Lorenzo Silva added an answer:The genre magical realism came to be in the German language. Yet, Latin American has had a home for the genre. Why is this?I recently raised the question as to why Europeans often ignore the genre of magical realism as a European phenomena. They often study it as a form of comparative study, i.e. not as a European based phenomena. That is, Europeans often study primarily writers from other regions of the world when looking at the horrible reality and magic of realism, like that of Gabriel García Márquez. On the European continent, readers of a variety of works of magical realism often only include an elite group of regional reviewers.
As Gabriel García Márquez has recently passed away, I would like to ask to what degree either Latin American or European magical realism has been accepted or prominent in the various countries on various continents around the globe. Moreover, has this genre been popular in your region or home country for a long time or only recently? In short, does a book like 100 Years of Solitude affect you or resonate with you more than a novel of similar genre from your own culture?
Read Earlie Realism from Boris Shukov, He talks about something that he calls ''Fantastic Realism ''Following
Zelalem Tafese Wondimagegne added an answer:What is the best available tool to measure early childhood cognitive development in developing countries?
There are tools to measure child hood cognitive development in developed world but the tool applicable for developing countries is still unclear.
I thank you Cristina.Following
Laith Furatian added an answer:What do you think about stacked rapid sand filtration's use in the developing world?
Some researchers at Cornell have developed stacked rapid sand filtration technology for use in the developing world. As I understand it, it is useful for doing what traditional rapid sand filtration does, but you can use it in small to medium size municipalities in the developing world where the electrical power required for backwashing is not as available and/or reliable.
We are trying to see how well this technology might work to improve water quality from a nearby river in a rural jungle region of Honduras. It is just an attempt. It may work terribly. I just thought I would see if anyone had any helpful opinions or advice about SRSF and/or its use in various contexts.
A substantial amount of literature has been written about granular media filtration, particularly slow and rapid sand filtration. This literature should be reviewed since much experience has been documented, including clever ways of backwashing. But if any innovation is to make a meaningful impact, then the locals who will ultimately operate this process should be directly and intimately involved in the work from the beginning. Many beautiful projects on paper failed in the end due to neglect afterwards. Personally, I am a fan of slow sand filtration whenever space is not an issue as this process is very simple and inexpensive to operate. For a flashy river, sedimentation and a gravel roughing filter would be needed. See free publications from the WHO press by Huisman.Following
Ann MARY Chacko added an answer:Will greater education for women in developing countries help in sustainable development?Women constitute one half of the world’s population, they do two-thirds of the world’s work, they earn one tenth of the world’s income and they own one hundredth of the world’s property including land.
Source: United Nations (1979) State of the World’s Women, Voluntary Fund for the UN Decade for Women, New York.
Sustainability in developing countries is rarely given importance by the masses because they barely survive day-to-day problems. For them it is a question of how they get next meal rather than the well being of the planet. They also are poorly educated. Educating these women is likely to help in realizing the importance of sustainability so that they can bring sustainable development in their pockets of influence. What is your opinion?
mere education(which is an important parameter in determining the status of the women in the society) doesnot have much impact on their overall development unless they are acquired with property rights.Following
Mohamed Hassan Abukashawa added an answer:I am looking for scholarly literature on war journalists from developing countries. Can someone help and recommend some work ?
My readings for the past one year has revealed that war journalism is a predominantly western based. But have the developing world indulged in studying their journalists' who cover wars
u are most well come PushpaFollowing
Mustapha yusif ahmad added an answer:What governs the speed of food production?Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?
Hi, among the reasons that govern food production with reference to Africa is policy making, in Africa most countries doesn't have have a good policy (e.g subsidy and ready made market). this is largely not because we Africans are not wise enough to make good decisions, but the leaders are not ready to do so. another reason is that African is made to be the market place for the commodities of the developed world such as USA, England etc. so if Africa is to produce to its demands, then there will be no market for them.Following
Oladimeji Ashaolu added an answer:What are some entry strategies in international retailing?
What would be your best strategy in an emerging economy (Africa to be precise) for an international retail organization?
What makes you believe that is the best strategy, and what are the possible challenges that will be encountered while implementing the strategy?
@ Mkm ThanksFollowing
Eva Hamilton added an answer:UK prevalence of scabies - can anyone help?
Scabies is reportedly endemic in the developing world.
But how about the developed world, such as the UK? It seems national UK prevalence figures are not available for Scabies. Does this now mean that there is no problem with Scabies in the UK? Or, does this mean Scabies is not subject to PH surveillance in this country, or have the statistics just simply not been published?
Dear Jo, dear Vincent, thank you both for contributing to this discussion. It has already brought interesting insight to the fore, including for example that whilst there is some evidence of national Scabies surveillance for France, national Scabies surveillance is seemingly not yet a standard in the UK. Given the range of diseases secondary to Scabies, why could this be the case?Following
Stefano Lucarelli added an answer:Whats your take for the economies who are moving or proposing to move from using the US dollar as a reserve currency? (De-dollarisation)
What are the benefits of such moves. Is it sustainable especially for developing world to take the move as well. Dollarisation has been considered of worth in the shortrun, and not in the longrun. Countries that have dollarized are now trying to move back.
Let me clarify a point:
In Keynes' Clearing Union, the international money (the so called Bancor) would be created every time a deficit country used the overdraft facilities provided by the Clearing Union to pay for its imports towards a surplus country. Money creation would thus take the form of an increase in the positive Bancor balance of the surplus country with the Union. Consequentely we have an international unit of transaction, the Bancor, that does not correspond to a national currency.
Each country would hold an account with the Clearing Union. The accounts would be denominated in an international unit of account called Bancor. The equivalence between Bancor and the currency of each country would be set at a certain par. The initial balance of each account would be set to zero Bancor.
Let me suggest a very good paper on this field: Amato M. and Fantacci L., Back to which Bretton Woods?Liquidity and clearing as alternative principles for reforming international finance,
Peter F. Colwell added an answer:Is there any correlation between land policies, land governance and the dynamism in real estate in West African countries?
Land is a basic factor of production without which neither rent nor farm produces can be realised. The essence of land use is to maximize individual benefits in the form of income, shelter, produces from various sectors (depending on the nature of land use). In Africa, most people have had their lands appropriated, expropiated or redistributed against their common desires and each government involved have targeted effective real estate utilization for national economic growth. The leaders would always embrace various development policies of the United Nations and the World Bank as far as they can favour the governed. Now that every country is striving to acheive globalization project (Vision 20:2020), is does anyone have a clearer assessment of the trend in relationship between the various land policies, land governance and the dynamism in real estate within the West African countries?
Jacob, do you worry that compensation in-kind will result in good quality and well located property will be taken and the compensation will be poor quality and poorly located property? I prefer monetary compensation. I would focus on judicial reviews of the magnitude of the compensation.Following
Abul Mansur M. Masih added an answer:Which one (urbanization and agriculture) is more important for development?Urbanization and agriculture have been recognized as the policy priorities for many developing countries in the world? However, during the local practices, urbanization and agriculture are generally mutually conflicted (e.g., land use, investing). What is your opinion on the contributions of these two conflicting topics on the development sustainability of an economy?
I believe that for a sustained economic growth, there is a need for a balanced development of urbanization and agriculture since they are interdependent during the growth process.
Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer:How does design move from project based innovation with parachuted expertise to contributing to human development in the developing world?
Thanks for sharing Juha, could you link your paper to the question above? did you cover the "parachuting" issue?
Gavin, I am interested to hear from you (:-))Following
Nathan Weatherdon added an answer:How can we apply the RBV Theory to assess the performance of women in informal fruit trading in developing countries like India, Zambia etc?
The RBV of the firm is credited to Barney (1991), who identifies that both internal and external factors are key determinants of business success. While both internal and external factors are important, the RBV theory suggests that differences in enterprise performance are mainly driven by the intrinsic endowment of a firm’s resources, with market structure and industry attributes playing a relatively small role (Hawawini et al., 2003; Masakure et al., 2008).
I wouldn't dare answer the question without significant consideration of credit markets and determinants of access to credit. If credit markets are not functioning, then a subsistence producer can only subsist, in the absence of some external stimulus.
I would be inclined to frame it in terms of capital accumulation. If you have a highly quality plot, you can grow more with less effort and accumulate capital.Following
M. Vivarelli added an answer:What level of public debt is desirable in developed and developing countries?
Before crisis marked-based model not worked in financial markets. After crisis in different countries we see different dynamics of external debt. In any countries this external debt is more than 200% GDP, and in another less 10% GDP. How to find desirable external debt for different countries in different financial conditions?
I do think it is a political question, highly dependent on the specificic institutional, social and economic situationFollowing
Reuben Pessah added an answer:Cases of institutional entrepreneurship (e.g. corporate self-regulation) to enhance sustainability (e.g. environmental or social standards) in EM/DCs?I am looking for one or more cases where companies (either local or also MNCs operating in EM/DCs) created an institution to enhance environmental and social standards. In the literature, the case of the Global Reporting Initiative is often used but this is too broad. I'd rather look into a specific local case.
I would recomend:
"Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems", Elinor Ostrom, American Economic Review 100 (June 2010): 1–33http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.100.3.1Following
Giovanni Favero added an answer:From gold standard to silver standard - will a reversal contribute to the growth of the developing economies?In 1873, Germany decided to switch from the universally accepted silver standard to gold standard, following Britain that had changed to gold standard in 1816. Scholarly works suggest that this was a decision that drained economies of colonies and made them perennially poor. Will a reversal (presuming that it ever took place) contribute to the developing of economies of the third world?Dear Srinivasam,
You are right, and it would be really interesting to imagine a different settlement of the monetary system.
What I would say about history is that it repeats itself somehow, but never in the same way. This can be tricky at times. What is more interesting to me is that some people (but monetary authorities still more than others) think themselves historically, and this way their historical culture influences their choices. In the same way, Robespierre and Marat imagined their actions as similar to those of the Gracchi brothers in ancient Rome, or Lenin and Trotzky acted as if they were making the French revolution again. I find the historical role models of decision makers particularly interesting from this point of view.Following
Wanhai You asked a question:Questions about the data on World Development Indicators?Recently I have collected the data indicator- Fertilizer consumption (kilograms per hectare of arable land) from WDI. The availability of data is 2002-2008 year. However, the paper titled-
Determinants of pollution:what do we really know? mention that we can collected this data for 120 countires over 1960-2001.
I cannot find this data early 2002 from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/
Why? Could anyone give me some possible reasons?
Thanks for your help and I am looking forward to your reply.Following
Rahul Shastri added an answer:Is there any chance that the developed and underdeveloped world would ever converge? Or the gap between the rich and poor nations would widen?How and Why?Convergence is impossible because drastic rollback in consumption levels and patterns is not possible.
Western per capita consumption basket and pattern is so ecologically draining, and also so polluting that the earth could not support the remaining 4/5th of its population replicating it. So the ecology bars 80% of humanity from reaching this level and pattern. And downward stickines will prevent the West and the Developed World from rolling down.
I dont expect the gap to widen. But planetary exhaustion and the dawn of wisdom in man, I hope, will act in tandem will help to ease up the mad materialistic race and the game of catching up. Instead, the both the developed and the developing, I hope, will ease up and call enough 'enough'.Following
Waseem Suleman asked a question:Intention and capabilityMost of research is for the sake of getting promotion and infrequently to get the answers of inquisitions. The capaciy or ability to conduct a research and not just the audit is the second major hurdle. The last but not the least is FUNDING.Following
About Developing World
Discussing constrains, obstacles and dilemma of conducting researches in the less developed world.