- Pa Azeez added an answer:Whats your take for the economies who are moving or proposing to move from using the US dollar as a reserve currency? (De-dollarisation)
What are the benefits of such moves. Is it sustainable especially for developing world to take the move as well. Dollarisation has been considered of worth in the shortrun, and not in the longrun. Countries that have dollarized are now trying to move back.
It weakens national economy; strengthens US economy; increases dependence of other nations on US for their transactions
As a reserve currency the world has to discover another one essentially promoted by an international agencyFollowing
- Pascale Salameh added an answer:" ‘Highly influential' scientists still rare in the developing world". Scidev.net. says. What do you think about the reasons?
SciDev.Net says although "the origin of scientists is changing" and "scientific research becomes more globalised and less dominated by Europe and North America", "the latest list of the world’s most highly cited researchers features few scientists based in developing countries — and none from Africa outside South Africa — exposing the North–South divide and raising questions on how the impact of science is measured."
"Thomson Reuters has issued its The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds: 2014 report based on analysis of recent citations of published papers across science."
"But only 86 out of the approximately 3,200 scientists on the list are affiliated with institutions in the developing world. And they are based in only 12 countries, with most in Saudi Arabia, Iran, India and Turkey, whose combined count is 63."
How do you explain this difference between the developing and developed world?
Yes, I am sure there are many explanations for this, including a true rarity of researchers and the fact that it is awfully difficult to publish in "high impact factor" journals, because editors are simply "not interested" by public health research performed in developing countries...Following
- Peter F. Colwell added an answer:Is there any correlation between land policies, land governance and the dynamism in real estate in West African countries?
Land is a basic factor of production without which neither rent nor farm produces can be realised. The essence of land use is to maximize individual benefits in the form of income, shelter, produces from various sectors (depending on the nature of land use). In Africa, most people have had their lands appropriated, expropiated or redistributed against their common desires and each government involved have targeted effective real estate utilization for national economic growth. The leaders would always embrace various development policies of the United Nations and the World Bank as far as they can favour the governed. Now that every country is striving to acheive globalization project (Vision 20:2020), is does anyone have a clearer assessment of the trend in relationship between the various land policies, land governance and the dynamism in real estate within the West African countries?
Jacob, do you worry that compensation in-kind will result in good quality and well located property will be taken and the compensation will be poor quality and poorly located property? I prefer monetary compensation. I would focus on judicial reviews of the magnitude of the compensation.Following
- Dnyaneshwar Hilal Pawar asked a question:What is zero-sum ? is it favorable for sustainable development of mankind ?
Sustainable development and world economy.Following
- Palani Shanmugasundaram added an answer:As researchers or scientists, should we contribute to, or prevent the brain drain?
Brain drain has been happening for more than 60 years, when eminent scientists from UK and former USSR emigrated to US. While economists fear that developed countries will get richer in human capital, there have also been good effects for developing countries where brain drain has fostered domestic enrollment in education. So, as researcher or scientist, what is your view? As researchers or scientists, should we contribute to, or fear the brain drain, or prevent it?
In India all IITS’ are producing the best scientists and technocrats who are moving abroad from the days of Independence. India must be made as a hub of research then only the brain drain can be reduced though not stopped.
Dr. Shanmugasundaram PFollowing
- Abul Mansur M. Masih added an answer:Which one (urbanization and agriculture) is more important for development?Urbanization and agriculture have been recognized as the policy priorities for many developing countries in the world? However, during the local practices, urbanization and agriculture are generally mutually conflicted (e.g., land use, investing). What is your opinion on the contributions of these two conflicting topics on the development sustainability of an economy?
I believe that for a sustained economic growth, there is a need for a balanced development of urbanization and agriculture since they are interdependent during the growth process.
- Mahfuz Judeh added an answer:Do you think corruption in all its variants a threat to contemporary world?
Corruption: A dishonest and fraudulent act of those in power either through bribery or by being a friend to commit injustice or alter truth to benefit a wrong party, group or individual. It is a degradation of morality and ethics and abandoning reason.
Corruption is a two way process - the corrupter and the one to be corrupted. Corruption can be for political end or for business. It is a naked truth that corruption is endemic and a modus-operandi of developing countries – one of the weeds and obstacles of development and economic fairness. But it is also common and living well in developed countries.
The most common type of corruption in developed countries is lobbying and over flowing of capital to alter or control voting outcomes. Lobbying is an act of a well organized group of wealth and money to influence decisions by bending truth and committing injustice or gain advantage and priority over others which simply is illegal. Some countries declare such activities as legal although visibly and clearly wrong and illegal which erodes the purity of the political system and ultimately leads to its demise.
Do you think corruption is a big problem of the modern society that threatens the principles of ethics, honesty and trust that democratic systems of the developed world was built up on ? Is corruption a problem in your countries ? How do you address it and what remedy do you propose?
Corruption is corruption, regardless of its types.Following
- Nadia Diakun-Thibault added an answer:What roles can social networks play in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries?
What roles can social networks play in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries?
Education... the availability of and ease of virtual social networking can be an important vector for dissemination of the most rudimentary of skills to the most complex interrelationship. All begins with education.
Millennium Development goals were news to me (but only because my head is buried in other disciplines! Thank you, Hanno, for the link.). In my view, universal education available to every human being, is a fundamental right. Unleash the capacitance within every person, the rest will follow.
Looking forward to your paper.Following
- Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer:How does design move from project based innovation with parachuted expertise to contributing to human development in the developing world?
Thanks for sharing Juha, could you link your paper to the question above? did you cover the "parachuting" issue?
Gavin, I am interested to hear from you (:-))Following
- Nathan Weatherdon added an answer:How can we apply the RBV Theory to assess the performance of women in informal fruit trading in developing countries like India, Zambia etc?
The RBV of the firm is credited to Barney (1991), who identifies that both internal and external factors are key determinants of business success. While both internal and external factors are important, the RBV theory suggests that differences in enterprise performance are mainly driven by the intrinsic endowment of a firm’s resources, with market structure and industry attributes playing a relatively small role (Hawawini et al., 2003; Masakure et al., 2008).
I wouldn't dare answer the question without significant consideration of credit markets and determinants of access to credit. If credit markets are not functioning, then a subsistence producer can only subsist, in the absence of some external stimulus.
I would be inclined to frame it in terms of capital accumulation. If you have a highly quality plot, you can grow more with less effort and accumulate capital.Following
- M. Vivarelli added an answer:What level of public debt is desirable in developed and developing countries?
Before crisis marked-based model not worked in financial markets. After crisis in different countries we see different dynamics of external debt. In any countries this external debt is more than 200% GDP, and in another less 10% GDP. How to find desirable external debt for different countries in different financial conditions?
I do think it is a political question, highly dependent on the specificic institutional, social and economic situationFollowing
- Reuben Pessah added an answer:Cases of institutional entrepreneurship (e.g. corporate self-regulation) to enhance sustainability (e.g. environmental or social standards) in EM/DCs?I am looking for one or more cases where companies (either local or also MNCs operating in EM/DCs) created an institution to enhance environmental and social standards. In the literature, the case of the Global Reporting Initiative is often used but this is too broad. I'd rather look into a specific local case.
I would recomend:
"Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems", Elinor Ostrom, American Economic Review 100 (June 2010): 1–33http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.100.3.1Following
- Umer Asgher added an answer:How can we improve access to lifesaving medicines in low income countries?I belong to a developing country, so I think it's a need of today. Improving the access to lifesaving medicines in low-income countries is a big challenge in general now a days. Injections can be a particular challenge in low-resource settings and there are a number of factors that can limit the effective use of drugs administered by conventional injection in developing countries like Pakistan, particularly in remote and community settings like villages. Too often, patients cannot access essential medication and this unmet health need results from several factors:
1. Prohibitively high cost
2. Inconsistent availability of medications where patients seek care
3. Difficulty with administration stemming from a limited number of skilled health care workers
4. Dangers associated with needle reuse and accidental needle-sticks
5. Risks involving glass breakage and inappropriate temperature control during transport and storage
I want to ask about a scalable, easy-to-use, low-cost, pre filled injection device solution/concepts for the safe delivery of medicine to patients in developing countries. Low cost of goods is absolutely essential for impact.@ Dear Dr Emilia Mikołajewska , thanks for your interest
You are very right such injection device must be ready-to-use and operated by direct users
In fact The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world’s developing world population is unable to receive or purchase essential medicine on a regular basis. Access to treatment is correlated directly with the availability of affordable medications. In many cases, these drugs are administered via injection by trained personnel. The availability of trained first-aid person or specialized medical personnel is very less and in some cases not possible. So desire is to design an easy-to-use, prefilled injection device for patients . This device should be easy to operate by patient with out any assistance and intravenous detection may also eased for him and for that matter i suggest a device like a plastic lens to detect a blood vains can be Incorporated or any other low cost solution for vain detection. Dangers associated with needles may also be considered while designing. I think glass and metal can also be replaced by some other composite materiel like composite plastic. That all are the options that i have thought so far... but as you are an expert you will further guide on the subject matter...Following
- Noa Lincoln added an answer:What governs the speed of food production?Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?Nutrient limitations pay a crucial role in capping the productive capacity of any ecosystem. When you say "resource rich" for Africa, I assume you are referring to precious metals and minerals, because agriculturally African soils are typically very old and depleted. I think traditionally, particularly before the green revolution, the availability of water and nutrients explained vast majority of the agricultural productive potential around the world.Following
- Giovanni Favero added an answer:From gold standard to silver standard - will a reversal contribute to the growth of the developing economies?In 1873, Germany decided to switch from the universally accepted silver standard to gold standard, following Britain that had changed to gold standard in 1816. Scholarly works suggest that this was a decision that drained economies of colonies and made them perennially poor. Will a reversal (presuming that it ever took place) contribute to the developing of economies of the third world?Dear Srinivasam,
You are right, and it would be really interesting to imagine a different settlement of the monetary system.
What I would say about history is that it repeats itself somehow, but never in the same way. This can be tricky at times. What is more interesting to me is that some people (but monetary authorities still more than others) think themselves historically, and this way their historical culture influences their choices. In the same way, Robespierre and Marat imagined their actions as similar to those of the Gracchi brothers in ancient Rome, or Lenin and Trotzky acted as if they were making the French revolution again. I find the historical role models of decision makers particularly interesting from this point of view.Following
- Kuldeep Dhama added an answer:Will greater education for women in developing countries help in sustainable development?Women constitute one half of the world’s population, they do two-thirds of the world’s work, they earn one tenth of the world’s income and they own one hundredth of the world’s property including land.
Source: United Nations (1979) State of the World’s Women, Voluntary Fund for the UN Decade for Women, New York.
Sustainability in developing countries is rarely given importance by the masses because they barely survive day-to-day problems. For them it is a question of how they get next meal rather than the well being of the planet. They also are poorly educated. Educating these women is likely to help in realizing the importance of sustainability so that they can bring sustainable development in their pockets of influence. What is your opinion?Greater education and job opportunities for women will definitely bring revolution in development of any Nation, knowledge sphere when widens along with acquiring good skills will bring out success in all the fields and remove gender biasness at different platforms, it will lead to freeness and also best and optimum utilization of population / human resources of any country. Physical and Genetic make up being different may give newer thoughts being implemented in a better way.Following
- Kevin Stoda added an answer:The genre magical realism came to be in the German language. Yet, Latin American has had a home for the genre. Why is this?I recently raised the question as to why Europeans often ignore the genre of magical realism as a European phenomena. They often study it as a form of comparative study, i.e. not as a European based phenomena. That is, Europeans often study primarily writers from other regions of the world when looking at the horrible reality and magic of realism, like that of Gabriel García Márquez. On the European continent, readers of a variety of works of magical realism often only include an elite group of regional reviewers.
As Gabriel García Márquez has recently passed away, I would like to ask to what degree either Latin American or European magical realism has been accepted or prominent in the various countries on various continents around the globe. Moreover, has this genre been popular in your region or home country for a long time or only recently? In short, does a book like 100 Years of Solitude affect you or resonate with you more than a novel of similar genre from your own culture?Note: In some ways, the Spanish classic, DON QUIXOTE, is a basis for much of Latin American work in its design and material, especially as it lays the groundwork for Magical Realism as experienced or employed by writers today.
This would place the earliest concepts of the genre in Spain or Europe--when the first great modern novel was written.Following
- Wanhai You asked a question:Questions about the data on World Development Indicators?Recently I have collected the data indicator- Fertilizer consumption (kilograms per hectare of arable land) from WDI. The availability of data is 2002-2008 year. However, the paper titled-
Determinants of pollution:what do we really know? mention that we can collected this data for 120 countires over 1960-2001.
I cannot find this data early 2002 from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/
Why? Could anyone give me some possible reasons?
Thanks for your help and I am looking forward to your reply.Following
- Rahul Shastri added an answer:Is there any chance that the developed and underdeveloped world would ever converge? Or the gap between the rich and poor nations would widen?How and Why?Convergence is impossible because drastic rollback in consumption levels and patterns is not possible.
Western per capita consumption basket and pattern is so ecologically draining, and also so polluting that the earth could not support the remaining 4/5th of its population replicating it. So the ecology bars 80% of humanity from reaching this level and pattern. And downward stickines will prevent the West and the Developed World from rolling down.
I dont expect the gap to widen. But planetary exhaustion and the dawn of wisdom in man, I hope, will act in tandem will help to ease up the mad materialistic race and the game of catching up. Instead, the both the developed and the developing, I hope, will ease up and call enough 'enough'.Following
- Waseem Suleman asked a question:Intention and capabilityMost of research is for the sake of getting promotion and infrequently to get the answers of inquisitions. The capaciy or ability to conduct a research and not just the audit is the second major hurdle. The last but not the least is FUNDING.Following
About Developing World
Discussing constrains, obstacles and dilemma of conducting researches in the less developed world.