• Pooia Lalbakhsh asked a question:
    Are Minimal pairs and auditory discrimination grouped within phonological awareness?

    I want to know if I can group Minimal pairs and auditory discrimination in phonological awareness category or these three are totally different?

  • Mary Torres added an answer:
    What is your definition of colorism? Do you think managers and exectives have an understanding of colorism?

    Colorism is a form of intraracial discrimination.  I have that found that over 50% of corporations within the United States do not include colorism in their discrimination policy or employee training.  Do you think this also happens in other parts of the world?

    Mary Torres · Argosy University

    Colorism can occur interracially as well intraracially.

  • Suzanne R. Sicchia added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of an instrument (reliable and valid) that measures knowledge of intersectionality?

    I would like to investigate further knowledge of intersectionality.

    Suzanne R. Sicchia · University of Toronto

    I am not familiar with a specific tool or index myself. However, Professor Olena Hankivsky has written a great deal on intersectionality as a policy tool. A search for articles and white papers authored by her seems a good place to start.  And if that search is unproductive, perhaps try contacting her directly. I believe she is affiliated with Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada. 

  • Stefaan Decorte asked a question:
    The Bergen left-right discrimination test.

    Dear All,

    I am looking for The Bergen left-right discrimination test.   Where could I buy this test?



  • Roya Aliakbari added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the data selection for training an intrusion detection system?

    I have a dataset of network connections (KYOTO +2006) that each connection has a label of attack or normal. (It doesn't determine which kind of attack).

    According to a paper that I want to simulate, I need to choose RANDOMLY and FAIRLY a set of data which contain 1 percent of attack and 99 percent of normal but they did not discuss what does FAIRLY means.

    I discriminated data in to attack and normal and randomly choose 1% from attack and 99% from normal but my result was too different from the base paper and I think the problem is in Data selection?

    I have a question, Is data selection important in training an IDS (intrusion detection system) and what should I choose training data to be sure it covers all kind of attack and normal data.

    Roya Aliakbari · Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology

    Dear shrikant

    thank you for your reply. but can you explain more please

    my question is:

    I have a data set with label attack or normal, how can I choose a training set from this dataset with 1% attack and 99% of normal  to be sure it's representative and it is FAIRE


  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    What are the possible implications of studying tourists' stereotypes?
    I have interviewed 50 locals in Petra who work as souvenir sellers and horse guides, the aim was to explore their perceptions on different nationalities of tourists regarding some specific behaviors. The results were showing clear stereotypes of tourists.
    FC Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University
    See if your library has this book on the shelf, otherwise inter library loans:
  • Walter Demmelhuber asked a question:
    Precedence Case: Language requirements for EU-students studying in other Member States - high or low?
    In many member states of the EU (and specifically in Germany) each University is able to set its own standards of language requirements (some recommendations exist from the HRK, but neither regulation nor law).
    Generally speaking a university can follow two tracks for education:
    1) 'Elitism' and trying to attract the best (for professors, students, research, ...) which (can) lead to effect that entry language criteria are very high so no language student support has to be given or hinders academic understanding
    2) 'Place of Learning' meaning that in a mobile EU for most languages students which not have acquired a academic level of the language and students must be given the chance to enter other Member States with medium language levels and continue learning the language at the host university/state

    The highest administrative court in Bavaria has now recognized the discrepancy between European standards and unusually high demands of universities and in the Case of Fuentes given protection (http://www.discrimination.guru/?p=52)

    What do you think?

    PS: for mobile workers (doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, ...) it is already decided. Language levels must be uniform and low to avoid discrimination

    (full academic research here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262638113_EU_Student_Language_Discrimination_English_Version?ev=prf_pub)
  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Have politics in any way affected your career advancement, whether in research or in education?
    Very often individuals who have achieved very good results in science were obstructed in the choice of their occupations or promotion, unless they were a member of the ruling party. This often happened in communist regimes and even afterwards in the so-called early democracies. Are these injustices corrected and these people rehabilitated, even posthumously? Do we still have such bad practices to prominent members of the scientific and educational communities around the world? What are your own experiences and do you have any information about such cases? Also, many people seem to be dissidents and emigrants in such situations.
    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac
    @Romano, thanks for fine response. It is a common problem in most of the countries with incompatibility of time-scales :Politics and Education! It is a serious problem!
  • Ellen Wiewel added an answer:
    Is stigma related to HIV/AIDS worse than the stigma related mental health? If not, why were we silent so far?
    Consider their respective voices.
    Ellen Wiewel · New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
    Stigma towards persons with HIV persists, but in the US, it has lessened over the three decades of the epidemic. Reasons I can think of for the reduction in stigma over time include declining HIV incidence, effective treatment, diversification of persons getting infected, and greater tolerance of different groups that have been heavily affected (e.g., gay men).

    That said, I'm curious why you're seeking to compare stigma against HIV with that against mental illness. The first is a specific infection, the second a range of conditions, so they're not especially comparable in that sense. And why compare at all? Both are stigmatized, and people with either condition deserve respect and access to care. Are you interested in how anti-stigma activism comes about for each? Maybe existing activism networks among affected people, and homogeneity among the affected, actually support anti-stigma efforts in some sense. Those conditions were present in the gay community in the early days of HIV but perhaps do not exist to the same extent among persons with mental illness.
  • Joachim Pimiskern added an answer:
    Are there any standardized tests on racial stereotypes that can be used on school children and teenagers?
    I am working on a project to assess the knowledge and adherence to stereotypes by primary and secondary school children (10-15yrs old) concerning foreign-born pupils. We already have a qualitative tool that we will be using but I was wondering if there were any standardized tools that could add validity to our research?
  • Adrian J Tomyn added an answer:
    What is the incidence of racism and/or discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations in Australia?
    I am having trouble finding statistics that evidence the incidence of racism and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations. Is there a difference in the experience of racism and/or discrimination as a function of geographic location?
    Adrian J Tomyn · RMIT University
    Good point. Although there are a number of papers that have asked people to indicate the frequency and nature of perceived discrimination. But again, this relies on retrospective recall which is problematic and the issue you raised - subjectivity.
  • Do you have any suggestions of papers that examine the impact of education on wage discrimination over gender?
    For example, uneducated or low-educated women are facing bigger discrimination in wages than highly-educated women. Please kindly mention the title and writer(s) and the link (if any).
    Carlos Manoel Lopes Rodrigues · Universidade Católica de Brasília
    This works examines this question in two differents contexts:

    Cunningham; Salvano (2011). Youth Employment Transitions
    in Latin America: https://openknowledge.worldbank.com/bitstream/handle/10986/3294/WPS5521.pdf?sequence=1

    Addabboab; Favarobc (2011). Gender wage differentials by education in Italy. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4589-4605.

    I hope they are useful ...
  • Irene Kamberidou added an answer:
    How can we move from gender devaluation and gender fatigue to gender energy and get more women to ride up the glass escalator?
    "If you talk to people today in the workplace they construct the workplace as gender neutral, assuming that gender no longer matters because the issue has long been solved, " (Kelan,2010).
    Need to focus on innovative approaches to getting gender back on the agenda : re-evaluate our strategies on how we can move from “gender fatigue” to gender energy(Kamberidou 2010, Kamberidou & Fabry 2011)
    Irene Kamberidou · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    Indeed Angela, in patriarchal societies it is a problem that is not isolated to the work place, but in all social institutions. Now with regard to the western or rather anglo-saxon conception of gender or the term gender vs. sex, the main goal is that of gender equity/social equality for both women and men. Integrating a gender perspective is an issue of integrating diversity into the system, as opposed to wasting it. Gender issues (in western societies, in the developed world) do not only concern women! Men have a gender as well. Men also confront social inequalities and discrimination. Gender studies, for example, are not women's studies, they do not focus exclusively on women, as men have a gender as well. Integrating a gender perspective refers to the process of assessing and reassessing the implications for both women and men of any program and action plan at all levels: social, economic, and political. It requires gender-specific interventions, policies, and practices that may target exclusively women or interventions that target men exclusively or even men and women together. In fact, the goal of integrating the gender dimension into the equation is to transform exclusionary or unequal social and institutional structures into equal and just ones for both women and men. For example, an intervention that targets both women and men is Get Online Week 2013, a pan-European awareness campaign empowering people to use technology and the internet- which ties in with the GrandCoalition for Digital Jobs officially launched at a conference in Brussels in early March 2013 - as over 20% Europeans of both genders are young, unemployed, and mostly unaware that by 2015, up to 900,000 vacancies for ICT-related jobs may remain open if jobseekers (men and women) do not acquire the right digital skills. (Kamberidou 2013) So we need to work together to achieve economic growth and sustainable development. Integrating a gender perspective means eliminating the wastage of talent –utilizing all human resources, the entire talent pool - and as a result, boosting innovation which is a prerequisite for economic growth and sustainable development.
  • Leyla Tekul added an answer:
    Is inequality among human society healthy for the future world?
    Caste system division and deprivation affects all facilities and creates problems.
    Leyla Tekul · University of British Columbia - Vancouver
    Well, law and law enforcement might solve the problem only up to a certain level. No law would be able to 'erase' historic and societal boundaries/accumulations, religious barriers, misconceptions and the need for being 'amongst your own kind. In countries, which claim to be egalitarian and undiscriminating, the 'hidden racism, and more dangerously 'colorblindness' (another form of racism') going 'perfectly' on. I cannot believe that law or political/governmental measures might also regulate human feelings and beliefs. Did you say human rights? Where does that 'really' happen ? We should have gone way more further with equal treatment issues but I am afraid "amnesty International" and similar organizations will have a lot to do, even in our future worlds. The more we globalize, the more I am observing the need for 'ethnic belonging and bonds' in some nations/nation states.The more we try to build trade blocs and unions the more 'divisions' occur .( Yugoslavia, USSR etc) Our caveman instinct tells us that we should protect our values, cultures, languages from being "mixed up" with others. That's natural. Political correctness is also no solution since it reaches a level of 'naturally/biologically/socially incorrectness, in some cases.
  • Emilio Paolo Visintin asked a question:
    Does anyone know articles or studies about symbolic racism outside the American context?
    Specifically, are there any studies measuring symbolic racism toward a target different from Black Americans?
  • Roger Keller Celeste added an answer:
    What is the relation between discrimination and poverty?
    Looking for most influential relations between these two categories. How does discrimination make poverty stronger and vice versa?
    Roger Keller Celeste · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
    Hi, Cristian,

    Of course this goes both ways. However, it is easier to get empirical evidence that people are discriminated because they are poor than the contrary.

    It is my opinion that the most common way is people being discriminated because they are poor, and it is less comon to get poor because of discrimination. Anyway, no one know exactly, so I am "theoretically speaking". We should consider that education is a confounder, and discrimination due to education is not "illegal" nor "immoral", right? Also think that good administrator will not employ higly qualified applicants to jobs that do not demand too much (the employee will leave as soon as he/she gets a better job). Elderly (or very young), women and black people may be less likely to get a promotion, but then it is not discrimination due to poverty, but due to sex, age and race.

    Consider also that poor people are discriminated not only in job applications, many poor people are discriminated by the police, in social relatioinships, at home, in the streets and so on. Non of those types of discrimination will make poor people poorer.

    A friend has developed a scale to measure discrimination, and we have worked toghether in this issue. You may get some data on discrimination due to social class from out paper that evaluates psychometric characteristics.

    I think this is a challenging and important issue.
  • Garumma Tolu Feyissa asked a question:
    Why do we need to use scales to measure psychological factors such as attitude?
  • Henk de Vos added an answer:
    Is there any evidence that out-group prejudice and discrimination is inevitable?
    By prejudice, I mean active negative evaluation of another person based on their perceived group membership. By discrimination, I mean active negative treatment of another person based on their perceived group membership.
    Henk de Vos · University of Groningen
    This is as far as I am aware of the best source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020737
  • Frederick Harms added an answer:
    Where can I find photographs for examining attractiveness errors?
    For my masters thesis I want to examine the attractiveness/halo error during hiring decisions. I want to develop bogus resumés for job applicants and then vary the job applicants photograph depending on applicant attractiveness.

    Does anyone know about resources for such wallet-sized photographs?
    Frederick Harms · Private Universität für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Medizinische Informatik und Technik
    Hi Miquel,

    thanks for your fast reply. I already thought about such photo databases (especially flickr and other licence-free photo collections), but because I need high quality application photographs (business-like photographs and no "fun" or private photographs) I think such pictures are very rare.

    But, maybe I should take a look first.

    Best regards,
  • What are, from your point of view, the most important theories of discrimination in the social sciences?
    Please name theories that explain discriminatory judgments and behavior (by e.g. teachers, employers, ...) you believe to be most important or influential in a certain field or across fields. Please explain briefly why you find a theory important. Please denote the field and give a reference if you can. I am especially interested in theories/models from the following fields: sociology, economics, (social) psychology.

    Example: Gary Becker's theory of taste discrimination (Becker, 1957/71, "The Economics of Discrimination") is a very important theory of discrimination in labor economics and beyond. Since its formulation in 1957 it has been applied---mainly by economists but also by Sociologists---to numerous settings from labor economics over sports to education. To explain discrimination in wages, Becker introduces a taste for discrimination as an input factor of the utility function of rational actors in markets. Thereby Becker extends the utility function of market actors beyond money which was quite revolutionary at that time in (labor) economics.
    Antonio L. Garcia-Izquierdo · University of Oviedo
    You're welcome. Even I have a paper in progress using this theory as a basis for explaining discrmination, I founded it quite useful. Hope you find it useful too¡¡
  • Jennifer L. S. Chandler added an answer:
    What is the likelihood of extremely prejudiced people engaging in discriminatory behavior?
    Measures of (explicit) prejudice and discriminatory behavior usually show only modest correlations. On this background, I was wondering if anybody here can point to studies that explicitly estimate the proportion of extremely prejudiced people that engages in discriminatory behavior of any kind? I am more concerned with explicit measures of prejudice but would also appreciate if you name studies investigating this question only for implicit measures.

    Example: Let's, for the sake of an example, define a person "extremely prejudiced" if she gives extreme answers to all (or a vast majority of) items of a scale measuring prejudice against a particular social group. I am interested in studies that have looked at the proportion of such extremely prejudiced people engaging in discriminatory behavior (e.g. preferring a white over a black job candidate).
    Jennifer L. S. Chandler · Carroll University

    I assume you have read this
    "Measuring Discrimination"

    Methods for Assessing Discrimination

    Rebecca M. Blank, Marilyn Dabady, and Constance F. Citro, Editors

    Committee on National Statistics

    Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education


    Washingon, D.C.

    available for free on their website
  • Rebecca L. Stotzer added an answer:
    Any research scholars who could join me in my research project based on transgenders, social and legal issues?
    Kindly see the proposal which is in progress.
    Rebecca L. Stotzer · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
    I think this is a really broad call for co-researchers. Perhaps if you were more specific in what your research aims are? And what you are attempting to accomplish? Your write-up seems too broad for people to easily want to participate.

About Discrimination

An interdisciplinary group on discrimination. Contributing fields include but are not limited to (labor) economics, psychology, social psychology, and sociology. Definitions of discrimination differ between and within these fields. Usually, definitions of discrimination involve some sort of interpersonal treatment that is based on group membership rather than on individual characteristics. Usually, we study forms of discrimination that are considered unfair in a certain context (e.g. discriminating on the basis of race is considered unfair in education). This group is the place to discuss every question related to discrimination, such as: Which forms of discrimination should we distinguish? Which theories help us understand discriminatory behavior? Which methods are suited for studying discrimination? How to interpret particular findings?

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