• Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    Have you encountered racism in textbooks? How should we cope with this issue? What are the consequences of such an ideological dissemination?

    Racism and discrimination in curricula and textbooks. Causes and consequences.

    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    Thank you very much for the enlightening thoughts and ideas, Peter, Noelle, Irena.

  • Stephen M. Croucher added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a simple prejudice/discrimination tool that could be used with recently resettled refugees?

    I am developing a brief educational intervention for recently arrived refugees into the U.S. and would like to norm an evidenced based instrument for pre/post test purposes.  I have come across a few, like the Quick Discrimination Inventory, but wold like to know what other options are out there that may not be popping up in the literature.  Any suggestions would be great.  Thanks!  

    Stephen M. Croucher · University of Jyväskylä

    Are you wanting to explore the discrimination they feel once on arrival (point 1) and then a while later (point 2)? Or are you wanting to measure the perceived prejudice they think the dominant culture has toward them at these two points in time?

  • Rama Ramswamy added an answer:
    Is there discrimination in research fund, and publication based on gender?

    Are femal Researchers discriminated against in academia?

    Rama Ramswamy · Mizoram University

    there are no gender based differences or discrimination in research funding in Indian institutions. But there is a paucity of women researchers in science and social science in India and the 'glass ceiling' restricts the rise of women in the research and educational institutes.

  • Patricia Jane Zweig added an answer:
    Does anyone knows about ageism and inequality?

    I am just starting a research project on this topic (more concretely: ageism and inequality in Ecuador). While I do have some idea on each one of the topics, I have a hard time to bring them together - does anyone of you know about studies on ageism and inequality, maybe with a policy perspective?

    Patricia Jane Zweig · Stellenbosch University

    My Honours student is currently looking at aged people living in an informal settlement in the Western Cape, South Africa. Essentially they are pretty invisible to the authorities and many functionally illiterate therefore unaware of the  structures and support mechanisms available to them, the few that exist that is. I will be interested to see how your project progresses for my own interests which are only at the fledgling stage.

  • Aju Basil James added an answer:
    Are there any studies on caste structures and practices within Islamic communities in India?

    I am looking for studies that have looked in depth at the practice of caste system (as we understand it in the Hindu sense) as well as other stratifications (such as Arab lineage versus native convert) among various Islamic communities in India.

    Aju Basil James · University of Hyderabad

    Thanks a lot Nida and Magnus. Please let me know of more essays/books if you think of any.

  • Arunda Malachi added an answer:
    Are there any research experiences related to access of HIV/AIDS-related health services by sexual minorities in an unfriendly legal system?

    Please include experiences on how to obtain ethical approval and informed consent for research among sexual minorities (LGBTI) in a country where the practices are illegal. Thank you

    Arunda Malachi · Lund University

    Thank you Regina for sharing the experience in Brazil, it is interesting to hear the developments. Yes Christophe thank you too for that vital piece of advice. 

  • Joel O Bocanegra added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of studies on the affect diversity mandates have on teacher candidates?

    NCATE and most teacher preparation institutions include "diversity" as a necessary component of pre-service training.  But in looking at how these are implemented - through casual conversations, hence the request for reserach :) - these tend to simply teach about cultural differences.

    In other words, they seem to define "Native Americans", "LGBT Americans", "African Americans" and other minorities by their skin color or sexual orientation and recommend strategies for dealing with this.  

    My interest is if these promote positive affects on student learning or if they create a negative externality where teacher candidates engage in implicit racism (such as: I have a Native student so I need to use cooperative learning for him, e.g. - defining him by his race)

    Joel O Bocanegra · Idaho State University

    This might  not directly answer your question, but I do teach diversity/multicultural courses for school psychology. This issue of "color by number" diversity pedagogy (which I would  argue is completely different from implicit racism) can likely be mitigated through a more substantive instruction in multicultural practice and exposure to diverse individuals. 

    In my courses we start of with becoming aware of our own uniqueness, biases, stereotypes, etc. Then we learn about what really is race and historical racial relations in  the US and around the world. Subsequently, we learn about how the brain works and cognitive theories that explain our biases and stereotypes. Lastly, we will briefly talk about stereotypical racial/cultural characteristics.  Throughout the course we also seek to increase our exposure to diverse individuals through in person interviews and presentations. 

    My goal is to create future professionals who have an understanding and an appreciation for diversity and is willing to advocate and seek knowledge that is specific to the population that they work with. 

    I am unaware of any colleague that uses a color by number approach to multicultural training. 

  • Pedro Antonio Barrientos Loayza added an answer:
    What kind of legal responsibility should the employer burden in case of gender discrimination?

    If there is gender discrimination in course of employment, whether the employer shall be liable if the discriminating act was done by the employees or agents, what is the approach to make a determination concerning the sanctions to the employer? What specific sanctions (legal responsibilities) should the employer be subjected to?

    Pedro Antonio Barrientos Loayza · National University of Cordoba, Argentina

    Yun Ya:

    From the perspective of Roman law I suggest you make a study regarding budgets for the tort by the civil wrongful act. Budgets are: action, factor allocation, injury and causation. Nothing would see the type of sanction specifically without first analyze these budgets to determine if there is direct or indirect liability. Hope you serve my opinion.

  • Daryn Dyer added an answer:
    Does anyone know of study that shows how colorism affects employee performance?

    Is there any current or historical data available that shows how employee performance is affected as a result of intraracial color discrimination.

    Daryn Dyer · York University

    Hope these journals are useful:

    McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., & Morris, M. A. (2008). Mean racial‐ethnic differences in employee sales performance: The moderating role of diversity climate. Personnel Psychology, 61(2), 349-374.

    Reskin, B. F. (2000). The proximate causes of employment discrimination. Contemporary Sociology, 319-328.

    Barak, M. E. M., Cherin, D. A., & Berkman, S. (1998). Organizational and personal dimensions in diversity climate ethnic and gender differences in employee perceptions. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(1), 82-104.

    Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.

  • Alex Colvin added an answer:
    How does racism within US popular culture impact black males in the US?

    I am looking for journal articles that would help assist me in answering that particular research question.

    Alex Colvin · University of Houston

    I think part of the answer is in anthropology and how humans embrace "folk taxonomies" with regard to race (which has no biological basis,) and part in history when we look at the American slave tradition. It's also important to remember that not all Native Americans were destroyed or sent to reservations. One has but to look at the Seminole in Florida  and their history to see how they triumphed over Jacksonian extermination policies. Seminole, is actually a Creek name; the Seminole were not a tribe unto themselves, but a band of renegade Creek who left and went into Spanish Florida where they were allowed to settle. The Creek name for them was "seminole" which meant runaways. I.E. they fled their tribe.  As whites pursued them hoping to open up the territory to white settlers,  the Seminole engaged in guerilla warfare and eventually migrated into the Everglades where the whites could not navigate at the time. They are one of the few indigenous people never uprooted nor who ever truly assimilated.  Their warfare with the U.S. military lasted until 1958 -- easily the longest running war within the U.S. between NAs and the U.S. military on U.S. soil. The U.S. eventually just gave up. 

  • Walter Zuhosky added an answer:
    Is it possible to consider age as a suspicious discrimination criteria?

    There is a global trend towards an aging population. In this context it is questionable whether the age limit in employment could be a discriminatory criteria.

    Walter Zuhosky · Youngstown State University

    Personally I have seen ageism as a swept under the carpet reality. Sure it is against the law but very little is done to stop this widespread practice against older persons actively pursuing employment. There are certain areas where older workers are common, WalMart for example but tactful anti older worker hiring practices are well entrenched norms.

  • Paul Louangrath added an answer:
    What is the best method to validate a questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale?

    I want to check internal consistency, face validity, content validity, convergent and discriminant validity of a questionnaire. What are the latest and best methods for determining these?   

    Paul Louangrath · Bangkok University

    ISSUE: Validity Tests

    VALIDITY: Validity is defined as the degree of agreement between the claimed measurement and the real world. There are three categories of validity test, namely: (i) content validity, (ii) criterion validity, and (iii) construct validity. Content validity seeks to answer the question of whether the current test covers all relevant items needed to answer the research question. Criterion validity is the degree of correlation between the current test to the predetermined standard. The predetermined standard scores are those that had been tested by prior studies and had been held to be valid. Construct validity is the degree to which the test actually measures what the theory claims.

    (i) Face Validity. Use the respondents to answer the question: Does the survey or test measure what it intended to measure? This is the subjective view of the respondents to the survey (not experts). Use this as a test-run before distributed the real survey.

    (ii) Content Validity. Use expert panel to answer the question: Is the question or skills measurement int he test "essential" to the intended measurement? Form a panel of subject mater experts (SME) and then ask them whether your intended questions or survey is relevant to your intended research issue? Use the Lawshe test:

    CVR = [(ne - N)-N/2 ] / 2

    ... where CVR = content validitt ratio' ne = number of experts in the panel answered "yes, relevant"; and N = total number of experts in the panel.

    (iii) Construct Validity. There are two kinds of construct validity: (a) convergent validity and (b) discriminant validity. A convergent construct validity exists when what is expected to be correlated indeed turns out to be correlated, thus H0: r = 0 and HA: r not equal to 0. The result shows that H0 is incorrect and, thus, is rejected. Whereas, in discriminant validity, r = 0; H0 cannot be rejected. Use correlation coefficient as the unit of analysis.

    INTERNAL CONSISTENCY: It appears that the Cronabach's alpha is a common test. However, Cronbach himself had recently admitted that the Cronbach’s alpha is not an appropriate test for reliability. Cronbach wrote that:

    “I no longer regard the alpha formula as the most appropriate way to examine most data. Over the years, my associate and I developed the complex generalizability (G) theory. (Cronbach et al. (1963); Cronbach et. al. (1973); see also Brennan (2001); Shavelson and Webb (1991), which can be simplified to deal specifically with a simple two way matrix and produce coefficient alpha (Cronbach (2004), p. 403). Cited in N.M. Webb, R.J. Shavelson and E.H. Haertel (2006). “Reliability Coefficients and Generalizibility Theory.” Handbook of Statistics, Vol. 26, p. 2. ISSN 0169-7161.

    Therefore, the use of Cronbach’s alpha must be reexamined. This is not to say that Cronbach’s alpha is not usable; its use and interpretation, however, must be modified. It is a tool to determine whether the response is consistent; this is different from asking whether the instrument produces consistent response?.

    [1] Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16,297-334.
    [2] Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.
    [3] Lawshe, C.H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563–575.

  • Jean-Baptiste Marchand added an answer:
    Is there anyone from different cultures who wants to become a partner for a study on stigmatization against homosexualty?

    We plan to study transcultural factors of stigmatization against homosexualty. Anyone who might be interested in from different cultures?

  • Punam Kavade added an answer:
    What is the difference between discrimination and prejudice?

    Can you help me understand better the different antecedents and implications of the differences between discrimination and prejudice? Are they independent or interdependent? How would do you address their overlap statistically?

    Punam Kavade · Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

    As per my opinion many times because of prejudice, discrimination take place but prejudice is not the only factor leads to discriminate. However if particular thing is discriminated constantly by many it gives the way to prejudice so both terms are interdependent.

  • Jolanthe de Tempe added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any recent research on the association between children's involvement in musical activities and their communication development?

    Research has shown that a developing foetus can discriminate sounds in the womb from 22 weeks gestation and that early sound discrimination helps to promote later phonic and vocabulary development. In addition, during early social interaction between caregivers and infants there are noticeable patterns of timing, pulse, voice timbre, and gesture that follow many of the rules of musical performance, including rhythm and timing conceptualised by Malloch and Trevarthen (2009) as ‘communicative musicality’. Given the centrality of communication in children’s learning and development (Blackburn, 2014) and the established links between human communication and music, this project seeks to explore the views, understanding and reported practices of interested stakeholders in young children’s musical interactions in home and out-of-home early years settings.Does anyone know of any research that might help with a project and guide the literature review?

    Jolanthe de Tempe · Jolanthe de Tempe, Praktijk voor systeemtherapie

    Hi Carolyn,

    No, the article by Deru & Verhofstadt hasn't been translated. But it it is mainly a summary of the studies by Van Puyvelde c.s., which is in English. In the study of musical synchonization between mothers and infants they link musical synchonisation (in pitch as well as in rythm)  between mothers and babies to mutual attunement and intersubjectivity, which is known to be important for the babies' secure attachment, which in turn is important for their development and mental health in many aspects, also later in life (e.g. Daniel Hughes, Attachment-focused family therapy, 2007, and Mikulincer & Shaver's review of resarch in Attachment and adulthood, 2007).

  • Walter Demmelhuber added an answer:
    Precedence Case: Language requirements for EU-students studying in other Member States - high or low?
    In many member states of the EU (and specifically in Germany) each University is able to set its own standards of language requirements (some recommendations exist from the HRK, but neither regulation nor law).
    Generally speaking a university can follow two tracks for education:
    1) 'Elitism' and trying to attract the best (for professors, students, research, ...) which (can) lead to effect that entry language criteria are very high so no language student support has to be given or hinders academic understanding
    2) 'Place of Learning' meaning that in a mobile EU for most languages students which not have acquired a academic level of the language and students must be given the chance to enter other Member States with medium language levels and continue learning the language at the host university/state

    The highest administrative court in Bavaria has now recognized the discrepancy between European standards and unusually high demands of universities and in the Case of Fuentes given protection (http://www.discrimination.guru/?p=52)

    What do you think?

    PS: for mobile workers (doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, ...) it is already decided. Language levels must be uniform and low to avoid discrimination

    (full academic research here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262638113_EU_Student_Language_Discrimination_English_Version?ev=prf_pub)
    Walter Demmelhuber · Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

    Dear Jakub,

    thank you. Then it seems to be similar to Germany where the approach is similar until a student took it to Court and won nationally.

    Let's see how it developes at the European Court of Justice.

    Regards, Walter

  • Ella Pavlotskaya added an answer:
    Are minimal pairs and auditory discrimination grouped within phonological awareness?

    I want to know if I can group minimal pairs and auditory discrimination in phonological awareness category or these three are totally different?

    Ella Pavlotskaya · City University of New York - Hunter College

    My understanding of phonological awareness is the ability to correctly link phonemes to graphemes, as in reading acquisition. A child is aware, for example, that the letter x signifies the sound combination /ks/.  This is why words like "xylophone" to illustrate the concept are confusing, and some modern dyslexia remediating methodologies use words like "fox" instead.   Minimal pairs are sounds that are different from each other in voicing, whereas the same in placement (e.g., /b/ and /p/ are both bilabial sounds, but one of them is produced with vocal fold vibration and the other is a silent burst of air; similarly, /g/ and /k/ are both velar sounds, but one is voiced and the other is voiceless).  Auditory discrimination is a very early on process.  I believe babies acquire this skill by 6 months of age.  If your question is whether phonological awareness may be used as an "umbrella term" for both auditory discrimination and minimal pairs, I would say probably not.  To my understanding, phonological awareness is a metalinguistic skill, learned much later in development, than auditory discrimination, which is a developmental process. However, when there is a breakdown, and a child lacks the auditory discrimination skills and is unable to hear (and/or produce) sounds correctly, he/she requires remediation, where awareness of the difference between the sounds is explicitly taught via minimal pairs, often before the child is even able to read.  I hope this was helpful.

  • Laurel Bornholt added an answer:
    Are there any standardized tests on racial stereotypes that can be used on school children and teenagers?
    I am working on a project to assess the knowledge and adherence to stereotypes by primary and secondary school children (10-15yrs old) concerning foreign-born pupils. We already have a qualitative tool that we will be using but I was wondering if there were any standardized tools that could add validity to our research?
    Laurel Bornholt


    A model of children's thoughts and feelings about groups of other children, intended and observed behaviours towards others would be useful in this situation.  Add foundations of children's thoughts about others - particularly identities (a sense of individuality, sense of belonging socially, identity of place - local, regional, national - and other identities).  This model is useful in monitoring attitudes towards other groups of children and suggests self-categorization theory as a basis for intervention programmes. 

    For instance, identities are included in the ASK-KIDS Inventory from ACER.


    Bornholt, L. J. (2002) Thoughts, feelings and intentions to learn: Attitudes by beginning teachers towards Aboriginal peoples, Social Psychology of Education, 5, 295-309.

    Levins, T., Bornholt, L. J., & Lennon, B. (2005) Experience attitudes and feelings and behavioural intentions by teachers towards children with special educational needs, Social Psychology of Education, 8, 329-343.

  • Rolando Garcia added an answer:
    How do you explain higher discrimination using a SVM score index (unsupervised) from a supervised SVM model using same dataset?

    By higher discrimination, we mean higher AUC and specificity.  The supervised SVM was trained, tested with a 10 fold cross validation.  In my opinion, I would tend to go with the lower results obtained from the supervised SVM - What is your take?

    Rolando Garcia · University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

    James, No form of validation was used for the unsupervised SVM.  The independent test set is a great idea - however, data is limited.  And yes, there is probably difference in complexity - supervised model was validated by 10 CV and bootstrapping.

    Paul, thanks for the references...

  • Roger Keller Celeste added an answer:
    Do you have a self-report measure of perceived racial discrimination?

    I am looking for a self-report measure of perceived racial discrimination with good reliability & validity. Publicly available would be ideal. Any suggestions would be very much appreciated.

    Roger Keller Celeste · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    Dear Eli,

    We have conducted a systematic review of scales, (published in Social Science and Medicine) but we found that none were appropriate for our purposed. Then, my colleague, Dr Bastos, developed one (published in Revista de Saúde Pública, link below). We are still improving it. I guess it will be helpful to you. It was planed for interpersonal discrimination from explicit demonstrations that individuals may observe when they are victims.

    It is a challenging construct to measure with many details. Even so, the scale has good psychometric properties and good validity among university students.

    Good luck.

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer:
    Could you give me some explanations about Construct Validity" , "Discriminant Validity", "Composite Reliability" and "Convergent Validity"?

    Also could you tell me whether the below sentence is correct for "Convergent Validity" or no?

    "In spite of AVE for some variables are less than 0.5, the factor loadings are more than 0.5. Since all FL for the constructs are significant as required for convergent validity and their values are more than 0.5 then they are valid for convergent validity."

    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    Construct validity means the parameter's defined/promised value is valid (does not go out of specified value) in normal condition. Discriminant validity means in a special case/s it has limitatiuon/s to have parameters value within specified limit. Composite reliability means failure of system depend upon multiple reasons and reliability calculated based on consideration of those multiple failures is called composite reliability. 

  • Maheyzah Md Siraj added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the data selection for training an intrusion detection system?

    I have a dataset of network connections (KYOTO +2006) that each connection has a label of attack or normal. (It doesn't determine which kind of attack).

    According to a paper that I want to simulate, I need to choose RANDOMLY and FAIRLY a set of data which contain 1 percent of attack and 99 percent of normal but they did not discuss what does FAIRLY means.

    I discriminated data in to attack and normal and randomly choose 1% from attack and 99% from normal but my result was too different from the base paper and I think the problem is in Data selection?

    I have a question, Is data selection important in training an IDS (intrusion detection system) and what should I choose training data to be sure it covers all kind of attack and normal data.

    Maheyzah Md Siraj · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Dear Roya..

    I am not sure whether my answer is the one you search for.

    From my understanding, you already has labelled dataset (Attack or Normal). You must count the percentage of instances that have been labelled as Attack and Normal. For example if your dataset has 100 instances, and you need 1% attack and 99% of normal; then you should have only 1 instance labelled as attack and the rest are labelled as normal. So these 100 instances is your training dataset.

    You should have another set of dataset that will be used for testing. Preferably, testing dataset is not labelled. It can be old dataset or new dataset. The detection results (accuracy) from your testing dataset shows your detection performance/capability.

  • Brahim Bouali added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of an instrument (reliable and valid) that measures knowledge of intersectionality?

    I would like to investigate further knowledge of intersectionality.

    Brahim Bouali · University of North Carolina at Charlotte


    Very good question.

    I developed a technique when I wanted to study the role of ethnocentricity in accented speech. I realized that with sensitive issues there is something more at stake than the classical Labovian observer's paradox or the researcher's bias. Something inherent with the subject itself which may be called the subject paradox.

    Anyway, I first used priming and made my subjects not aware of the intentions behind my questions. Then I made a Derridean deconstruction ( the presence that hides absence) of the results I found. But I did not stop there, I wanted to reconstruct the absence ( my results) and see if  I can find similar results ( similar presence). For this reason the subjects of my study were the best help. Instead of priming,  I asked  direct questions linked with the results ( absence) of my findings.

    This heterogeneous triangulation is to my mind valid and reliable. Take care

  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    What are the possible implications of studying tourists' stereotypes?
    I have interviewed 50 locals in Petra who work as souvenir sellers and horse guides, the aim was to explore their perceptions on different nationalities of tourists regarding some specific behaviors. The results were showing clear stereotypes of tourists.
    FC Prinsloo · University of South Africa
    See if your library has this book on the shelf, otherwise inter library loans:
  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    Have politics in any way affected your career advancement, whether in research or in education?
    Very often individuals who have achieved very good results in science were obstructed in the choice of their occupations or promotion, unless they were a member of the ruling party. This often happened in communist regimes and even afterwards in the so-called early democracies. Are these injustices corrected and these people rehabilitated, even posthumously? Do we still have such bad practices to prominent members of the scientific and educational communities around the world? What are your own experiences and do you have any information about such cases? Also, many people seem to be dissidents and emigrants in such situations.
    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac
    @Romano, thanks for fine response. It is a common problem in most of the countries with incompatibility of time-scales :Politics and Education! It is a serious problem!
  • Ellen Wiewel added an answer:
    Is stigma related to HIV/AIDS worse than the stigma related mental health? If not, why were we silent so far?
    Consider their respective voices.
    Ellen Wiewel · New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
    Stigma towards persons with HIV persists, but in the US, it has lessened over the three decades of the epidemic. Reasons I can think of for the reduction in stigma over time include declining HIV incidence, effective treatment, diversification of persons getting infected, and greater tolerance of different groups that have been heavily affected (e.g., gay men).

    That said, I'm curious why you're seeking to compare stigma against HIV with that against mental illness. The first is a specific infection, the second a range of conditions, so they're not especially comparable in that sense. And why compare at all? Both are stigmatized, and people with either condition deserve respect and access to care. Are you interested in how anti-stigma activism comes about for each? Maybe existing activism networks among affected people, and homogeneity among the affected, actually support anti-stigma efforts in some sense. Those conditions were present in the gay community in the early days of HIV but perhaps do not exist to the same extent among persons with mental illness.
  • Adrian J Tomyn added an answer:
    What is the incidence of racism and/or discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations in Australia?
    I am having trouble finding statistics that evidence the incidence of racism and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people living in cities and remote locations. Is there a difference in the experience of racism and/or discrimination as a function of geographic location?
    Adrian J Tomyn · Deakin University
    Good point. Although there are a number of papers that have asked people to indicate the frequency and nature of perceived discrimination. But again, this relies on retrospective recall which is problematic and the issue you raised - subjectivity.

About Discrimination

An interdisciplinary group on discrimination. Contributing fields include but are not limited to (labor) economics, psychology, social psychology, and sociology. Definitions of discrimination differ between and within these fields. Usually, definitions of discrimination involve some sort of interpersonal treatment that is based on group membership rather than on individual characteristics. Usually, we study forms of discrimination that are considered unfair in a certain context (e.g. discriminating on the basis of race is considered unfair in education). This group is the place to discuss every question related to discrimination, such as: Which forms of discrimination should we distinguish? Which theories help us understand discriminatory behavior? Which methods are suited for studying discrimination? How to interpret particular findings?

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