Drug Delivery

Drug Delivery

  • Renuka devi J added an answer:
    Any advice on the prediction of in silico parameters in the design of advanced drug delivery ?

    Hi All

    I request you to guide whether any in silico prediction can be done prior in designing a novel drug delivery system.

    What are all the in silico parameters to be analysed in designing a novel drug delivery ? 

    Renuka devi J

    Uday sir

    Kindly mention the research paper of yours and ronald sir

    Thanks a lot sir!

  • Kunal Kumar asked a question:
    Looking to make a carboxamide prodrug?

    I am trying to couple my compound with terminal carboxamide amine to lysine amine. Is there any prodrug for carboxamide so that the Lysine-compound conjugate breaks down to give carboxamide?

  • Titus Sobisch added an answer:
    How do I calculate the molecular weight of solid lipid nanoparticles?

    Dear All, 

    we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles using lipid, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug. all ingredients molecular weights i know but what is the molecular weight of final prepared solid lipid nanoparticles. please suggest techniques available to calculate or find out the molecular weight of such complex systems. 

    Titus Sobisch

    Agree with Michael particles what size ever have no molecular mass. Regarding the answer of Ali, yes, in every system one may determine an average molecular mass, maybe particle, droplet, solution or what ever. Likely, Raj has a special goal for what he wants to use it for. Would be good to know about it.

  • Henri A Ménard added an answer:
    How can I analyse the affect of interleukin stimulation on drug treatment?


    I want to analyze the effect of an Interleukin on drug treatment.

    I will stimulate my cells with recombinant Interleukin. 24 hours after Interleukin stimulation, I want to treat my cells with a drug.

    (similar to Ara et al "Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma.").

    24 hours after Interleukin stimulation, I will remove the Interleukin-containing medium and add new medium containing the drug.

    Do I also have to add Interleukin into the medium in addition to the drug so that cells continue to be stimulated by IL-6? 

    Or shall I remove the medium and treat my cells with the drug without adding recombinant Interleukin?

    Henri A Ménard

    Those are simple enough experiments that can be tricky to properly interpret. Any possible background noise influencing the reporter system?  What are you measuring exactly? Are the cells confluent or not, do they have IL6R?  Should you check for a senescent phenotype (variably increased intrinsic IL6 levels in cells and supernatant)?  If FCS is used, is that a potential source of IL6Ra?. Use the same lot of "inert" FCS in all experiments.  Maybe add a #1b control: no IL6 preRx + drug Rx from onset.  Best.

  • Nisith Raval added an answer:
    How can I calculate specific drug loading?

    How to calculate specific drug loading based on the specific surface area data and how loading is related to porosity? For example, loading of ibuprofen onto silica aerogels which have surface area of 1000 m2/g.

    Nisith Raval

    It's depend on your types of aerogel. I mean you have a thick film or particles kind of product?

  • Yasam Venkata Ramesh added an answer:
    How do I increase the efficiency of intranasal drug delivery to CNS?

    Currently I am trying to deliver small RNAs to CNS intranasally. I've got mixed results and suspected there is a big impact on how to do the intranasal administration since the molecules could enter CNS or lung or even mouth. Does anyone have suggestions?

    Yasam Venkata Ramesh

    Dear Fei Du,

    Using an atomizer for delivery helps in reducing the formulation distribution to other parts other than nose.


  • Mohammad T. Raad added an answer:
    How to calculate apparent loading drug?

    I am doing dye release which has fluorescence intensity from micelles.

    First, I weighed 4 mg of my sample (micelles+dye) in 2 ml PBS and took 100mcl to measure the fluorescence intensity. and I did dialysis of that sample in 200 ml PBS and take the sample every determined time.

    after that, I made the standard curve and the concentration is in mg/ml by taking 100 mcl from each stock solution. 

    I calculated back my micelles+dye fluorescence intensity to get the concentration in mg/ml and multiply it with 2 (2ml) to get the apparent loading dye.

    The problem is, after I multiply the concentration of every sample in each time with 200ml and get the cumulative dye release, the total concentration is bigger than my apparent loading drug, even more than 150%.

    I think maybe something wrong in my calculation. Is there any suggestion of how many I should multiply it?

    Thank you so much!

    Mohammad T. Raad

    For 10-4 (seemingly you have) concentration of the dye with extinction coefficient 104 - 105 inner filter effect will surely be observed.  Try to work with a 20-100-fold diluted solutions.

  • Ritesh Vinod Birla added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to mask the taste of lornoxicam in oral film strips?

    I am working Lornoxicam Mouth dissolving oral film strips. I am tried to bitter taste mask of lornoxicam. Can anyone suggest me how to taste mask of lornoxicam? I am trying with lots of Ion exchange resins as well as Aminoalkyl methacrylate
    copolymer but till it no bitter taste mask.

    Can anyone suggest the sources of lornoxicam?

    Ritesh Vinod Birla

    Thanks a lots 

  • Sasi Yarragudi added an answer:
    Is there any method to identify/quantify dextrans (Non Conjugated) such as UV/ HPLC etc..?


    Analytical technqiues for dextrans

    Sasi Yarragudi

    I read literature on the use of ELSD detector with HPLC  in determination of dextrans, i am gonna try this and will update if this works

  • Ndidi C. Ngwuluka added an answer:
    Contributors needed for the research topic: Natural Polymers and their drug delivery applications - are you interested?
    We are hosting a Frontiers research topic "Natural Polymers and their drug delivery applications." This research topic focuses on the processes and applications of natural polymers in drug delivery. For more details, please check the link below


    Do you want to contribute? You can indicate by sending me a message here or through the Frontiers site as you peruse the content of the link above.
    Ndidi C. Ngwuluka

    Hello Karel,

    Its been a while. Unfortunately, the deadline is past. That is the reason the link is not working. 

  • Kapil Sayala added an answer:
    Which procedure is used to encapsulate hydrophobic anticancer drugs into peptide dendrimers?

    Methods of encapsulating hydrophobic Anticancer agents into peptide dendrimers

    Kapil Sayala

    Hello Sir,

    The " host-guest " chemistry strategy, that is due to the easily tunable surface groups and an interior space relatively hydrophobic in dendrimers, can be exploited for encapsulating hydrophobic anticancer agents into the dendrimers.

    One category of peptide dendrimers , have peptides only as surface functionalities. These functional groups like COOH and NH2 have well established chemistry and hence can be functionalized through simple organic transformations. They can be tailored to have relatively hydrophobic interior for guest encapsulation. However, I am not sure about the controlled release of the drug from the core in this case.

    Alternative approach : The drug molecules can be covalently attached to the dendrimer periphery. The release of the drug can be controlled by incorporating degradable linkages between drug and the dendrimer. There are some very good publications from various research groups on this topic which is available in the internet. I answered this from a chemist point of view( Not as a pharmacist and also I am not aware of the instrumentation involved in this ).

    Thank You Sir,


  • Rajesh Omtri added an answer:
    Can I get help with liposome radiolabeling methods?

    Hi everybody,

    I'm planning some in vivo work with my liposomal drug delivery devices and want to do SPECT imaging for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic characterization of my liposomes and would like some input on methods for radiolabeling of liposomes.

    I'm using 111-In as a radionuclide, and I'm wondering what method for radiolabeling would be the best?

    Either using functionalized PEG-chains with either amine or maleimide and doing a "post-insertion" method similar to the one used for antibody grafting or remote loading the radionuclide, along with a chelator, in the liposomal aqueous compartment?

    Rajesh Omtri

    Hi Carols, 

    Here are the papers reported which are similar to what you want to accomplish. 



  • Hemant Motiram Vishwasrao added an answer:
    How to quantify the release of a hydrophobic drug?
    To quantify the release of a hydrophobic drug in PBS, can the standard curve prepared in a solvent in which the drug is readily soluble be used or the standard curve should be in the same solvent in which the release study is done i.e PBS.?
    Example the drug is highly soluble in ethanol but very low solubility is observed in PBS, so what should be done to quantify, because the standard curve prepared using PBS has some amount of undissolved drug in it.
    Looking forward to some valuable suggestions.
    Hemant Motiram Vishwasrao

    Have you checked this paper..


    It is there on researchgate itself and uses propylene glycol in the dissolution medium.

  • Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar added an answer:
    How to improve pulmonary distribution of most systemically administered drugs?

    i want to improve pulmonary distribution of drug what are current strategies to enhance it?

    Gandhidas Sonajirao Lavekar

    Mr Giram, you can give even solid drug or liquid drugs if you use the herbs which are excreted through respiratory route like Garlic and Adhtoda vasaka having mucolytic and expect oratory action; if interested may suggest more but decide your strategy.

  • Çağla Çibuk added an answer:
    What is the reason that the release does not continue? (controlled drug release, HPMC matrix, cefazolin)

    I am working on drug delivery behaviour of cefazolin by using HPMC as a matrix. In vitro release of cefazolin from HPMC carried out at 37 C in SBF pH 7.4. 55% of the loaded drug was released within 6 hours and after that we did not observed any release. We did not explain this peculiar behaviour.
    We think that either cefazolin are trapped within the HPMC matrix or it degrades and we can not observe the change in concentration.

    Çağla Çibuk

    Thanks to all of you for your answers, I will consider your thoughts.

  • Daniel Silva added an answer:
    What is the best way to transfer suspended nanoparticles from aqueous solution to THF?

    I am looking to transfer nanoparticles from a water-based suspension to THF. I have attempted dialysis into THF with the only dialysis membrane type readily available in my lab (mixed cellulose), but the dialysis membrane did not take well to it. I am wondering if there is a type of membrane you would recommend I purchase for this diaylsis, or if there is a better technique for the transfer altogether? 

    They are rather simple organosilica nanoparticles, which are ~ 64.04 nm in diameter.

    Thank you very much for your time and help!

    Daniel Silva

    Hi guys,

    Thanks so much for your help and ideas. I'm quite new to this site but it's already showing to be an amazing resource. 

    I wish I could say I succeeded in getting the nanoparticles into THF, but after trying each of techniques mentioned (except for dialysis with a suitable membrane, because £££) I had no choice but to change tactics and carry the reaction out in DMSO instead. I don't believe they are stable in such a harsh solvent.

    Many thanks again for your generous support.

  • Imran Khan added an answer:
    Which is the best method for encapsulating hydrophobic flavonoidal drugs into central core of a peptide dendrimer

    I am planning for a research on peptide dendrimers and their drug delivery properties of natural flavonoidal drugs. So I need a best method which can load these drugs into peptide dendrimers. Please help me out with this.

    Thank you

    Imran Khan

    You may try out proliposoma technique for the same.

    Spray dryer technique wherein your hydrophobic flavonoidal drug would get centrally encapsulated in peptide dendrimer.

    Very useful...

    Best regards,

    Imran Khan

  • Kazim Emre Karasahin added an answer:
    Are there any studies which have used the mother as the mode of drug delivery via breast milk?

    Are there any studies which have used the mother as the mode of drug delivery via breast milk?

    How would one go about to determine the amount of drug to administer to the mother to reach the litter?

    Krishna et al. 2013 provide a review where they present a formula to calculate human inflant exposure to drug:

    The maternal plasma concentration of drug (Cmaternal), area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of the drug in maternal milk and plasma (M/P AUC) ratio and the volume of milk ingested by the infant (Vinfant):

    Dose of infant (mg/kg/day) = Cmaternal (mg/L) x M/PAUC x Vinfant (L/kg/day)

    Is this model valid to use in a murine system?

    Moreover, is there a model or formula to calculate how much drug would the mother need to ingest (systemic administration through first pass metabolism) to achieve the target dose for an infant?

    Reviews, original research papers as references or any interjections/insights are much appreciated.

    Kazim Emre Karasahin

    This is really interesting, however there would be too many variables that could affect the transfer, and you can not be sure how much drug is delivered.  If there is more than one offspring, one cannot calculate or regulate the amount of milk that each offspring gets from the mother either. 

    I also would think that since only a minor fraction of drug is deposited in the milk, the amount of the drug given to mother for desired effect on the offspring could be detrimental or poisonous on the mother.

    Good luck

  • Sudhir Kumar added an answer:
    What is a 25 wt. % solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in methanol mean?
    What does wt% mean?
    Sudhir Kumar

    I agree with Peter Sobolewski reply. Similar problem you can see here


  • Tarik Eljaddi added an answer:
    How to differentiate between “transparent micro emulsion” and “transparent solution”?
    Can UV spectrophotometry be used?
    Tarik Eljaddi

    May be you can have an idea about the nature of your solution by to find contact angle for determining the hydrophobic property   of your solution, and also you can use a microscope for have a difference .  

  • Olivia Ho added an answer:
    What's this sticking around the Coacervates?

    Using 2% w/v Gelatin A and Gum acacia, 0.5gm crystalline drug and 1ml 10% tween 80.h20

    So I adjust to ph to 3.8 and subjecting it to ice bath to reduce the temperature to 15C.

    Repeat experiment twice:

    I check the coacervate under microscope and

    1) Replicate 1: I see spicky-like stuff sticking around it, and some floating around the solution.
    2) Replicate 2: No spicky-like stuff. Surrounding clear

    = Spicky stuff only appear after continuous agitation at 15C
    I am guessing spicky-like stuff= probably gelatin+arabic. But why is it appearing so?

    Is it because its been cool down too fast, as compare to replicate 2?

    + 2 more attachments

    Olivia Ho

    I use 0.5N and 0.1N HCl..
    Is definitely not my crystalline drug, as I repeated the same procedure with canola oil (instead of crystalline drug) and the same thing happens after 15C.

  • Jawadul Misir added an answer:
    In measuring of particle size of Drug Delivery Systems by DLS, which calculatioin (number, volume, or intensity) would be more applicable?
    As you know in measuring particle size by DLS method, three kind of particle size distribution measurements could be reported: number, volume, and intensity.
    Each of them could be applicable in different filed of science. for example in fluid mechanic particle size measurement based on volume is more useful than two other method. In drug delivery systems (DDS), in colloidal state particle size and zeta potential are important, but which of these three method is more useful from DDS viewpoint?
    Jawadul Misir

    In the DLS particle size distribution by volume graph  shows like 15.5 % at 18.5 d. nm or 19 % at 18 d nm. what that represent actually?

  • Kerem Karakuş added an answer:
    Can drug delivery efficiency be improved by pressure?

    We would like to enhance diffusion or delivery of polymeric nano particles/liposomes on a tissue culture model.

    Is there any experienced expertise or literatures regarding external pressure-mediated delivery enhancement?

    Thanks !

    Kerem Karakuş

    Dear Nashwan,

    My assumption is about the micro and nano-gels which will be used in delivery through the blood. The US will definitely disrupt the naive structure of micelles. As you are very well aware of it  they are self-assembled structures which are mostly depend on the inter-molecular forces and entanglement so it would not be surprise that the drugs will set free when the structure keeping the molecules destroyed. As the effect of the US, the pressure and temperature fluctuations will definitely effect the stability of the  micelles.

    When we return to the  adoption of the drug molecules in the gel the Fick's law will not be enough to estimate the behavior in there since it is related diffusion.  The interaction between the drug molecules and the inner walls of the gels should be taken into account. Just like in the case of drug entrapment with micelles.   

    When it comes to the reference studies, unfortunately, i do not have the access to the databases till i left my PhD.  Since i did not study on this effects, i do not have the archive on such issues. But ı have experienced both on micelles and applications of the US. My comments are sourced from the experiences and theoretical information on the basics. But i can surely find the related articles which will explain the effects of the pressure on the loading of the drug molecules to the gels. Or at least there are lots of studies on the effect of the pressure on the adsorption. 

    Best Regards. 

  • Christian Cibert added an answer:
    Is it possible to compare anticancer activity of raw-Curcumin and prepared pure curcumin nanoparticles ?

    recently i prepared nanoparticles of curcumin without any stabilizer, carrier and encapsulating agent. it was pure nanoparticles of curcumin only. i went through literature to know the precedure to compare raw and nano-curcumin anticancer activity but i never found such type of literature. however, there was many papers in which they encapsulated in polymers or stabilizer, or they attached curcumin nanoparticles to different carriers metal nanoparticles, polymers. so i want to know whether it is possible or not ? if noy why ? if yes then what is the procedure for MTT assay. any literture is there then share link with me.?


    Raj Kumar

    Christian Cibert

    Then, you must define your control the most precisely possible.


  • Ahmed Agiba added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the excipients for microemulsion with topical drug delivery?

    Can anybody suggest the excipients for Microemulsion with topical drug delivery?

    Ahmed Agiba

    I usually use these formulas:-

    Formula I

    Cremophor RH 40
    Anise oil
    Propylene glycol

    Formula II

    Cremophor RH 40
    Fennel oil
    Propylene glycol

  • Jeffrey J Weimer added an answer:
    How can I determine the n exponent of korsmeyer peppas?

    If I have an equation of korsmeyer chart ( log cumulative %drug release and log time) is y = 5.1 x + 3.2 and R2 = 0.8038

    how can determine the n exponent to determine the mechanism of release ?

    Jeffrey J Weimer

    "You can take two points of time with their respective Mt to complete the equation and isolate the k in each."

    Two points may give the slope and intercept of a line or solve two equations for two unknowns. It is however a sloppy approach to take in this case. The suggested method should be used only to obtain a first guess. The rigorous approach for a publication-quality report is to use non-linear regression fitting methods to get the parameters and their uncertainties.

    We have inexpensive (free), intuitive, user-friendly desktop computational applications today that can perform rigorous data analysis and return fitting values with their confidence limits in the blink of an eye. Why do folks still insist on doing data analysis as though all they have with them is an abacas or hard-copy graph paper?

  • Andrey Drozdov added an answer:
    Is there any interaction ( e.g chemical, steric interaction) between Paclitaxel and Iron oxide?

    What kind of interaction between Paclitaxel and Iron Oxide at pH 7.4, 37 Celsius degree and 1 atm? 

    Andrey Drozdov

    It seems that Paclitaxel is very hydrophobic and very poorly soluble in water. I don't think it can stabilize nanoparticles in aquaous media.

  • Manali Dwarakanath added an answer:
    Does anyone have access to the paper "Artificial Viruses: a nanotechnological approach to gene delivery"?
    Artificial viruses: a nanotechnological approach to gene delivery; Enrico Mastrobattista; Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 5, 115-121, 2006

    Manali Dwarakanath

    Hi! Could you please share the pdf with me? The above link doesn't seem to work.

  • Christopher Jobdevairakkam added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest me the stability parameter of Mebendazole in the stomach?

    I am looking for the kinetic parameters of the mebendazole molecules  into different part of the GI track. is mebendazole stable in stomach?

    Christopher Jobdevairakkam

    Mebendazole belongs to N-carbamate functional Me group. Under acidic condition, carbamates are not stable and tends to degrade to the amine function, losing the carbamate group.

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