Ecosystem Modeling

Ecosystem Modeling

  • Ho Huu Loc added an answer:
    How can I quantify the cultural / spiritual values of ecosystem services?

    I am trying to map the ecosystem services values of a multi-functional wetland.

    I am using monetary values to convert the concerned services into monetary units for convenient overlapping in the following mapping step. So far, provisioning, regulating and supporting, all of which provide directly or indirectly products having market goods, making them convertible into monetary units. As for cultural values i.e. temples, landscapes, values. I am concerned about the hidden values that could not be captured by stated preference methods. 

    Please kindly help with your experience and expertise

    Ho Huu Loc · Kyoto University

    Thanks for your suggestion.

    Is there any "unit" that can possibly be used to quantify this qualitative parameter ?

  • Andrew I. Freeman asked a question:
    What are estimated wetland aeration costs (£/kg BOD5) removed in full scale artificially aerated wetlands?

    Working on methods to optimize field scale artificially aerated wetlands for the application of de-icer contaminated run-off at airports. Aeration is required to improve performance (i.e the removal of organic compounds) but what are the economics regarding the cost of aeration in full scale systems?

  • Gianmarco Alberti added an answer:
    Is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    This research is wonderful, congratulations. My question is, is there any tool that can generate raster longitude and latitude in Arcgis?
    Gianmarco Alberti · University of Malta

    I had the same problem. The procedure described here did not work for me, maybe for the limitations of dealing with a very huge number of resulting vector point after the first step.

    I managed to get what I was after using another approach. Hope this will be useful sometime in the future to anyone jumping here:

    (1) I loaded a DEM and a shape file corresponding to the same area;

    (2) I created a fishnet (with the ArcGIS tool) with size 500mX500m, making sure to tick the 'create labels';

    (3) I added x and y values to each generated point;

    (4) interpolated the x values by IDW, snapping the resulting raster to the DEM, and using the same processing extent of the region's shapefile. Same applies for y.

    DONE

    Hope this helps

  • Jean Stephan added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest some methodology to understand the succession or dynamics of riparian trees and woody vegetation?

    I have collected data from 4 small mountain streams with permanent flow or with dry months. I took between about 74 plots with 40mx 20m size, collecting data related to tree species richness, number of individuals, height, DBH, tree distance from river bank, and regeneration . Site characteristics and water regime in the river is also recorded, as well as number of dry months (if any). My aim is to study  the relationship between actual dominant tree or shrub species, and their regeneration, to better understand successions (if any). Please provide links or publications if available as I have limited access. 

    Jean Stephan · Lebanese University

    Thank you Sharon and Cliff. Very interesting !

  • Hamida Darwish added an answer:
    In what time frame can we expect maximum CO2 exchange during night time for a forest ecosystem with high canopy?

    Eddy covariance measurment

    Hamida Darwish · King Abdulaziz University

    Please have a look this publication may its very helpful for you

    (Treatment and assessment of the CO2-exchange at a complex forest site in Thuringia, Germany,Corinna Rebmann a,*, Marcelo Zeri b, Gitta Lasslop a, Martina Mund a, Olaf Kolle a, Ernst-Detlef Schulze a, Christian Feigenwinter )

    at this address (Contents lists available at ScienceDirectm, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/agrformet)

    good luck 

  • Imtiaz Dharssi added an answer:
    Are physically-based land surface models less skillful than simple statistical models using linear regression?

    See results from the international benchmarking project, PLUMBER (PALS Land Surface Model Benchmarking Evaluation Project).

    https://ams.confex.com/ams/94Annual/webprogram/Paper234348.html

    Imtiaz Dharssi · Bureau of Meteorology

    The Paper "The plumbing of land surface models: benchmarking model performance" is available from http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JHM-D-14-0158.1 .

    My favorite quotes from the paper:

    "the indifferent performance of the models at sites with restricted soil moisture questions the current methods used in the LSMs for representing the stomatal control on transpiration"

    "the LSMs do not appropriately use the information available in the atmospheric forcing data when estimating QH and QE"

    The full Abstract:

    The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) was designed to be a land surface model (LSM) benchmarking intercomparison. Unlike the traditional methods of LSM evaluation or comparison, benchmarking uses a fundamentally different approach in that it sets expectations of performance in a range of metrics a priori – before models simulations are performed. This can lead to very different conclusions about LSM performance. For this study both simple physically based models and empirical relationships were used as the benchmarks. We performed simulations with 13 LSMs using atmospheric forcing for 20 sites and then examined model performance relative to these benchmarks. Results show that even for commonly used statistical metrics, the LSMs’ performance varies considerably when compared to the different benchmarks. All models outperform the simple physically-based benchmarks, but for sensible heat flux the LSMs are themselves outperformed by an out-of-sample linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. While moisture information is clearly central to latent heat flux prediction, the LSMs are still outperformed by a three variable non-linear regression that uses instantaneous atmospheric humidity and temperature in addition to downward shortwave radiation. These results highlight the limitations of the prevailing paradigm of LSM evaluation that simply compares a LSM to observations and to other LSMs without a mechanism to objectively quantify our expectations of performance. We conclude that our results challenge our conceptual view of energy partitioning at the land surface.

  • Mohammd Rafiq added an answer:
    Where can I find the definition of the geolocation fields of the MODIS Level 2 data?

    I want to know in which way the data points are mapped. In the png-file you see a calculation of the coordinates using the geolocation info. I need the corner coordinates of each square box. In the file it looks like the coordinates are in the middle but often two data points are closely located to each other.

    Does anybody know where I can find a solution for my problem? Or maybe a tool which can transform the coordinates? On "http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov" I dont find anything yet.

    Thank you in anticipation!

    Mohammd Rafiq · University of Kashmir

    Dear  Christan, 

    I totally agree with Maroles answer further i want to share that ,their is a different Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) for every product of MODIS. You can confine your search to the actual  data your are dealing with and also make sure you are searching exactly the same version and level of your data.  

  • Pranita Bhagat added an answer:
    What parameters should be considered to assess the health of a wetland on a qualitative basis?

    I am attempting to develop a qualitative and quantitative health index for wetlands which are Ramsar sites. For a qualitative index I am considering Physiological, Chemical and Biological parameters. What else should be considered and what specifically under these heads should be looked for?

    Pranita Bhagat · Lovely Professional University

    Dear Mikhail,

    Thank you so much. I could only get the abstract of the publication. I would indeed be great if you could send me the entire text. My email id is pranita.bhagat@gmail.com.

    Thank you,

    Regards

  • Juan Calvo-Cubero added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend good books or links that can help me understand the restoration of the land and maintenance of wetlands?

    for my assignment

  • Massih Afghah added an answer:
    Are their any functional relationships between the aphotic zone and deep sea organisms?

    If yes? How? What are the functional mechanisms? How organisms adapts there?

    Is their any ecosystem modeling regarding these to understand clearly? 

    Massih Afghah · Islamic Azad University Shiraz branch

    Dear Mohammad

    As you know acidification of the oceans depend on some factors:

    1- Concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere

    2- Absorption of CO2 by organisms

    3- Carbon dioxide cycle in ocean

    These factors control the PH of ocean which changes by variation of deph.

    I recommend to see the link below:

    link:  http://www.science.fau.edfect http://www.science.fau.edu/biology/koch/Documents/Climate%20Change%20Presentations/Ocean%20acidification.pdf

    The mentioned link show the organisms effect to CO2 cycle in the oceans. However  Wiliams (2007) discuss about carbonate dissolution in the ocean

    link:  https://books.google.com/books?id=j4eCj1J8k0IC&pg=PA332&lpg=PA332&dq=acidification+and+depth+of+oceans+compensation+depth&source=bl&ots=w-ITYPSe0s&sig=5UScew442fflbOjmLbuZd6rrpHI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hjOJVbDnBYKuggSOhqCAAg&ved=0CCIQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=acidification%20and%20depth%20of%20oceans%20compensation%20depth&f=false

    Patwardhan (2012) The dynamic Earth system,

    link: https://books.google.com/books?id=A8S2X1-1rY0C&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=ph+variation+and+depth+of+oceans+compensation+depth&source=bl&ots=drV9BTCuZR&sig=N5hg-kA0POTGYz_0toT7FOLF_dk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=izSJVd3aHIHDggT58YD4Dg&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=ph%20variation%20and%20depth%20of%20oceans%20compensation%20depth&f=false

    Regards

    Massih 

  • Uchendu E. Chigbu added an answer:
    Do you know of any Living Labs in Africa?

    Is there any research and publications about Living Labs in Africa (outside South Africa)?

    Uchendu E. Chigbu · Technische Universität München
    1. Motataisi Living Lab, Lesotho; 
    2. Maputo Living Lab, Mozambique;

    In general, there are others in Mauritius. In East Africa, you have LLs in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda (see map in p. 45 and then explanations) read section 2 of this document: http://www.ist-africa.org/home/files/Supporting_the_Evolution_of_Sustainable_Living_Labs_and_Living_Labs_Networks_in_Africa.pdf

  • Surya Kant Chaturvedi added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience in habitat quality modelling?
    I am designing a habitat quality index using amphibians to assess the health of forest biodiversity. I therefore need help with expertise and advice.
    Surya Kant Chaturvedi · Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday Vishwavidyalaya

    You please use GIS technology to identify the forest biodiversity health. In GIS atmosphere you can handle a lot of data-set with unimaginable results.

  • Anuradha Potlapalli added an answer:
    How to conduct a Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment?

    I understand that it is an open, non-chamber experiment, but how do they control/regulate the free CO2 gas concentration in a huge open area? I can't seem to find detail information on the methodology used and what is the pressure for the CO2 release? Is FACE suitable for a small scale project in the tropics? Thank you. 

    Anuradha Potlapalli · Poornima Group of Colleges

    CO2 LEVELS CAN BE CONTROLLED BY OXY-RICH PLANTS WHICH CONSUME ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND EMMIT O2.THIS MIGHT BE AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR MANAGING THE CO2 LEVELS IN ATMOSPHERE.

  • Gábor L. Lövei added an answer:
    What are the emerging issues for urban environments and ecosystems i.e. potential threats and opportunities that are currently poorly recognized?

    We are having a workshop in Auckland in 2 weeks to consider urban pressures on the horizon.  The challenge is to think of new ideas, or issues poorly studied, rather than the usual problems or exacerbators of the usual problems. Your ideas would be welcome.

    Gábor L. Lövei · Aarhus University & Fujian University of Agriculture & Forestry

    Sure Jaqueline; we pulbished a few articles. Will find your e-mail and send.

    Greetings

    Gabor

  • Rüdiger Grote added an answer:
    Can you suggest some good papers with regard to modelling interactions among ecosystem services?
    E.g., methods to analyse interactions among variables in complex interacting systems.
  • Herbert Gratzl added an answer:
    Is the green house effect or global warming responsible for climate change?

    What are the main causes of climate change? How do they influence climate change, and in what ratio? 

    Herbert Gratzl · Stiftung Danubius, for ecological education

    @ Bhavika

    Certainly there are local sources for the green house effect and also sinks.

    The increasing number of cattle and other livestock, agriculture are estimated to contribute even more than the whole traffic ( see attachment LivestockClimateChange for further reading and references ). 

    If people want better food, they often prefer more meat, what is not good for climate nor for health. Apart from tradition and taste there are nutritional reasons, which may lead to other choices with more food from plants and not from animals ( my recent short notice/publ.   The Vitamin B12 Gap .. /Animal Products . . ) ) .

  • Lawrence Handley added an answer:
    Why did the IUCN decide this 6 meter limit for wetland? and not 5 meters or 7 meters ?

    For wetland IUCN adopted the following definition in 1971 (4; 2) :
    “. . . areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or arti-
    ficial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing,
    fresh, brackish, or salt including areas of marine water, the depth of
    which at low tide does not exceed 6 meters.”

    Lawrence Handley · United States Geological Survey

    6 meters was used in classification scheme for marine and estuarine tidal systems, primarily for mapping.  The preponderance of information in the 1970's showed benthic growth declining after 6 meters of water depth, on an average, due to light attenuation, latitude, and other factors.  2 meters water depth is the standard used in freshwater wetland classification, particularly between lim ethic (greater than 2 m depth) and littoral (less than 2 m water depth. 2 meters was used as the breakpoint from expertise and literature in the 1970's and early 1980's as the max depth from which rooted emergent herbaceous vegetation will grow to above the waters surface.  There is more recent evidence from reports that 3 meters may be an acceptable depth.

  • Midhun Madhavan added an answer:
    Have the models developed by Craig-Gordon (1965) and Merlivat-Jouzel (1979) been compared in an ecosystem model or GCM?

    Two basic parameterization schemes have been utilized for predicting the isotopic enrichment of surface waters during evaporation. I am looking for studies or models that compare both approaches. C-G typically uses turbulence-dependant weighted kinetic fractionation whereas M-J uses separate wind-speed-dependent algorithms for smooth and rough surfaces. 

    Midhun Madhavan · Physical Research Laboratory

    Please find the enclosed paper, where they compared  MJ79 and CG65 for terrestrial evaporation.

    I also made a note comparing the fractionation factor from two approaches.  I am attaching that file too.

    I am curious to know whether the MJ79 is applicable  to large lakes?

  • Nathalie Niquil added an answer:
    What are your thoughts on using Large Fish Index as an ecosystem health indicator characterizing the food web ?
    Your answers will be usefull in the discussions on finding common indicators in Europe for monitoring food web health in marine ecosystems. LFI is for example monitored within OSPAR as the percentage of fish > 40 cm when performing a bottom trawl. The idea beyond is that food webs are shortened by overfishing. What do you think of it as an indicator not only of the fish community but also of the whole food web. Is this indicator sensitive to other pressures than fishing ? How could this indicator be modified for a better food web use ? Would it make sense to apply it to benthic species and especially invertebrates ?
    Nathalie Niquil · French National Centre for Scientific Research

    Thank you very much for these answers. They are all very compmlementary !

  • Harry Hurd added an answer:
    How do I add different degrees of nonstationarity into a monthly flow series?

    One great influence of climate change on water resources system is the growing degree of nonstationarity of hydrological time series. Nonstationarity is a very broad word, trend, growing variance, unexpected extreme values could all be considered as non-stationary.

    Then if we want to generate monthly flow series with different degree of nonstationarity, the questions are which part of nonstationarity show we concentrate on, how to define the degree of nonstationarity, and how to add different degree of nonstationarity into a stationary monthly flow series.

    Harry Hurd · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Dear Pan,

    I suggest you look up papers dealing with PARMA (periodic ARMA) and PAR as a special case.. These models have been studied fairly extensively for river flows. Check papers by Vecchia, Lund. Anderson, Meerschart, Tesfaye.

  • Maowei Liang added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to scalie a Static chamber to Eddy covariance about net ecosystem CO2 exchange?

    The main methods of net ecosystem CO2 exchange are static chamber and eddy covariance. I have done some experiments about static chamber and got some data about eddy covariance in the same place during the same period. So I want to combine the data of static chamber with the data of eddy covariance, and scale the static chamber to the eddy covariance by using some models. However, I have no idea how to scale or use the model.
    Would you like give me some advise?
    Any help appreciated.
    Thank you much indeed!

    Maowei Liang · Inner Mongolia University

    Hi Frank,

    Thank you very much,you're so nice.

    Maowei

  • Marcelo Negri Soares added an answer:
    Can anyone add a list of deadlier animals found in Mangrove ecosystems in eastern Indian mangrove forest?

    Mangrove ecosystem is one of the important richer biodiversity zone in the world. I am adding two- the Royal Bengal tiger and the cobra. Add more as per your knowledge.

    Marcelo Negri Soares · Universidade Nove de Julho

    The forest covers 10,000 km2 of which about 6,000 are in Bangladesh. It became inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage site in 1997, but while the Bangladeshi and Indian portions constitute the same continuous ecotope, these are separately listed in the UNESCO world heritage list as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park, respectively. The Sundarbans is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for the eponymous Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), as well as numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes. It is estimated that there are now 500[citation needed] Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. Sundarbans was designated a Ramsar site on May 21, 1992. The fertile soils of the delta have been subject to intensive human use for centuries, and the ecoregion has been mostly converted to intensive agriculture, with few enclaves of forest remaining. The remaining forests, together with the Sundarbans mangroves, are important habitat for the endangered tiger. Additionally, the Sundarbans serves a crucial function as a protective flood barrier for the millions of inhabitants in and around Kolkata (Calcutta) against the result of cyclone activity. Sundarbans is home to many different species of birds, mammals, insects, reptiles and fish. It is estimated that there may be found more than 120 species of fish and over 260 species of birds and more than fifty species of reptiles and eight amphibians. Many tourists go there to see the Bengal tigers, saltwater crocodiles, leopards and snakes cobra.

  • Gábor L. Lövei added an answer:
    Do you have any suggestion pseudoreplication in system analysis?

    Hi everybody,

    Starting from 1st (maybe 2nd) of January I will perform a system analysis concerning ecosystem services provided by a transumant farmer in central Italy.

    So, in addition to other things (biodiversity, insects etc.), I will monitor CO2 effluxes from grazed fields (e.g. Alfa alfa...) compared with traditional ones (e.g. durum wheat, sunflowers...) in i) plain, ii) hills and iii) mountain areas following the transumant movements during one year.

    Concerning CO2 efflux I can use just pseudoreplication because it's impossible to use any different expetimental design. 

    So, any suggestions? (numers of sampling)... 

    Take a look at the picture, thanks!

    Gábor L. Lövei · Aarhus University & Fujian University of Agriculture & Forestry

    Yes, Matteo, precisely. If you need to, you may reduce the within-field replication. For example, if you have capacity to do 60 measurements in total, it is much better to do 4 repeat measurements/field, and increase the no. of fields measured (like you write: 5 each of pasture, wheat & sunflower) than 20 measurements per field, but only one field each of pasture, wheat and sunflower. This will make your life more difficult, but I am afraid there is no other way to get resutls in which you can be confident.

  • Panos V. Petrakis added an answer:
    Can someone inform me about the 7 aspects and 22 indexes reflecting ecosystem stability, first presented by H.T. Odum in 1970s?

    Pls. provide the relevant full text or aiticle link

    Panos V. Petrakis · Jazan University

    The answer is quite complex. Actually, I understand that only relevant articles on ecosystem strategies are sought and not papers on the properties of indices.

    For this I sent two papers (files) from my library. 

  • Brenden S Holland added an answer:
    Does molecular biology change the numbers that estimate biodiversity losses?

    I'm interested in knowing how the estimates of the numbers of species present in an ecosystem are made, and how the biodiversity losses are evaluated. In particular:

    * is it based on the macrofauna/macroflora only, or does it also include microbes?

    * does the advent of metagenomics/barcoding technologies change the estimates, as new species /OTUs are constantly being described?

    Brenden S Holland · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

    Very interesting question: I think most conservation biologists might agree that molecular data  "change the numbers that estimate biodiversity", specifically this category of phylogenetic and systematic characters (i.e. DNA markers/genomics) allow robust, repeatable, quantitative phylogeographic and reconstruction.  So by "change" what I mean is potential to "refine", "improve" and "increase resolution" of biodiversity assessments.  However, along the lines of what is stated above, usually we can only assess what is remaining, unless comprehensive baseline studies have been conducted, and / or, ancient or museum samples are available for the pre- versus post-impact comparison.

  • YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI added an answer:
    Why Porteresia sp can be called a pioneer species during an island formation?

    See Carbon sequestration book

    YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI · Forest Research Institute Dehradun

    In mangrove-dominated ecosystem, Porteresia coarctata is the neighbour of mangroves and plays an important role to maintain stability of the islands. It is the pioneer species in the process of ecological succession. Studies have shown that salinity has a regulatory influence on the biomass and carbon content of P. coarctata. The plant contains useful traits including salt and submergence tolerance, perenniality, short internodal length conferring mechanical strength. The major ecological role of mangroves is the stabilization of the shoreline and prevention of shore erosion. The dense network of prop roots, pneumatophores and stilt roots not only give mechanical support to the plant, but also trap the sediments. The rate of sedimentation or accretion is generally much higher in these estuaries lined with mangroves.

  • Mohammed Layelmam added an answer:
    How can I estimate the moisture from the MODIS data ?

    I have a daily database of MODIS and I would use a models or functions to estimate moisture,

    Thank You

    Mohammed Layelmam · Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II

    Merci monsieur Babah, mon adresse Email est layelmam@gmail.com 

  • Jacob Yu added an answer:
    Are Dr. John Todd's "Living Machines" a viable way to treat wastewater on a large scale?

    They are supposedly a way to treat wastewater without using chemicals, but instead by creating an "ecosystem", whose constituent organisms filter the water. I gathered from this paper http://www.uvm.edu/rsenr/nr385c/resources/documents/The%20design%20of%20living%20technologies%20for%20waste%20treatment.pdf

    that "the ideal closed system as having three major components or subsystems. It consists of a sunlight-based,
    photosynthetically driven system that is connected to an animal consumer component, which in turn, is connected to a detritus/bacterial system.
    Our experience supports the Adey and Loveland (1991) requirement of a minimum of three distinct subecosystems. We have found it is best to house the subsystems in distinct cells separated in space but connected by flows." 

    He has a company: http://www.toddecological.com/eco-machines/

    which installs these for a fee....Can anyone comment on if this is a viable method for the future? It seems almost "too good to be true" - an all natural way to deal with the waste products of society purely relying on "natural" processes..

    Jacob Yu · Boston University

    Fascinating answers, thank you all, will read further on the leads you all have given me thus far..

  • Maowei Liang added an answer:
    Is Net Ecosystem Production Equal to Net Ecosystem Exchange minus Ecosystem Respiration?

    The NEE CO2 (Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange/umol.m-2.s-1) and ER(Ecosystem Respiration/umol.m-2.s-1) were measured in growing season from 2012 to 2013, respectively. Recently, I'm frustrated when I have to calculate the Net Ecosystem Production (NEP/gCm-2.yr-1).
    Is NEP equal to NEE minus ER in numerically?
    Can I directly calculate the Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation in growing season (gCm-2.yr-1) using the NEP(umolCO2.m-2.s-1)?
    What is the equation from umol CO2.m-2.s-1 turn to g C.m-2.yr-1?
    I‘m not assure about it.
    Any help appreciated.
    Thank you much indeed!

    Maowei Liang · Inner Mongolia University

    To Sara,

    It's very grateful for your help,you're very nice.

    Thank you very much.

  • Unachukwu G.O added an answer:
    Do any GCM modellers use the Craig-Gordon parameterization?

    Craig-Gordon (1965) is a common parameterization scheme used in ecosystem models but more commonly Merlivat and Jouzel (1979) is used for GCMs. Do any GCMs use C-G?

    Unachukwu G.O · University of Nigeria

    I do not have formal idea about this.

    Kind regards

About Ecosystem Modeling

An ecosystem model is an abstract, usually mathematical, representation of an ecological system, which is studied to gain a deeper understanding of the real system. Ecosystem models are formed by combining known ecological relations with data gathered from field observations. These model systems are then studied in order to make predictions about the dynamics of the real system. Often, the study of inaccuracies in the model (when compared to empirical observations) will lead to the generation of hypotheses about possible ecological relations that are not yet known or well understood. They also enable the simulation of ecological processes over very long periods of time. Ecosystem models have applications in a wide variety of disciplines, such as natural resource management, ecotoxicology and environmental health,agriculture, and wildlife conservation. (Wikipedia)

Topic Followers (2,206) See all