• Jean-Baptiste Marchand added an answer:
    Is there anyone from different cultures who wants to become a partner for a study on stigmatization against homosexualty?

    We plan to study transcultural factors of stigmatization against homosexualty. Anyone who might be interested in from different cultures?

    Jean-Baptiste Marchand · Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense

    I'm interested 
    I worte thesis on Gender dysphoria 

  • Ronán Michael Conroy added an answer:
    What is the difference between discrimination and prejudice?

    Can you help me understand better the different antecedents and implications of the differences between discrimination and prejudice? Are they independent or interdependent? How would do you address their overlap statistically?

    Ronán Michael Conroy · Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

    I've nothing to add but my thanks to the discussants. This has turned out to be a very interesting question to follow!

  • Jolanthe de Tempe added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any recent research on the association between children's involvement in musical activities and their communication development?

    Research has shown that a developing foetus can discriminate sounds in the womb from 22 weeks gestation and that early sound discrimination helps to promote later phonic and vocabulary development. In addition, during early social interaction between caregivers and infants there are noticeable patterns of timing, pulse, voice timbre, and gesture that follow many of the rules of musical performance, including rhythm and timing conceptualised by Malloch and Trevarthen (2009) as ‘communicative musicality’. Given the centrality of communication in children’s learning and development (Blackburn, 2014) and the established links between human communication and music, this project seeks to explore the views, understanding and reported practices of interested stakeholders in young children’s musical interactions in home and out-of-home early years settings.Does anyone know of any research that might help with a project and guide the literature review?

    Jolanthe de Tempe · Jolanthe de Tempe, Praktijk voor systeemtherapie

    Hi Carolyn,

    No, the article by Deru & Verhofstadt hasn't been translated. But it it is mainly a summary of the studies by Van Puyvelde c.s., which is in English. In the study of musical synchonization between mothers and infants they link musical synchonisation (in pitch as well as in rythm)  between mothers and babies to mutual attunement and intersubjectivity, which is known to be important for the babies' secure attachment, which in turn is important for their development and mental health in many aspects, also later in life (e.g. Daniel Hughes, Attachment-focused family therapy, 2007, and Mikulincer & Shaver's review of resarch in Attachment and adulthood, 2007).

  • Walter Demmelhuber added an answer:
    Precedence Case: Language requirements for EU-students studying in other Member States - high or low?
    In many member states of the EU (and specifically in Germany) each University is able to set its own standards of language requirements (some recommendations exist from the HRK, but neither regulation nor law).
    Generally speaking a university can follow two tracks for education:
    1) 'Elitism' and trying to attract the best (for professors, students, research, ...) which (can) lead to effect that entry language criteria are very high so no language student support has to be given or hinders academic understanding
    2) 'Place of Learning' meaning that in a mobile EU for most languages students which not have acquired a academic level of the language and students must be given the chance to enter other Member States with medium language levels and continue learning the language at the host university/state

    The highest administrative court in Bavaria has now recognized the discrepancy between European standards and unusually high demands of universities and in the Case of Fuentes given protection (http://www.discrimination.guru/?p=52)

    What do you think?

    PS: for mobile workers (doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, ...) it is already decided. Language levels must be uniform and low to avoid discrimination

    (full academic research here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262638113_EU_Student_Language_Discrimination_English_Version?ev=prf_pub)
    Walter Demmelhuber · Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

    Dear Jakub,

    thank you. Then it seems to be similar to Germany where the approach is similar until a student took it to Court and won nationally.

    Let's see how it developes at the European Court of Justice.

    Regards, Walter

  • Ella Pavlotskaya added an answer:
    Are minimal pairs and auditory discrimination grouped within phonological awareness?

    I want to know if I can group minimal pairs and auditory discrimination in phonological awareness category or these three are totally different?

    Ella Pavlotskaya · City University of New York - Hunter College

    My understanding of phonological awareness is the ability to correctly link phonemes to graphemes, as in reading acquisition. A child is aware, for example, that the letter x signifies the sound combination /ks/.  This is why words like "xylophone" to illustrate the concept are confusing, and some modern dyslexia remediating methodologies use words like "fox" instead.   Minimal pairs are sounds that are different from each other in voicing, whereas the same in placement (e.g., /b/ and /p/ are both bilabial sounds, but one of them is produced with vocal fold vibration and the other is a silent burst of air; similarly, /g/ and /k/ are both velar sounds, but one is voiced and the other is voiceless).  Auditory discrimination is a very early on process.  I believe babies acquire this skill by 6 months of age.  If your question is whether phonological awareness may be used as an "umbrella term" for both auditory discrimination and minimal pairs, I would say probably not.  To my understanding, phonological awareness is a metalinguistic skill, learned much later in development, than auditory discrimination, which is a developmental process. However, when there is a breakdown, and a child lacks the auditory discrimination skills and is unable to hear (and/or produce) sounds correctly, he/she requires remediation, where awareness of the difference between the sounds is explicitly taught via minimal pairs, often before the child is even able to read.  I hope this was helpful.

  • Laurel Bornholt added an answer:
    Are there any standardized tests on racial stereotypes that can be used on school children and teenagers?
    I am working on a project to assess the knowledge and adherence to stereotypes by primary and secondary school children (10-15yrs old) concerning foreign-born pupils. We already have a qualitative tool that we will be using but I was wondering if there were any standardized tools that could add validity to our research?


    A model of children's thoughts and feelings about groups of other children, intended and observed behaviours towards others would be useful in this situation.  Add foundations of children's thoughts about others - particularly identities (a sense of individuality, sense of belonging socially, identity of place - local, regional, national - and other identities).  This model is useful in monitoring attitudes towards other groups of children and suggests self-categorization theory as a basis for intervention programmes. 

    For instance, identities are included in the ASK-KIDS Inventory from ACER.


    Bornholt, L. J. (2002) Thoughts, feelings and intentions to learn: Attitudes by beginning teachers towards Aboriginal peoples, Social Psychology of Education, 5, 295-309.

    Levins, T., Bornholt, L. J., & Lennon, B. (2005) Experience attitudes and feelings and behavioural intentions by teachers towards children with special educational needs, Social Psychology of Education, 8, 329-343.

  • Rolando Garcia added an answer:
    How do you explain higher discrimination using a SVM score index (unsupervised) from a supervised SVM model using same dataset?

    By higher discrimination, we mean higher AUC and specificity.  The supervised SVM was trained, tested with a 10 fold cross validation.  In my opinion, I would tend to go with the lower results obtained from the supervised SVM - What is your take?

    Rolando Garcia · University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

    James, No form of validation was used for the unsupervised SVM.  The independent test set is a great idea - however, data is limited.  And yes, there is probably difference in complexity - supervised model was validated by 10 CV and bootstrapping.

    Paul, thanks for the references...

  • Roger Keller Celeste added an answer:
    Do you have a self-report measure of perceived racial discrimination?

    I am looking for a self-report measure of perceived racial discrimination with good reliability & validity. Publicly available would be ideal. Any suggestions would be very much appreciated.

    Roger Keller Celeste · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    Dear Eli,

    We have conducted a systematic review of scales, (published in Social Science and Medicine) but we found that none were appropriate for our purposed. Then, my colleague, Dr Bastos, developed one (published in Revista de Saúde Pública, link below). We are still improving it. I guess it will be helpful to you. It was planed for interpersonal discrimination from explicit demonstrations that individuals may observe when they are victims.

    It is a challenging construct to measure with many details. Even so, the scale has good psychometric properties and good validity among university students.

    Good luck.

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer:
    Could you give me some explanations about Construct Validity" , "Discriminant Validity", "Composite Reliability" and "Convergent Validity"?

    Also could you tell me whether the below sentence is correct for "Convergent Validity" or no?

    "In spite of AVE for some variables are less than 0.5, the factor loadings are more than 0.5. Since all FL for the constructs are significant as required for convergent validity and their values are more than 0.5 then they are valid for convergent validity."

    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    Construct validity means the parameter's defined/promised value is valid (does not go out of specified value) in normal condition. Discriminant validity means in a special case/s it has limitatiuon/s to have parameters value within specified limit. Composite reliability means failure of system depend upon multiple reasons and reliability calculated based on consideration of those multiple failures is called composite reliability. 

  • Maheyzah Md Siraj added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the data selection for training an intrusion detection system?

    I have a dataset of network connections (KYOTO +2006) that each connection has a label of attack or normal. (It doesn't determine which kind of attack).

    According to a paper that I want to simulate, I need to choose RANDOMLY and FAIRLY a set of data which contain 1 percent of attack and 99 percent of normal but they did not discuss what does FAIRLY means.

    I discriminated data in to attack and normal and randomly choose 1% from attack and 99% from normal but my result was too different from the base paper and I think the problem is in Data selection?

    I have a question, Is data selection important in training an IDS (intrusion detection system) and what should I choose training data to be sure it covers all kind of attack and normal data.

    Maheyzah Md Siraj · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Dear Roya..

    I am not sure whether my answer is the one you search for.

    From my understanding, you already has labelled dataset (Attack or Normal). You must count the percentage of instances that have been labelled as Attack and Normal. For example if your dataset has 100 instances, and you need 1% attack and 99% of normal; then you should have only 1 instance labelled as attack and the rest are labelled as normal. So these 100 instances is your training dataset.

    You should have another set of dataset that will be used for testing. Preferably, testing dataset is not labelled. It can be old dataset or new dataset. The detection results (accuracy) from your testing dataset shows your detection performance/capability.

  • Brahim Bouali added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of an instrument (reliable and valid) that measures knowledge of intersectionality?

    I would like to investigate further knowledge of intersectionality.

    Brahim Bouali · University of North Carolina at Charlotte


    Very good question.

    I developed a technique when I wanted to study the role of ethnocentricity in accented speech. I realized that with sensitive issues there is something more at stake than the classical Labovian observer's paradox or the researcher's bias. Something inherent with the subject itself which may be called the subject paradox.

    Anyway, I first used priming and made my subjects not aware of the intentions behind my questions. Then I made a Derridean deconstruction ( the presence that hides absence) of the results I found. But I did not stop there, I wanted to reconstruct the absence ( my results) and see if  I can find similar results ( similar presence). For this reason the subjects of my study were the best help. Instead of priming,  I asked  direct questions linked with the results ( absence) of my findings.

    This heterogeneous triangulation is to my mind valid and reliable. Take care

  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    What are the possible implications of studying tourists' stereotypes?
    I have interviewed 50 locals in Petra who work as souvenir sellers and horse guides, the aim was to explore their perceptions on different nationalities of tourists regarding some specific behaviors. The results were showing clear stereotypes of tourists.
    FC Prinsloo · University of South Africa
    See if your library has this book on the shelf, otherwise inter library loans:
  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Have politics in any way affected your career advancement, whether in research or in education?
    Very often individuals who have achieved very good results in science were obstructed in the choice of their occupations or promotion, unless they were a member of the ruling party. This often happened in communist regimes and even afterwards in the so-called early democracies. Are these injustices corrected and these people rehabilitated, even posthumously? Do we still have such bad practices to prominent members of the scientific and educational communities around the world? What are your own experiences and do you have any information about such cases? Also, many people seem to be dissidents and emigrants in such situations.
    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac
    @Romano, thanks for fine response. It is a common problem in most of the countries with incompatibility of time-scales :Politics and Education! It is a serious problem!
  • Ellen Wiewel added an answer:
    Is stigma related to HIV/AIDS worse than the stigma related mental health? If not, why were we silent so far?
    Consider their respective voices.
    Ellen Wiewel · New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
    Stigma towards persons with HIV persists, but in the US, it has lessened over the three decades of the epidemic. Reasons I can think of for the reduction in stigma over time include declining HIV incidence, effective treatment, diversification of persons getting infected, and greater tolerance of different groups that have been heavily affected (e.g., gay men).

    That said, I'm curious why you're seeking to compare stigma against HIV with that against mental illness. The first is a specific infection, the second a range of conditions, so they're not especially comparable in that sense. And why compare at all? Both are stigmatized, and people with either condition deserve respect and access to care. Are you interested in how anti-stigma activism comes about for each? Maybe existing activism networks among affected people, and homogeneity among the affected, actually support anti-stigma efforts in some sense. Those conditions were present in the gay community in the early days of HIV but perhaps do not exist to the same extent among persons with mental illness.
  • Adrian J Tomyn added an answer:
    What is the incidence of racism and/or discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations in Australia?
    I am having trouble finding statistics that evidence the incidence of racism and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations. Is there a difference in the experience of racism and/or discrimination as a function of geographic location?
    Adrian J Tomyn · RMIT University
    Good point. Although there are a number of papers that have asked people to indicate the frequency and nature of perceived discrimination. But again, this relies on retrospective recall which is problematic and the issue you raised - subjectivity.
  • Irene Kamberidou added an answer:
    How can we move from gender devaluation and gender fatigue to gender energy and get more women to ride up the glass escalator?
    "If you talk to people today in the workplace they construct the workplace as gender neutral, assuming that gender no longer matters because the issue has long been solved, " (Kelan,2010).
    Need to focus on innovative approaches to getting gender back on the agenda : re-evaluate our strategies on how we can move from “gender fatigue” to gender energy(Kamberidou 2010, Kamberidou & Fabry 2011)
    Irene Kamberidou · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    Indeed Angela, in patriarchal societies it is a problem that is not isolated to the work place, but in all social institutions. Now with regard to the western or rather anglo-saxon conception of gender or the term gender vs. sex, the main goal is that of gender equity/social equality for both women and men. Integrating a gender perspective is an issue of integrating diversity into the system, as opposed to wasting it. Gender issues (in western societies, in the developed world) do not only concern women! Men have a gender as well. Men also confront social inequalities and discrimination. Gender studies, for example, are not women's studies, they do not focus exclusively on women, as men have a gender as well. Integrating a gender perspective refers to the process of assessing and reassessing the implications for both women and men of any program and action plan at all levels: social, economic, and political. It requires gender-specific interventions, policies, and practices that may target exclusively women or interventions that target men exclusively or even men and women together. In fact, the goal of integrating the gender dimension into the equation is to transform exclusionary or unequal social and institutional structures into equal and just ones for both women and men. For example, an intervention that targets both women and men is Get Online Week 2013, a pan-European awareness campaign empowering people to use technology and the internet- which ties in with the GrandCoalition for Digital Jobs officially launched at a conference in Brussels in early March 2013 - as over 20% Europeans of both genders are young, unemployed, and mostly unaware that by 2015, up to 900,000 vacancies for ICT-related jobs may remain open if jobseekers (men and women) do not acquire the right digital skills. (Kamberidou 2013) So we need to work together to achieve economic growth and sustainable development. Integrating a gender perspective means eliminating the wastage of talent –utilizing all human resources, the entire talent pool - and as a result, boosting innovation which is a prerequisite for economic growth and sustainable development.
  • Roger Keller Celeste added an answer:
    What is the relation between discrimination and poverty?
    Looking for most influential relations between these two categories. How does discrimination make poverty stronger and vice versa?
    Roger Keller Celeste · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
    Hi, Cristian,

    Of course this goes both ways. However, it is easier to get empirical evidence that people are discriminated because they are poor than the contrary.

    It is my opinion that the most common way is people being discriminated because they are poor, and it is less comon to get poor because of discrimination. Anyway, no one know exactly, so I am "theoretically speaking". We should consider that education is a confounder, and discrimination due to education is not "illegal" nor "immoral", right? Also think that good administrator will not employ higly qualified applicants to jobs that do not demand too much (the employee will leave as soon as he/she gets a better job). Elderly (or very young), women and black people may be less likely to get a promotion, but then it is not discrimination due to poverty, but due to sex, age and race.

    Consider also that poor people are discriminated not only in job applications, many poor people are discriminated by the police, in social relatioinships, at home, in the streets and so on. Non of those types of discrimination will make poor people poorer.

    A friend has developed a scale to measure discrimination, and we have worked toghether in this issue. You may get some data on discrimination due to social class from out paper that evaluates psychometric characteristics.

    I think this is a challenging and important issue.
  • Henk de Vos added an answer:
    Is there any evidence that out-group prejudice and discrimination is inevitable?
    By prejudice, I mean active negative evaluation of another person based on their perceived group membership. By discrimination, I mean active negative treatment of another person based on their perceived group membership.
    Henk de Vos · University of Groningen
    This is as far as I am aware of the best source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020737
  • Frederick Harms added an answer:
    Where can I find photographs for examining attractiveness errors?
    For my masters thesis I want to examine the attractiveness/halo error during hiring decisions. I want to develop bogus resumés for job applicants and then vary the job applicants photograph depending on applicant attractiveness.

    Does anyone know about resources for such wallet-sized photographs?
    Frederick Harms · Private Universität für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Medizinische Informatik und Technik
    Hi Miquel,

    thanks for your fast reply. I already thought about such photo databases (especially flickr and other licence-free photo collections), but because I need high quality application photographs (business-like photographs and no "fun" or private photographs) I think such pictures are very rare.

    But, maybe I should take a look first.

    Best regards,
  • What are, from your point of view, the most important theories of discrimination in the social sciences?
    Please name theories that explain discriminatory judgments and behavior (by e.g. teachers, employers, ...) you believe to be most important or influential in a certain field or across fields. Please explain briefly why you find a theory important. Please denote the field and give a reference if you can. I am especially interested in theories/models from the following fields: sociology, economics, (social) psychology.

    Example: Gary Becker's theory of taste discrimination (Becker, 1957/71, "The Economics of Discrimination") is a very important theory of discrimination in labor economics and beyond. Since its formulation in 1957 it has been applied---mainly by economists but also by Sociologists---to numerous settings from labor economics over sports to education. To explain discrimination in wages, Becker introduces a taste for discrimination as an input factor of the utility function of rational actors in markets. Thereby Becker extends the utility function of market actors beyond money which was quite revolutionary at that time in (labor) economics.
    Antonio L. Garcia-Izquierdo · University of Oviedo
    You're welcome. Even I have a paper in progress using this theory as a basis for explaining discrmination, I founded it quite useful. Hope you find it useful too¡¡
  • Jennifer L. S. Chandler added an answer:
    What is the likelihood of extremely prejudiced people engaging in discriminatory behavior?
    Measures of (explicit) prejudice and discriminatory behavior usually show only modest correlations. On this background, I was wondering if anybody here can point to studies that explicitly estimate the proportion of extremely prejudiced people that engages in discriminatory behavior of any kind? I am more concerned with explicit measures of prejudice but would also appreciate if you name studies investigating this question only for implicit measures.

    Example: Let's, for the sake of an example, define a person "extremely prejudiced" if she gives extreme answers to all (or a vast majority of) items of a scale measuring prejudice against a particular social group. I am interested in studies that have looked at the proportion of such extremely prejudiced people engaging in discriminatory behavior (e.g. preferring a white over a black job candidate).
    Jennifer L. S. Chandler · Carroll University

    I assume you have read this
    "Measuring Discrimination"

    Methods for Assessing Discrimination

    Rebecca M. Blank, Marilyn Dabady, and Constance F. Citro, Editors

    Committee on National Statistics

    Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education


    Washingon, D.C.

    available for free on their website
  • Rebecca L. Stotzer added an answer:
    Any research scholars who could join me in my research project based on transgenders, social and legal issues?
    Kindly see the proposal which is in progress.
    Rebecca L. Stotzer · University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
    I think this is a really broad call for co-researchers. Perhaps if you were more specific in what your research aims are? And what you are attempting to accomplish? Your write-up seems too broad for people to easily want to participate.
  • Prakash Shankar Kamble added an answer:
    Which theories of discrimination take into account the amount of information an actor can use to judge and eventually treat others?
    I am interested in theories that predict discriminatory judgments and behavior depending on the amount of information (and/or its reliability) the actor can rely on. One example from Labor Economics is Statistical Discrimination, where actors (e.g. employers) use their knowledge about group averages (essentially stereotypes) to judge individuals in situations of imperfect knowledge (e.g. when hiring). Statistical Discrimination Theory predicts a higher influence of group stereotypes, the poorer the information about the individual (e.g. job candidate). How about theories and models from Social Psychology, such as dual-process models? How about other disciplines?
    Prakash Shankar Kamble · Shivaji University, Kolhapur
    The discriminatory behavior of actors has no theoretical base as such. It is beyond the theories. It is rather difficult to theorize the behavior of the actors.
  • Does anyone know about a good way to measure interpersonal discrimination?
    We are developing an instrument and have started with focal groups and a systematic review. I found only scales on racial discrimination.
    Ricardo Antonio Lucas Camargo · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
    Well, I've never tried to measure discrimination, but I've studied some kinds of them - including discrimination for religion ou political opinion - in my book "Jurisprudence and stereotypes" (Interpretação jurídica e estereótipos. Porto Alegre: Sergio Antonio Fabris, 2003). Statistically, may be interesting taking those ennumerated by Akindutire, to bring some light on what kind of discrimination is more common.
  • Which discrimination index do you normally use after fear conditioning?
    In one article I was reading they were comparing the freezing time between similar and distinct contexts. They used the following discrimination index:


    Is this normally used or have you seen different ones?
    Ana Carolina Bottura de Barros · University of Strasbourg
    Thank you for your answer. I found a previous article from the same group where they say that this index gave the same estatistical significant results as another one commonly used (with the denominator as frezA+frezB). They say they used this not so common one because it can better represent small differences. Once more, thank you.

About Discrimination

An interdisciplinary group on discrimination. Contributing fields include but are not limited to (labor) economics, psychology, social psychology, and sociology. Definitions of discrimination differ between and within these fields. Usually, definitions of discrimination involve some sort of interpersonal treatment that is based on group membership rather than on individual characteristics. Usually, we study forms of discrimination that are considered unfair in a certain context (e.g. discriminating on the basis of race is considered unfair in education). This group is the place to discuss every question related to discrimination, such as: Which forms of discrimination should we distinguish? Which theories help us understand discriminatory behavior? Which methods are suited for studying discrimination? How to interpret particular findings?

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