under what arguments would be valid
    Richard J. Cebula · Jacksonville University
    Check out papers by Clark, Lawson, and Gwartney. Also check out the Journal of Private Enterprise.
  • Ian Kennedy added an answer:
    Does anyone have information on how technology policy in tertiary education impacts job retention and job satisfaction of faculty?
    There is minimal research surrounding technology in education outside of the K-12 arena. I am currently doing some preliminary research on the impact of policy surrounding technology for faculty in tertiary education. I am interested in the variation of institutional policy, job retention, and job satisfaction.
    Ian Kennedy · Independent Researcher
    All I can contribute is a personal anecdote. I found that a good laptop provision, strong supply and support of software, and a willing network manager / trouble shooter made all the difference in keeping me and keeping me happy.
  • Geetha Rani added an answer:
    What are some of the key issues and challenges in financing tertiary education?
    As universities strive for financial independence or sustainable funding, they must contend with a variety of challenges. Is funding sustainability possible and how can universities achieve it?
    Geetha Rani · National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA)
    Funding sustainability of private higher educational institutions depends to a great extent on the ability of such institutions to meet the demand for good quality provision of higher education. How these private educational institutions are maintaining is through appropriate adoption of financing and financial management approaches. The value for money is one of the important principles in these institutions.

    On the contrary, the government higher educational institutions especially in developing countries like India are facing serious not only financial austerity but also governance issue.
  • Nancy Hernandez asked a question:
    Is anyone out there a specialist in legal issues dealing with non-profit (501c3) organizations in the United States?
    I need some guidance in looking up laws and legal cases.
  • Ashokan k V, sangli added an answer:
    Do you believe that educational policy functions as it was intended?
    Are some facets of it lost in translation from documentation to implementation and action?
    Ashokan k V, sangli · PVP COllege
    I did not believe so, most of the educational policy is failed, as per my view it is because the educational research and its implication is not in pace with development in culture, science and global perspective. I believe that each and every educational policy is short lived and need drastic root level change time to time.
  • Sudipta Mondal asked a question:
    What should be recognized as the most suitable Post-MDG (millennium development goals) indicators for measuring progress in health and education?
    MDG indicators are often criticized because they focus too much on access and put less importance on quality. Measuring quality is of course difficult and more so compared across countries, but we need to move forward. For example, enrollment in primary education barely tells the whole story, so what is the ideal indicator that captures the quality of basic education?

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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