Drug Delivery

Drug Delivery

  • Ahmad M Eid added an answer:
    Can we give a suspension of Eudragit nanoparticles by nasal spray?

    If I prepare Eudragit nanoparticles and later convert it to suspension and use it as nasal spray, would it be ok? Remember drug is neither for respiratory tract, nor it has to target brain. I have not seen any article so far in which eudragit alone has been used in the nasal route. 

  • Pharmacist Pharmacist added an answer:
    Can we give a suspension of Eudragit nanoparticles by nasal spray?

    If I prepare Eudragit nanoparticles and later convert it to suspension and use it as nasal spray, would it be ok? Remember drug is neither for respiratory tract, or it has to target brain. I have not seen any article so far in which eudragit alone has been used in the nasal route. 

    Pharmacist Pharmacist

    Thank you.

  • Shuaib Khan added an answer:
    Dose any one know the noval formulations to deliver growth hormone orally?

    Dose any one know the novel formulations to deliver growth hormone orally?

    Shuaib Khan

    at present, liposome, nanocapsules are widely used for delivery of growth hormones and peptides.....only thing you have to keep in mind is the polymers used  for the delivery.

    PVA and PAA are mostly used ..you can search for preparation of nanocapsules OR liposomes using these polymers.....

    Good Luck

  • Michele Schlich added an answer:
    Drug delivery to the brain: can anyone suggest practical feasibility of various drug delivery systems to the brain?

    I would like to know the types of DDSs used for brain tumour therapy and how effective each system is in delivery. Examples and articles would be helpful. Thanks. 

    Michele Schlich

    If you mean brain delivery after intravenous administration, many nanocarriers are used (only pre-clinically as far as I know) as delivery systems.
    Their chemical nature can be polymeric, lipidic, proteic/peptidic or even a mix of them.

    The main issue of brain delivery after intravenous administration is the blood brain barrier, an anatomic and functional barrier separating the brain parenchyma from bloodstream. 

    An efficient drug delivery system for brain delivery, whatever is its composition, must have the ability to cross the blood brain barrier, retaining its cargo and causing the less damage possible. Several mechanisms may be exploited to mediate brain uptake from the bloodstream.

    I suggest the first two papers for strategies of BBB overcoming, in the third several different kinds of nanoparticles and BBB in vitro models are reviewed, and the fourth focuses on the use of liposomes for brain delivery

    + 3 more attachments

  • Carl Jones added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with hyperthermia experiments?
    I am working on Iron Oxide NPs apply on Hyperthermia and Chemotherapy treatments.I read on some papers about the Hyperthermia Equipments. It is combined from the different machine such as : sensor, generator, etc.
    Carl Jones


    Power transfer depends on quite a few factors, capacitors, losses, core saturation etc without specifics its difficult to say.

    Why do you need a higher power transfer than 2.5 kW anyway as this should generate fields far above medically acceptable limits ?


  • Mira Kowalska added an answer:
    How do I calculate flux of drug permeation?


    I am investigating permeability of a drug trough silicone membrane. I plotted a permeation profile graph

    x axis: time [h];

    y axis: cumulative amount of drug [ug/cm2] 

    Does anyone know how from this point how do I calculate steady state flux [ug/cm2/h]? 

    Mira Kowalska

    Thank you very much for your both answears! It was very helpful!

  • Hendrikus Hendriksen added an answer:
    How to optimize the concentration of drug of delivery for microinjection method?

    I am planning to microinject a few drugs into rat amygdala nuclei. These drugs were not microinjected into the rodent brain before. I would like to know how we optimize the drug concentration for microinjection method. I also would like to know the best solution to be used as a control for microinjection procedures.

    Hendrikus Hendriksen

    I did some micro infusions via bilateral implanted cannula in the amygdala of rats. If the animals are carefully handled before and after the surgery for implantation of the cannula guides it is possible to slide in the cannulas (attached to the tubing and the pump) in the guides and screw them tight. Then the animal can be placed in a small box and you can start the infusion. There is always the risk of breaking or bending a cannula during inserting it in the guide in an awake animal. However, after extensive handling/training of the animals. see for methods: Re-exposure and environmental enrichment reveal NPY-Y1 as a possible target for post-traumatic stress disordernhendrikus Hendriksen et al. Neuropharmacology Neuropharmacology 63 (2012) 733-742



  • Hrushikesava Reddy Racham Reddy added an answer:
    I need to know zeta potential values in drug delivery?

    What should be the zeta potential values of a drug in drug delivery?

    Hrushikesava Reddy Racham Reddy

    Hi, Can I know which procedure or addition of which excipients would be helpful to prepare a nanosuspension with almost 0 mv Zeta potential? Is it really possible?

  • Tunmise Otitoju added an answer:
    What is a 25 wt. % solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in methanol mean?
    What does wt% mean?
    Tunmise Otitoju

    I also agree with Peter Sobolewski explanations.

  • Sri Vithya added an answer:
    Can anyone help with an entrapment efficiency/encapsulation efficiency calculation?

    Is my calculation correct?

    Lets say my drug system is matrix/microsphere; dried and obtained powder.

    Entrapment/Encapsulation Efficiency %= (Experimental drug content/total drug content) x 100

    Weight of powder produced= 1.6532 gm

    Weight of drug added in beginning = 1.5 gm 

    Standard calibration Curve of Drug = 0.05X ; R2=0.993

    Procedure: 10mg of powder mixed with 20ml ethyl acetate; sonicated 12 minutes; centrifuged; supernatant filter with 0.45µm and absorbance taken. 

    Absorbance over 2; so diluted 10 times

    So diluted powder-ethyl acetate solution=  0.093 A

    In 10mg powder, concentration of drug = 1.86ppm X 10= 18.6ppm 

     =18.6 ppm x 20ml= 372µg.

    Assuming 10mg = 372µg. So in 1.6532 gm; there is 61499.04 µg or 0.06149904 gm.

    Entrapment/Encapsulation Efficiency %= ((0.06149904 gm) / 1.5 gm x 100 ) = 4.1%

    Sri Vithya

    Hi all.. What if i just have UV data(Difference in absorbance values for pellet and supernatent ) and if my sample is liquid ? i jus found the concentration using calibration curve and the concentration is in uM (micro molar) How to calculate encapsulated efficiency?

  • Renuka devi J added an answer:
    Any advice on the prediction of in silico parameters in the design of advanced drug delivery ?

    Hi All

    I request you to guide whether any in silico prediction can be done prior in designing a novel drug delivery system.

    What are all the in silico parameters to be analysed in designing a novel drug delivery ? 

    Renuka devi J

    Uday sir

    Kindly mention the research paper of yours and ronald sir

    Thanks a lot sir!

  • Priyanka Puranik added an answer:
    What methods can be used for binding a water-soluble drug (obtained from carbohydrates) to silica nanoparticles?

    I'm using Stober method for synthesis. I'm looking for drug-binding protocols that will give me a good percentage binding with silica nanoparticles. I intend to use it eventually for drug-delivey.

    Also, what is a good storage buffer for silica nanoparticle (such that slow release of drug and aggregation of nanoparticles would be prevented)?

    Priyanka Puranik

    @titus sobisch: thank you sir. I'll surely work on it.

  • Shuaib Khan added an answer:
    How can I calculate specific drug loading?

    How to calculate specific drug loading based on the specific surface area data and how loading is related to porosity? For example, loading of ibuprofen onto silica aerogels which have surface area of 1000 m2/g.

    Shuaib Khan

    Formulations with smaller pores shows greater volume contribution, contributing to high drug loading, implying a more complex structure thus a slower drug release (due to decrease in the effective diffusion coefficient).

  • Shanmugavel Sudarsan added an answer:
    How can I choose the drug for anionic based pH responsive hydrogels?

    How to choos e the drug for anionic based pH responsive hydrogels?

    Is there any peculiar requirment was needed for drug delivery based on hydrogels types/

    Shanmugavel Sudarsan

    Thanks for your valuable sugesstions regarding choosing of drug in pH sensitive hydrogels.

  • Félix Sauvage added an answer:
    Why does my porphyrin seem to escape the liposomes during the preparation of porphyrin encapsulated liposomes?

    I am attempting to prepare liposomes containing a porphyrin. During the liposomr formation, the sonication step of the prep. Seems to force the porphyrin to leave the liposomes and aggregate in the rehydration solution. Why is this happening and how do i stop it from happening

    Félix Sauvage

    Maybe it is due to the ionic strength of your buffer. Indeed, some ions can compete with the porphyrin for its encapsulation in the bilayer and hide its interaction with anionic polar heads. Are there some cationic moieties in your molecule? If yes, you should use a rehydration buffer without any ions ie MilliQ water and check if same phenomenon is observed.

  • Mubashar Rehman added an answer:
    How do I calculate the molecular weight of solid lipid nanoparticles?

    Dear All, 

    we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles using lipid, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug. all ingredients molecular weights i know but what is the molecular weight of final prepared solid lipid nanoparticles. please suggest techniques available to calculate or find out the molecular weight of such complex systems. 

    Mubashar Rehman

    I am not a mathematician but can we calculate SLN molc. wt. using wt. of total pellet after centrifugation, size of pellet and size of each particle, or the molecular wight of components and surface area of particles?

  • Kunal Kumar asked a question:
    Looking to make a carboxamide prodrug?

    I am trying to couple my compound with terminal carboxamide amine to lysine amine. Is there any prodrug for carboxamide so that the Lysine-compound conjugate breaks down to give carboxamide?

  • Henri A Ménard added an answer:
    How can I analyse the affect of interleukin stimulation on drug treatment?


    I want to analyze the effect of an Interleukin on drug treatment.

    I will stimulate my cells with recombinant Interleukin. 24 hours after Interleukin stimulation, I want to treat my cells with a drug.

    (similar to Ara et al "Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma.").

    24 hours after Interleukin stimulation, I will remove the Interleukin-containing medium and add new medium containing the drug.

    Do I also have to add Interleukin into the medium in addition to the drug so that cells continue to be stimulated by IL-6? 

    Or shall I remove the medium and treat my cells with the drug without adding recombinant Interleukin?

    Henri A Ménard

    Those are simple enough experiments that can be tricky to properly interpret. Any possible background noise influencing the reporter system?  What are you measuring exactly? Are the cells confluent or not, do they have IL6R?  Should you check for a senescent phenotype (variably increased intrinsic IL6 levels in cells and supernatant)?  If FCS is used, is that a potential source of IL6Ra?. Use the same lot of "inert" FCS in all experiments.  Maybe add a #1b control: no IL6 preRx + drug Rx from onset.  Best.

  • Yasam Venkata Ramesh added an answer:
    How do I increase the efficiency of intranasal drug delivery to CNS?

    Currently I am trying to deliver small RNAs to CNS intranasally. I've got mixed results and suspected there is a big impact on how to do the intranasal administration since the molecules could enter CNS or lung or even mouth. Does anyone have suggestions?

    Yasam Venkata Ramesh

    Dear Fei Du,

    Using an atomizer for delivery helps in reducing the formulation distribution to other parts other than nose.


  • Mohammad T. Raad added an answer:
    How to calculate apparent loading drug?

    I am doing dye release which has fluorescence intensity from micelles.

    First, I weighed 4 mg of my sample (micelles+dye) in 2 ml PBS and took 100mcl to measure the fluorescence intensity. and I did dialysis of that sample in 200 ml PBS and take the sample every determined time.

    after that, I made the standard curve and the concentration is in mg/ml by taking 100 mcl from each stock solution. 

    I calculated back my micelles+dye fluorescence intensity to get the concentration in mg/ml and multiply it with 2 (2ml) to get the apparent loading dye.

    The problem is, after I multiply the concentration of every sample in each time with 200ml and get the cumulative dye release, the total concentration is bigger than my apparent loading drug, even more than 150%.

    I think maybe something wrong in my calculation. Is there any suggestion of how many I should multiply it?

    Thank you so much!

    Mohammad T. Raad

    For 10-4 (seemingly you have) concentration of the dye with extinction coefficient 104 - 105 inner filter effect will surely be observed.  Try to work with a 20-100-fold diluted solutions.

  • Ritesh Vinod Birla added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to mask the taste of lornoxicam in oral film strips?

    I am working Lornoxicam Mouth dissolving oral film strips. I am tried to bitter taste mask of lornoxicam. Can anyone suggest me how to taste mask of lornoxicam? I am trying with lots of Ion exchange resins as well as Aminoalkyl methacrylate
    copolymer but till it no bitter taste mask.

    Can anyone suggest the sources of lornoxicam?

    Ritesh Vinod Birla

    Thanks a lots 

  • Sasi Yarragudi added an answer:
    Is there any method to identify/quantify dextrans (Non Conjugated) such as UV/ HPLC etc..?


    Analytical technqiues for dextrans

    Sasi Yarragudi

    I read literature on the use of ELSD detector with HPLC  in determination of dextrans, i am gonna try this and will update if this works

  • Ndidi C. Ngwuluka added an answer:
    Contributors needed for the research topic: Natural Polymers and their drug delivery applications - are you interested?
    We are hosting a Frontiers research topic "Natural Polymers and their drug delivery applications." This research topic focuses on the processes and applications of natural polymers in drug delivery. For more details, please check the link below


    Do you want to contribute? You can indicate by sending me a message here or through the Frontiers site as you peruse the content of the link above.
    Ndidi C. Ngwuluka

    Hello Karel,

    Its been a while. Unfortunately, the deadline is past. That is the reason the link is not working. 

  • Kapil Sayala added an answer:
    Which procedure is used to encapsulate hydrophobic anticancer drugs into peptide dendrimers?

    Methods of encapsulating hydrophobic Anticancer agents into peptide dendrimers

    Kapil Sayala

    Hello Sir,

    The " host-guest " chemistry strategy, that is due to the easily tunable surface groups and an interior space relatively hydrophobic in dendrimers, can be exploited for encapsulating hydrophobic anticancer agents into the dendrimers.

    One category of peptide dendrimers , have peptides only as surface functionalities. These functional groups like COOH and NH2 have well established chemistry and hence can be functionalized through simple organic transformations. They can be tailored to have relatively hydrophobic interior for guest encapsulation. However, I am not sure about the controlled release of the drug from the core in this case.

    Alternative approach : The drug molecules can be covalently attached to the dendrimer periphery. The release of the drug can be controlled by incorporating degradable linkages between drug and the dendrimer. There are some very good publications from various research groups on this topic which is available in the internet. I answered this from a chemist point of view( Not as a pharmacist and also I am not aware of the instrumentation involved in this ).

    Thank You Sir,


  • Rajesh Omtri added an answer:
    Can I get help with liposome radiolabeling methods?

    Hi everybody,

    I'm planning some in vivo work with my liposomal drug delivery devices and want to do SPECT imaging for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic characterization of my liposomes and would like some input on methods for radiolabeling of liposomes.

    I'm using 111-In as a radionuclide, and I'm wondering what method for radiolabeling would be the best?

    Either using functionalized PEG-chains with either amine or maleimide and doing a "post-insertion" method similar to the one used for antibody grafting or remote loading the radionuclide, along with a chelator, in the liposomal aqueous compartment?

    Rajesh Omtri

    Hi Carols, 

    Here are the papers reported which are similar to what you want to accomplish. 



  • Hemant Motiram Vishwasrao added an answer:
    How to quantify the release of a hydrophobic drug?
    To quantify the release of a hydrophobic drug in PBS, can the standard curve prepared in a solvent in which the drug is readily soluble be used or the standard curve should be in the same solvent in which the release study is done i.e PBS.?
    Example the drug is highly soluble in ethanol but very low solubility is observed in PBS, so what should be done to quantify, because the standard curve prepared using PBS has some amount of undissolved drug in it.
    Looking forward to some valuable suggestions.
    Hemant Motiram Vishwasrao

    Have you checked this paper..


    It is there on researchgate itself and uses propylene glycol in the dissolution medium.

  • Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar added an answer:
    How to improve pulmonary distribution of most systemically administered drugs?

    i want to improve pulmonary distribution of drug what are current strategies to enhance it?

    Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar

    Mr Giram, you can give even solid drug or liquid drugs if you use the herbs which are excreted through respiratory route like Garlic and Adhtoda vasaka having mucolytic and expect oratory action; if interested may suggest more but decide your strategy.

  • Çağla Çibuk added an answer:
    What is the reason that the release does not continue? (controlled drug release, HPMC matrix, cefazolin)

    I am working on drug delivery behaviour of cefazolin by using HPMC as a matrix. In vitro release of cefazolin from HPMC carried out at 37 C in SBF pH 7.4. 55% of the loaded drug was released within 6 hours and after that we did not observed any release. We did not explain this peculiar behaviour.
    We think that either cefazolin are trapped within the HPMC matrix or it degrades and we can not observe the change in concentration.

    Çağla Çibuk

    Thanks to all of you for your answers, I will consider your thoughts.

  • Daniel Silva added an answer:
    What is the best way to transfer suspended nanoparticles from aqueous solution to THF?

    I am looking to transfer nanoparticles from a water-based suspension to THF. I have attempted dialysis into THF with the only dialysis membrane type readily available in my lab (mixed cellulose), but the dialysis membrane did not take well to it. I am wondering if there is a type of membrane you would recommend I purchase for this diaylsis, or if there is a better technique for the transfer altogether? 

    They are rather simple organosilica nanoparticles, which are ~ 64.04 nm in diameter.

    Thank you very much for your time and help!

    Daniel Silva

    Hi guys,

    Thanks so much for your help and ideas. I'm quite new to this site but it's already showing to be an amazing resource. 

    I wish I could say I succeeded in getting the nanoparticles into THF, but after trying each of techniques mentioned (except for dialysis with a suitable membrane, because £££) I had no choice but to change tactics and carry the reaction out in DMSO instead. I don't believe they are stable in such a harsh solvent.

    Many thanks again for your generous support.

  • Imran Khan added an answer:
    Which is the best method for encapsulating hydrophobic flavonoidal drugs into central core of a peptide dendrimer

    I am planning for a research on peptide dendrimers and their drug delivery properties of natural flavonoidal drugs. So I need a best method which can load these drugs into peptide dendrimers. Please help me out with this.

    Thank you

    Imran Khan

    You may try out proliposoma technique for the same.

    Spray dryer technique wherein your hydrophobic flavonoidal drug would get centrally encapsulated in peptide dendrimer.

    Very useful...

    Best regards,

    Imran Khan

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