Drug Delivery

Drug Delivery

  • Arun Kumar A added an answer:
    What are the surfactants using CaP nanoparticles for bio medical applications?

    I have prepared the CaP/Ag nanoparticles for the biomedical applications in drug delivery,give the suggestion for using surfactants. 

    Arun Kumar A · Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College

    poly vinyl pyrrolidone(PVP),

    poly vinyl alcohol (PVA),

    poly oxyethylene lauryl ether (POLE)

  • Vandana Gupta added an answer:
    Can you suggest good books about transdermal/topical delivery?

    Would you please suggest some good books about transdermal/topical drug delivery with review or your ranking?

    Vandana Gupta · Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya

    Topical drug delivery formulations
    by Osborne, D.W., Amann, A.H., Dekker series, volume 42         

  • Martin Sullivan added an answer:
    Can we use carbon nanotubes for drug delivery studies?

    We know that carbon nanotubes are carcinogenic.  Can we use it as drug delivery system?

    Martin Sullivan · Huazhong University of Science and Technology

    Although carbon nanotubes may be carcinogenic, there are certain ways around this problem such as coating them with a non-carcinogenic material such as silica.

    Liu, J., Wang, C., Wang, X., Wang, X., Cheng, L., Li, Y., & Liu, Z. (2014). Mesoporous Silica Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Multifunctional Light-Responsive Platform for Cancer Combination Therapy. Advanced Functional Materials, n/a–n/a. doi:10.1002/adfm.201403079


  • João Conde added an answer:
    Which is the best method for conjugation of antibodies with nanomaterials (especially metallic nanoparticles)?
    Can the antibodies be directly attached or some other polymeric/protein based materials must be used on the surface of metallic nanoparticles.
    João Conde · Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Check this paper....

  • Is there anyone who can carry out intestinal permeability test?

    We improved the solubility of a class IV drug and we are looking for collaboration to complete this project.

    Elena Sánchez-Vizcaíno Mengual · Hospital Sanitas CIMA

    You can see the last article of Alessio Fasano related with this:

    Intestinal permeability and its regulation by zonulin: diagnostic and therapeutic implications http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3458511/

    He has a lot of expertise in this and more publications about intestinal permeability.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Can we prepare micelle formulation incorporating hydrophilic drug and magnatide for immediate release of drug delivery to target the brain?

    If yes, give reference of method, Please.

  • R. Jagathesh Chandra Bose added an answer:
    How to determine the % cumulative drug release from PLGA microparticles?
    I am determining the in vitro drug release profile from micro-particles, where I have 10 mg microparticles suspended in 5 ml release medium and at each time points I withdraw 1 ml of supernatant (replacing with 1 ml of fresh release medium) and analyze it with HPLC. However, I am getting a bit confused regarding % cumulative release calculations. Do I simply add up the percentage release values at each time points? My confusion is that since I withdraw just 1 ml (out of 5 ml) for analysis, do I need to account for total volume and how do I account for dilution when I replace with 1 ml fresh media? Any help will be appreciated. Thank you.
    R. Jagathesh Chandra Bose · Chung-Ang University

    simple method by using shaker incubator. weigh 10mg (as your wish) and dissolved in 3ml of PBS then make it soluble /disperse completely ,

    Equally  divide into 3 portion,(1ml each), keep in shaker incubator as specified temp(37C),everyday remove media and store at -20 , finally quantify by UV/HPLC.

  • Louis Macovsky added an answer:
    Can anyone help with Microtrol beads - kinetic description?
    In order to model or simulate the time course of drug absorption of sustained release drugs from microbeads, I need an adequate description of the rate of release of drug from the dissolution of the carrier beads. In particular Microtrol beads. I do not need to know the bead composition or technology, only the parameters (values for Adderall XR would be nice) to simulate the "pulsatile-like" drug exposure to gi mucosa. References? Values?
    Louis Macovsky · Dynamic BioSystems, LLC & RxSim, Inc.

    Shaban, thank you.  This is a very useful document that I have not yet seen.  Louis

  • Karthik Yadav added an answer:
    Can I synthesize niosome by ergosterol instead of cholestrol?

    For drug delivery

    Karthik Yadav · University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Kakatiya University, Warangal, India

    Dear Barani,

    First of all let me appreciate for the efforts you are practicing to develop niosomes as they are reported to be stable vesicular systems compared to liposomes. Coming to the query chemically erog and cholesterol has same nuclei but still varies. However, as said earlier, the uncertainty would obviously exist, major point for research progress. I suggest you to go with both ergosterol and cholesterol if possible combination of both to find out the better approach. All the best dear. Expecting the most commanding reports on this issue.

  • Mohamed Awad Dadamouny added an answer:
    What is the acceptable concentration of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in serum-free medium?
    My compound is not soluble in water and I have to use cyclodextrin to increase the solubility for the bioassay.
    Mohamed Awad Dadamouny · University of Greifswald

    As shown in the attached files, the solubility of drugs increases linearly with the concentration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in aqueous buffer. The cells in serumsupplemented medium can be grown in concentrations up to 1-2% of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; in serum-free medium, concentrations of 0.5-1% are

    If it is possible, you can check the solubility with different concentrations (say 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%, etc) to get the recommended concentration for your study.  

  • Amit Jain added an answer:
    How can I assess actual concentration of drug after subcutaneous injection into rodent’s hind paw during behavioral tests?

    I am faced with problem to use the same or close to the same actual concentrations of drugs in behavioral tests, as in electrophysiological experiments.

    Does anybody know the ratio between the concentration of drug "in syringe" and actual concentration of this drug, that has an effect on nociceptive sensors in rodent's hind paw? A

    How can I assess this actual concentration?

    Amit Jain · Corium International

    If you have mean to measure the plasma concentration in that case measure it after 3 different concentratino dose given to animal. And evaluate which dose gives you plasma concentration close to your electrophysioly experiment and use that concentration in behaviou experiment.

  • Farzad Khanipour added an answer:
    Are we able to prepare nanoparticles using Polyethylene glycol for delivery of water soluble drug?

    Please suggest me with reference or any strong reasons, please

    Farzad Khanipour · University of Guilan

    Hi Rizwan

    What is your drug exactly ? Have you chosen it ? For treatment of which disease??

    Anyway, you wont be able to prepare nanocariers using just PEG as the only building block. An amphiphilic block copolymer would be the best means for this purpose, such as PCL-PEG, PLA-PEG, PLGA-PEG, etc. 

    Our group focuses on PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for delivery of water soluble drugs such as peptides and Doxorubicin, as well as hydrophobic drugs such as Paclitaxel for treatment of solid tumors..

  • Jianhua Li asked a question:
    How do I make micro-holes on the surface of a nylon suture fiber?

    I want to load some drug inside the fiber body. The suture fiber is made of nylon. Is there any way to etch or corrode holes to let the drug in? 

  • Mohd Qasim added an answer:
    What is the need of inhibition of HSA when most of the studies we encountered are centered around the use of HSA for the efficient drug delivery?

    We have a few queries about the inhibition of Human Serum Albumin

    1) What is the need of inhibition of HSA when most of the studies we
    encountered are centered around the use of HSA for efficient
    drug delivery ?

    2) What is the fate of serum albumin after its inhibition? What is
    possible degradation pathway ?

    3) How do you see the possible Hyperproteinemia due to inhibited HSA
    and the HSA produced by the body because of the feed back mechanism in the
    body to carry out normal physiological roles?

    4) What happens if human serum albumin blocker and warfarin are given together?

    5) If we block HSA, then is there any other delivery system for drugs?

    6) If yes then how can the body clear the block from of HSA?

    Mohd Qasim · University of Hyderabad

    more informative reply ,,thanks

  • Fars Alanazi added an answer:
    Is there a simple method to wash and separate liposomal formulation from the free drug?

    I have tried to separate it using centrifugation at 12000 rpm for 10 min. 

    Fars Alanazi · King Saud University

    It is good question

    you have to know your drug soulbility 

    if your drug is lipophilic will precipitate due to centrifugation so it is better to use density gradient to float liposome, you can have look under microscope for any traces of drug crystal

    Whil if you drug is water soluble you can run the regular method you mentioned

    using gel or column are suffer from drug loss and cost,

    I do really recommend you know the soulbility and use the ease method 

  • Yasam Venkata Ramesh added an answer:
    What solvent system should be used for liposomal digestion?

    How much time does it take for drug release?

    I have added methanol for digestion of liposomes. Does the drug release take place immediately or do we need to wait for a few hours for release from the liposome for UV absorbance measurement?

    Yasam Venkata Ramesh · JSS University

    Dear lakshmi,

    triton X-100 is preferable for immediate drug release in most of the cases. drug release also depends on the lipids concentration used.


  • Sudip Mukherjee added an answer:
    What is the serum concentration we should use for drug release study?

    Fbs can be used for drug release study. But shall we use 100% FBS or 50%?

    Sudip Mukherjee · Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

    Thanks  Mr. George Dakwar for your answer.

  • Ossama Y Abdallah added an answer:
    How to perform Dissolution of Nanoparticles?

    Dear All, 

    Can anyone explain me how to perform dissolution (invitro release study) of a sustained release nanoparticles? 

    Is it possible to use the USP Dissolution Apparatus Paddle or Basket for this?

    Ossama Y Abdallah · Alexandria University

    dialysis method is the best, or you may try the normal dissolution test and filter the sample through 0.1 um membrane filter.

  • Ana Hortelão added an answer:
    Which are the biopolymers used for the topical drug delivery system?

    I want to know the list of novel biopolymers allowed to use for the topical drug delivery.

    If you're looking for some form of nanocarrier for topical application you need to take into account its toxicity, so maybe think about water soluble polymers that are also biocompatible rather than thinking just about polymers with quick degradation rate.

  • Rizwan Ahmad added an answer:
    How can I do gellan gum (GELRITE) based in situ-forming ophthalmic preparation?

    I want to prepare ion activated in situ forming gel for ocular drug delivery based on gellan gum. Many research papers used GELRITE as a brand of gellan gum from CPKELCO, which is no longer available. I have a sample of KELCOGEL F but that is not working for in situ gelation. Can you suggest what should be done?

    Rizwan Ahmad · The Islamia University of Bahawalpur

    Thanks Aida but can you specify some that worked for you using HPMC AND ploxomer

    which grade of HPMC you used and did it make a clear transparent solution with ploxomer.

    In addition have you worked with combination of HPMC and Carbopol.

  • How to convert the oral dose into intra peritoneal dose for rat?

    Thanks in advance....

    You might be interested in the sites, please check out.


  • What type of electrodes would you recommend for in vivo human topical use electroporation?

    I will be performing a test soon that I have been planning for awhile, though one are still hangs me up. The test will involve applying a solution to a human patients scalp, and electroporating the then wet scalp to enhance transdermal delivery. What type of electrodes should I use or would be best to use? The goal is to not use penetrating needles or any painful electrode that penetrates the skin. It should be applied topically to the skin and the pulse will begin. Can you recommend any electrodes for this purpose and link to them please? I will be using likely the btx ecm 600 or the bio rad gene pulser (or gene pulser 2) Or possibly my biorad micropulser.

    Please help me out on this and point me to some appropriate electrodes. Thank youvery much.

    Chiranjeevi Srinivasa Rao Vusa · CSIR-CECRI-Karaikudi

    Hi Ellie,

    Just follow the links, I hope that you can surely get some info regarding your work.





  • Y. Lan added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest the excipients for Microemulsion with Parenteral drug delivery?

    can anybody suggest me the excipients (oils, Surfactant/co-surfactant) for microemulsion for parenteral drug delivery.


    Y. Lan · BASF Corporation

    Kolliphor HS15 (old name: Solutol HS15) has been widely used in microemulsion for parenteral drug delivery.

    Please check the recent publication:

    A study of microemulsions as prolonged-release injectables through in-situ phase transition, Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 174, 28 January 2014, Pages 188-194
    Zimei Wu, Raid G. Alany, Noor Tawfeek, James Falconer, Wenli Zhang, Ibrahim M. Hassan, Michael Rutland, Darren Svirskis

  • E. S. Zhavoronok added an answer:
    How can I calculate the average dimension of the polymer network mesh using swelling data?

    polymer used was a blend of alginate and polyurethane(containing excess PEG). polymer blend was crossliked in CaCl2 to form beads. Prepared beads were swelled in pbs solution. 

    Is it possible to calculate  average dimension of the polymer network mesh from that swelling data? 

    E. S. Zhavoronok · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Aditi Bhattacharyya, you can try to swell the crosslinked polymer in set of various solvents with known solubility parameters. But it's a very long work.


  • Do inactive ingredients in generic drugs have true bio-equivalency to brand name drugs' inactive ingredients?

    I had several really bad experiences lately with generic drugs whose bio-equivalency was explained to me by FDA means that "the generic drugs dissolve and absorb the same way and the same place as the brand name." I find this not to be the case. Often times generic drugs come without film coating and with cut line in the middle, indicating that it will dissolve in the stomach. For the same drug the brand name may come with a film coating and no cut line indicating that it dissolves in the intestines. Given the metabolic pathways, where the drug dissolves affects how it absorbs and where. Given that the active ingredients are the same, if a generic drug does not work the same way, can we say that the inactive ingredients have modified the drug to be a different drug? And if so, how can one address this in the US?

    Hi Angela

    You might be interested in the site, please check out.

    Have a nice day

  • Niraj Bhatt added an answer:
    Does a misfolded protein delivered into the cell externally has the propensity to get folded inside the cell???

    I want to deliver an improperly folded protein (may / may not be improperly folded) into the animal cell. Does it has any chance to get properly folded inside the cell before it get delivered to specified destination ie, nucleus or mitochondria???

    It is important to mention that I am using cell penetrating peptide as the delivery methodology into the cells. Secondly, the proteins to be delivered are nuclear transcription factors. Thirdly, what if I would give cells the heat shock?? This would activate the cellular chaperon cascade and may allow proper folding of the delivered protein.

    Kindly quote any reference if available

    Niraj Bhatt · Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

    Hi Tarun,

    I would like to bring it to your attention that under stress conditions, the cell not only activates chaperones, but all the components requisite for restoration of protein homeostasis will be induced. These include degradation enzymes as well. So, when you inject your protein into the cell, you can never be sure how will it received by the cell! The cell's first response might be degradation of your protein, or might be attempts to fold it by foldases, or just holding your protein in unfolded state by holdases. The best thing to do, as suggested by many others as well, will be to tag your protein with fluorescence tag and visualize it's life in the cell. Whatever we all are suggesting or whatever results you get, might vary for each protein.
    Best regards with your experiments. 

  • Mohd Qasim added an answer:
    Can some one suggest me the most suitable magnetic nanoparticles (as a core )for drug delivery application?

    generally people use Fe3O4. Please , suggest any other more suitable.

    Mohd Qasim · University of Hyderabad

    Thanks for your valuable suggestions

  • Rakesh Kumar Tekade added an answer:
    What may be the ideal zeta potential of a nanocarrier for parenteral administration?

    We often see positive and negative as well as neutrally charged nanocarriers being employed for drug delivery.

    Considering drug delivery from the nanocarrier without aggregation issues, what charge do you think should be possessed by the nanocarrier-based formulations?


    Thank you very much every one.

  • Md. Lutful Amin added an answer:
    How can I conjugate two materials(having COOH & amine) to amine functionalized nanoparticles?

    I have to conjugate two materials to amine functionalized nanoparticles. Both materials have amine and carboxyl groups. I thought about conjugating the first material by amine-NHS reaction (the first material has NHS group) and the second material by COOH-amine using EDC. However, after conjugating the first material, how will I ensure that the second material will not attach to the amine group of the first material?

    Md. Lutful Amin · Gachon University

    Thanks all for your valuable comments. )

About Drug Delivery

Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery

Topic Followers (12083) See all