Drug Delivery

Drug Delivery

  • Prabhanjan Giram added an answer:
    Is it possible that the transdermal drug permeation from a polymer alone is better than polymers with penetration enhancers?

    I make a research on transdermal drug release , and i have some foreign release behavior that the drug permeation parameters are better than the permeation with adding different type of penetration enhancers

    Is it true and possible?

    Prabhanjan Giram · CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory, Pune

    Literature survey reveals that when you  use permeation enhancer  obvious transdermal  pemeation is more than polymer alone.

  • Sunil Kumar Yadava added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest me the stability parameter of Mebendazole in the stomach?

    I am looking for the kinetic parameters of the mebendazole molecules  into different part of the GI track. is mebendazole stable in stomach?

    Sunil Kumar Yadava · University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon

    Dear Rosic,

    thank you for the reply and giving me your precious time 

    Can you provide me the some research articles stated instability into gastric pH

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the excipients for microemulsion with topical drug delivery?

    Can anybody suggest the excipients for Microemulsion with topical drug delivery?

    Abhishek Raj · Quest Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd, Birgunj, Nepal

    Hi! Abbas,

    You can you the following excipients:

    White soft paraffin

    Liquid paraffin

    Hard paraffin

    Cetomacrogol 1000

    Cetosteryl Alcohol

    PEG 4000/6000

    Also use a suitable surfactant and preservative. When preparing microemulsion, run the homogenizer at high speed. Also measure the particle size of your emulsion. For you microemulsion to be stable, more than 95% of your particles should be less than 5 microns.



  • Rajeswari Raja added an answer:
    If we use polymers to deliver peptide-based drug, how would it react in our stomach?

    If we use polymers to deliver peptide-based drug, how would it react in our stomach? how is the process of that drug to get absorbed through the small intestine? when will the molecules get released out of the polymer? i'm a student and just started studying about drug, i read some papers but still doesn't make sense to me

    Rajeswari Raja · Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research


    naked drugs do not know where to target. But they specifically have some receptors to bind with. That makes the difference in their bioavailability and efficacy. But they can be surely targeted with their specific properties they have like, ionization constant,  lymphatic transport, permeability and affinity etc towards the specific receptors by designing them in the form of  self emulsifying delivery systems, etc

  • Juan I. Sanchez-Avila added an answer:
    What is a 25 wt. % solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in methanol mean?
    What does wt% mean?
    Juan I. Sanchez-Avila · Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education

    Unfortunately, still are conflicts in the use of this therm. Expressing 25 wt.% as 25 g of solute and 100g of solvent, is wrong because the total weight of the solution will be 125 g. Peter Sobolewski explained perfectly in his post:

    wt.% = [g solute/(g solute + g solvent)] x 100

  • Sree Gayathri asked a question:
    How do I analyze the mechanism of drug release-rate kinetics? Is it first order or zero order kinetic by looking at the drug release results?

    How do I analyze the mechanism of drug release-rate kinetics? Is it first order or zero order kinetic by looking at the drug release results?

  • David M Benjamin added an answer:
    Could anyone suggest a detailed procedure to measure the permeability of synthesized drugs using everted intestine technique?

    Could anyone suggest a detailed procedure to measure the permeability of synthesized drugs using everted intestine technique?

    David M Benjamin · Northeastern University

    Look up the work of Stanley A Kaplan who did these studies at Hoffmann-La Roce where we worked together in the 1970s

  • Adel Marzban added an answer:
    Can anyone help with drug delivery and targeting to liver specifications?

    What is the specification of drugs carriers for targeting and delivery to Liver, and whats the qualified surface charge and particle sizes for targeting liver and binding with kupffer cells?

    Adel Marzban · Islamic Azad University Tehran North Branch

    Dear Sunil Mahor and Riyaz Ali Osmani thanks alot for your answers,

    please give me any data you think it can help me, in Hepatic Drug Delivery

  • Prakash Naga Pillai added an answer:
    Do I need to take anti-fungal tests for anti-bacterial drug delivery?

    i have prepared polymeric hydrogel in that i like to deliver the anti bacterial drug since i have doubt on do i want to take  both anti fungal and anti bacterial test or alone enough anti bacterial test only

    Prakash Naga Pillai · Thangavelu Group of Colleges

    Dear madam,

    For any polymeric combination, should be present both test for anti fungai and anti bacterial test.

    Thanking you,

    N. Prakash

  • Neeraj Sethiya added an answer:
    What is the best way to quantify the plant extract encapsulated in liposomes for encapsulation efficiency assessment ?

    Liposomes pharmacology drug delivery nanoparticles herbal extracts

    Neeraj Sethiya · The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

    Dear Salma

    For quantification there must be some reference standard.

    Means any chemical marker that is present in your extract in high quantity.

    Which can be utilized for quantification via HPTLC or HPLC.

  • Bae Hoon Lee added an answer:
    What are the types of characterization need for a polymeric hydrogel to act as a drug delivery system?

    & how can I confirm it's suitable for drug delivery system?

    I have prepared polymeric hydrogel now I would like to proceed for drug delivery system I have confuse that what are the characterization need for a polymeric hydrogel to act as a drug delivery system?

    Bae Hoon Lee · Nanyang Technological University

    swelling ratio, mesh size, (crosslinking density), diffusivity, degradation etc.

  • Abdulazim S Salhab added an answer:
    Is there a difference in how drugs cross the BBB with ip versus IV injections?

    I am trying to study effect of indomethacin on mechanical allodynia. At the selected dose, I am not able to observe any effects with ip injections. Given that mechanical allodynia likely is a central mechanism, is it worth for me to try out an IV injection of indomethacin before i conclude that it's ineffective? Is it likely that the drug is not crossing BBB at a sufficient dose with IP route and will do so with IV route?

    Abdulazim S Salhab · Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Retired on Sep. 2009

    In continuation to my answer on how drugs can cross the BBB, it is a natural protective mechanism to control free crossing of drugs, toxins, and the environmental substances from the brain barrier. Such elements path through three layers before reaching the neurons :

    1) the endothelial capillary wall.

    2) the thick basic lamina surrounding the external fave of capillaries.

    3) the astrocytes clinging two capillaries. 

    The physicochemical properties such as: the small size, nonionizable, and fat drug solubility only can cross the BBB. Fat, oxygen, CO2, and fat soluble molecules can diffuse easily into the plasma membrane. The nature of the BBB will explain why alcohol, nicotine, and anesthetics can affect the brain easily. The nature of the BBB is not completely uniform. For example, it is not found in the third and fourth ventricles. Another example would be that is it not found in the vomiting center. Lack of BBB in neonates and premature infants can cause toxic substances to reach the brain which may cause death by nonconjugated bilirubin.

  • Zaynab Abdlraoof asked a question:
    What is the type of nano matrix used in drug delivery, based on fluorescence?

    What is the type of nano matrix used in drug delivery based on fluorescence?

  • André Luiz Lourenço added an answer:
    How can I convert human dosage in to rat dosage?

    If I have drug A used for human 45 mcg/day, how much do I have to use for a rat weighing 250g.

    André Luiz Lourenço · University of California, San Francisco

    Usually the dose is based on the weight of the patient and severity of the insult. 
    Try to keep the same ratio on mcg/kg... The pharmaceutical company usually provide specifics in monographs if not in the general information sheet. 

  • Tony Mickael Dinis added an answer:
    Should I perform a cytotoxicity test of my hydrogel before or after drug loading?

    actually i am focusing on drug delivery application so i have prepared my hydrogel  since i have doubt on may i  want to take cytotoxicity test before model drug loaded or after durg loaded ?

    Tony Mickael Dinis · Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6

    I agree,

    Do your toxicity assay on your mat and then another one with your drug loaded. You can use an easy technic as organotipic culture of your mat.

    Good luck

  • Shafi ullah Khan added an answer:
    What will be the release mechanism of the drug and what will be the effect of pH on drug release?

    If polyoxometalate (anion) is electro-statically binded with the a cationic polymer using acrylic acid as a monomer.

    what will be the release mechanism of the drug and what will be the effect of pH on drug release?

    Normally a drug is loaded in free form in polymeric network (hydrogel) and release mechanism is by diffusion process. Here the drug by itself is the part of hydrogel system and is electro-statically binded with the polymer.

    Shafi ullah Khan · COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

    Thanks Alot Raphael Henrique Marques Marcilli,Jeannine Coburn and Abdelkader BOUAZIZ 

  • Juliette Bitard added an answer:
    How do I dissolve verteporfin to inject IP mice?

    Verteporfin (SIGMA) is supposed to be dissolved 2mg/ml in DMSO according to the datasheet but I need to inject between 0.2 mg and 1mg per mouse. I can't inject 100% DMSO... And I'm working on 8g P14 mice so no more than around 100 microL / mice...  Is it possible like for example for tamoxifen to dissolve in ethanol and then add oïl + sonicator? Any idea???

    THANX in advance

    Juliette Bitard · Université Paris-Sud 11

    Thank you eveybody for your kind and helpful answers! I'l try.


  • Abbas Rahdar added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me about drug delivery methods based on microemulsion through skin?

    Can anyone tell me about drug delivery methods based on microemulsion through skin?

    Abbas Rahdar · Zabol University

    Dear All,

    Is it possible to do Cytotoxicity studies of microemulsion such as MTT assay and etc (similar to MTT assay on nanoparticles)?

  • E. Alemzadeh added an answer:
    I dont know how increase LE in DOx loading in plant virus?

    im workinh on use of plant virus for drug delivery. but loadinf efficiency in my work is low. how increase it?

    E. Alemzadeh · Shiraz University

    thanks a lot dear Saira Bano.

    i do materials and finally have low efficiency and dont know what i do!!!

  • Hamida Darwish added an answer:
    How can I load a non-water soluble aromatic drug molecule on to a graphene oxide?

    A well established protocol was followed for drug loading. Unfortunately, the method seems not working. Is it necessary to have drug soluble in DMSO for loading? I tried to load drug by dissolving in THF and chloroform as my drug is not DMSO soluble. The drug loaded with THF and chloroform did not show any UV absorption peak after centrifugation/purification. However, it showed peak before purification. Please suggest me some suitable method for loading.

    Hamida Darwish · King Abdulaziz University

    Dear S. Rangasamy

    I think you have to red these may it will good guide:

    1. PEGylated Nano-Graphene Oxide for Delivery of Water ...
    by Z Liu - ‎2008 - ‎

    2.PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water ...

    3.Nano-Graphene Oxide for Cellular Imaging and Drug Delivery
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)
    by X Sun - ‎2008 -

    3.PEGylated Nanographene Oxide for Delivery of Water ...
    by Z Liu - ‎2008 -

    4.Real time monitoring of the drug release of rhodamine B on ...
    by R Zhang - ‎2011

    Hope they help.

    Good luck

  • Josef Chmelar added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend a suitable hyaluronan/ hyaluronic acid for topical drug delivery?

    I am planning to prepare a formulation of topical antibiotic and hyaluronan/hyaluronic acid. The purpose of including hyaluronic acid is to improve permeation of antibiotic across the skin. Can anyone advise what would be the recommended size of hyaluronic acid that is suitable for topical permeation, and the suitable sources of hyaluronic acid  as well (whether from bacteria, or mammalian cells)? thank you.

    Josef Chmelar · Contipro


    A large offer of bacterial hyaluronan with specified molecular weight can be found at:




  • Alexander Holmkvist added an answer:
    Can anyone help with an entrapment efficiency/encapsulation efficiency calculation?

    Is my calculation correct?

    Lets say my drug system is matrix/microsphere; dried and obtained powder.

    Entrapment/Encapsulation Efficiency %= (Experimental drug content/total drug content) x 100

    Weight of powder produced= 1.6532 gm

    Weight of drug added in beginning = 1.5 gm 

    Standard calibration Curve of Drug = 0.05X ; R2=0.993

    Procedure: 10mg of powder mixed with 20ml ethyl acetate; sonicated 12 minutes; centrifuged; supernatant filter with 0.45µm and absorbance taken. 

    Absorbance over 2; so diluted 10 times

    So diluted powder-ethyl acetate solution=  0.093 A

    In 10mg powder, concentration of drug = 1.86ppm X 10= 18.6ppm 

     =18.6 ppm x 20ml= 372µg.

    Assuming 10mg = 372µg. So in 1.6532 gm; there is 61499.04 µg or 0.06149904 gm.

    Entrapment/Encapsulation Efficiency %= ((0.06149904 gm) / 1.5 gm x 100 ) = 4.1%

    Alexander Holmkvist · Lund University

    I'm having problems with finding references that compare and discuss the direct and indirect way of determining encapsulation efficiency, can you recommend any?

  • Dr. Sonali Dalwadi added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest a reference regarding the bioavailability of antituberculosis drugs in the respiratory tract for pulmonary route drug delivery?

    Need to know Bioavailability for antituberculosis drugs in respiratory tract for pulmonary route drug delivery (i.e DPI/pMDI).

    Dr. Sonali Dalwadi

    May this review article link and cross referènces from same full fill your requirement.

  • Ritesh Vinod Birla added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to mask the taste of lornoxicam in oral film strips?

    I am working Lornoxicam Mouth dissolving oral film strips. I am tried to bitter taste mask of lornoxicam. Can anyone suggest me how to taste mask of lornoxicam? I am trying with lots of Ion exchange resins as well as Aminoalkyl methacrylate
    copolymer but till it no bitter taste mask.

    Can anyone suggest the sources of lornoxicam?

    Ritesh Vinod Birla · NU Therapeutics Pvt. Ltd.

    Thanks a lots to all

  • James H Adair added an answer:
    How can I prevent disappearance of silica nanoparticles?

    I have prepared amine (NH2) functionalized silica nanoparticles (250 nm). I am trying to conjugate biomolecules/drug (having COOH) on the surface of silica using EDC and NHS. Initially, the reaction is successful (as I can see red doxorubin conjugated particles after centrifugation). However, when I wash the sample 2-3 times by centrifugation or when I keep the sample after washing, the particles disappear and I just see a clear liquid! I centrifuged that again and did not see any precipitate. Has anyone faced this problem?? Can you please help??

    James H Adair · Pennsylvania State University

    Silicon dioxide suspensions should always be maintained below pH 9, if you do not want the particles to dissolve.  Best of luck.  Jim

  • Raffaele Conte added an answer:
    How can we choose the drug in drug delivery applicaion?

    How can we choose the drug in drug delivery applicaion for hydrogels?

    What are the parameter essential to analyse the TDS in  water sample? Is there any spot test available? 

    Raffaele Conte · National Research Council

    Hi Shanmugavel 

    In general, when you choose a drug for incorporation in hydrogels you must consider its solubility and the possible interaction ( covalent or physical ) with the hydrogel polymeric structure. Please have a look on the enclosed paper for further information.

    Regarding the second question, if you mean "Total Dissolved Solids" there are useful information on:


  • Yasam Venkata Ramesh added an answer:
    Can anyone introduce me book or website about microemulsion and drug delivery by micoemulsion?

    Please introduce me book or website about microemulsion and drug delivery by micoemulsion.

    Yasam Venkata Ramesh · JSS University

    dear abbas,

    you can get full information here, 

    Microemulsions: Background, New Concepts, Applications, Perspectives 2008 by Cosima Stubenrauc 

  • Sandeep Kumar Palvai added an answer:
    Could you please suggest me some anticancer drug delivery research groups in France?

    I am very thankful if you could let me know some anticancer drug delivery research groups in France. 

    Sandeep Kumar Palvai · Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune

    Dear Prof. Frederic Lagarce, i am really  glad to hear from you since i have already been following your outstanding profile, thank you very much.

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