Curriculum Theory

Curriculum Theory

  • Carlinda Leite added an answer:
    How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?

    At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.

    Carlinda Leite · University of Porto

    In Portugal the Pisa’s results and the place in the ranking has a huge impact. On the other hand, the Pisa report has a strong influence in curricular policies and in the schools work

  • Sérgio Eustáquio Silva added an answer:
    How can I research about effectiveness hidden curriculum ?

    Hi , I want research about effectiveness hidden curriculum on learning students in the high school .

    Sérgio Eustáquio Silva · City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Dear Reza,
    Gimeno Sacristan (Curriculum: a reflection on the practice) defined the hidden curriculum as all that contributes to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, feelings, but is not on the previously and explicitly designed programs.
    I think a first observation about the hidden curriculum is that space also educates.
    So try to understand what a given space (school, for example) has as implicit messages in your organization, rituals, ways of living together, relationship between people, the values that are implicit, the words used, the concepts present in everyday actions , trying to understand the "hidden pedagogy" in relations and actions of people in day-to-day of school.
    My suggestion is a work of observation (qualitative methodology). But you gave few details about what you really want to do. If it is, for example, a comparative study between what is explicit and what actually happens (it's a good choice for a research design). The school also has many dimensions: teaching, politics, teaching, scientific, assumed conceptions, etc .. You will focus some dimension in particular?
    Anyway to this topic suggest even a qualitative work and observation.
    Paulo Freire, a Brazilian educator, said that reading the world precedes reading the word. He spoke of the hidden curriculum that is embedded in our actions and what we assume explicitly. Our ways of living and doing things alone, already teach us, already conveys a certain "knowledge."
    My suggestion is that from an observation work you try to find what is hidden (occult pedagogy) behind the procedural contents (ordered and an end actions, rules, techniques, methods, skills, strategies and procedures, verified by carrying out actions that become conscious by reflection on the activity itself); atitudinas of contents ((values, attitudes and norms, checked by its internalization and acceptance, which implies knowledge, evaluation, analysis and preparation) and the conceptual content with too subjective essence (facts, objects or symbols) and principles (laws and rules that is produced in fact, object or situation); learn concepts enables design and construction personnel, the interpretations and transfers to new situations.
    To see this categorization Zabala, Antoni (Educational practice: how to teach).
    What each of these content teaches implicitly? To what extent they are in agreement (or disagreement) with what is assumed explicitly? What values carries each of the things taught in these categories? That ethics is present (or hidden l0l) on ways to teach, relate, behave, etc ... present in the school environment? What ideologies are hidden and subliminal in all this at school?
    I'll end the post here but the conversation can continue. I hope I have at least a small contribution (or tracks) how to draw your search.
    See you later,
    PS: The title of the books of Zabala and Sacristan were translated from Portuguese title. Perhaps the title, then, may be a little different.

  • Daniel --- Tanner added an answer:
    What is a macro curriculum in higher education?
    Can we consider courses of study as macro curriculum? How can we evaluate macro curriculum in higher education? Can we consider micro curriculum as goals, content, etc. (Components of higher education curriculum), only? What are the differences between macro and micro higher education curriculum ? Is there any model in curriculum development that evaluates the course of study? For designing a model in curriculum development which principals and stages do we have to consider?
    Daniel --- Tanner · Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

     exploratory&Thre are essentially three macrocurricula: (1) the major field of concentration for career, (2) general education core, and  (3) exploratory & enrichment studies (elective options).

  • Gregg W. Etter added an answer:
    How does one's paradigmatic orientation affect their definition of educational aims, goals and objectives in curriculum discourse?

    There are clear differences in the notions: educational aims, goals and educational objectives. It is possible that the paradigmatic orientation of an individual would determine to a large extent, the difference in response with respect to these notions. How true is it that one's orientation may explain these terms. Your views are welcome

    Gregg W. Etter · University of Central Missouri

    I teach Criminal Justice at a Division II University. Before I was a full time professor, I was a cop for 30 years. I obtained my doctorate as a practicing law enforcement officer and administrator. I find myself agreeing with Aysha in both students and professors have different paradigms and that effects their actions or needs. In criminal justice, there is a four way split. Among the professors there are the theorists (who contemplate what should work in theory) and the pracacademics (those who have actually done the job at some point).  In our major there are those students who wish to become law enforcement officers (about 50%) and those who wish to enter other areas of the field (Probation/Parole/Juvenile about 20%, Corrections about 10%, Law School about 10%, and academia about 10 %). This leads to some interesting mixes, especially when you consider that we have a wide range of students in age as well. While most students are traditional college students coming straight from high school, our university has many returning veterans, many current military reservists/guardsmen, and returning adults. This influx of more experienced students adds to the diversity of the classroom and their experiences are a plus to the overall educational atmosphere of our major. The paradigms of those that have done it and those that have thought about are different. The paradigms of those who are older or more experienced and the traditional students are different. The educational goals and paradigms of those planning to become law enforcement officers and those that are not are different. The trick is how to meet the educational needs of them all. This is the point where I find myself in agreement with Cheryl. We can't just teach to the test. We are not training parrots. We hopefully are educating critical thinkers and developing competencies in our students. The wise professor will develop an educational pedagogy or andragogy to incorporate the development of skills that encompass not only competencies, but critical thinking skills as well. Our program is writing intensive and the teaching of research and writing skills at all levels is a must.

  • Miriam Lopez added an answer:
    Is there any investigation related to the students´ perception on Evaluations?

    I will appreciate if anyone can tell me about any recent (No more than 5 years) investigation made related to students´ perception of Evaluations. Excellent help if it is specifically about peer-evaluation and self-evaluation. Blessings.

    Miriam Lopez · Latin American University of Science and Technology - Costa Rica

    Zainab Jaafar, I loved your work and I would like to use some of it for my work.  How do I have to write the reference based on your work in APA style?

  • Steven Newton added an answer:
    Further reading on resistance created by curriculum structure
    Looking for some pointers towards some further reading in order to formulate a thought I am still struggling to articulate.

    In the students I am researching, I am seeing a pattern in their responses to the format of formal learning they have experienced. There is a dissatisfaction in being expected to engage in learning that is repetitive or abstract, or being asked questions by adults who already know the answer or to which the answer is obvious.

    It is evident in my data collection there is a connection between the student rejection of the curriculum and the structure of the curriculum and I was looking for pointers to further reading on this.
    Steven Newton · Queensland University of Technology

    Thanks Douglas,  my research is underpinned by the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Paul Willis, and aligns strongly with the second conceptual mention. It was good to hear it articulated by another. Quite powerful to 'see' my ideas through the words of another. Though the main issue Im having isnt with conceptualising and articulating at a theoretcial level (although according to my latest supervisor feedback this is still an area I need to work on), it is articulating what that means at a practical level. For instance, currently if I were to explain my research to my teaching colleagues, it would in no way impact on tomorrows practice as the gap between the theoretical and practical is quite wide

  • Auxencia Limjap added an answer:
    Is there any recent research on the efficacy of reflection strategies in the middle school?

    Preferably Scottish CfE curriculum at BGE level.  English preferred.

    Auxencia Limjap · Far Eastern University

    Limjap, A. A. (2013). Mathematics Learning Episode that Promotes Reflective Thinking among Elementary Pupils, In B. Kaur (ed.). Nurturing Reflective Learners in Mathematics Yearbook 2013 Association of Mathematics Educators (pp. 289-310). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

  • Hanzhou Pang added an answer:
    Could you give me any information or suggest any methodology about emotional intelligence in multicultural higher education?

    I'm currently trying to shape a project to focus on emotional intelligence in multicultural education. My plan is to approach this in these following directions: policies regarding international students and faculty members, how mentors train their TAs or Postdocs about intercultural teaching assignments, multicultural classroom discourse, and feedback to multicultural class members. Could you give any information about these directions? Could you suggest any methodology?

    Most universities have international programs that provide orientation and consultation services to international students and scholars. I would have to find those policies that deal with emotional issues from the administrators. Do you know how to get those?

    I was an English Writing instructor and writing tutor in US for 11 years, assistant professor of English in Seoul, Korea, and Khabarovsk, Russian. I need to collect more samples of feedback [speaking or writing] to multicultural class members.

    Most researchers are good at survey or primary research design. But I'm new. How can I get any potential information from multicultural students, instructors, and administrators? Thank you.

    Hanzhou Pang

    Hanzhou Pang · National Research University Higher School of Economics

    Thank you, Samuel and Douglass. Thank all, folks. Attached are two questionnaires for my class visits. I'm quite immature in doing empirical research. Your expertise and advice will be appreciated. The only thing that I feel OK to present is the "Metro of Emotion,"  which you will find first in the file of "Master Class Survey." I wish some of you may be interested to take me into your own projects. That will be my honor. Have a good one. Hanzhou

  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    How do philosephy approaches effect on educational planning?
    Any country have special educational planning to development their educational structure. this comment going to compare relationship between structures of education in all a country.
    how is educational planning in your country according to philosophy approaches?
    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Hello Ali,

    Can you please restate your question? 

  • Shaaban K. Fundi asked a question:
    Would you use the VARK Questionnaire to determine students' learning preferences in a dissertation study?

    Would you use the VARK Questionnaire to determine students' learning preferences in a dissertation study?

  • James Williams added an answer:
    In what diverse ways can qualification-inflation lead to the devaluation of the academic currency?

    In recent times, emphasis in education especially in developing countries has been placed on quantity of school products than on quality of the products. Schools at almost all levels are 'mushrooming' or springing up due to a desire to make education more accessible to many. In so doing, the tendency to sacrifice quality is a possibility. The consequence is production of a lot of so-called graduates without the requisite academic and social skills to change society.   

    James Williams · Soka University Of America

    Katara, based on what I view as his very negative assessment of teachers, I suspect that Erasmus' experience in education is quite different from mine.  He appears to believe that I work with only elite students. Nothing could be farther from the truth, even at the elite universities where I have worked in the past:  UCLA, University of Southern California, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  Even at these school, most students enter with remedial proficiency in reading, writing, and math, owing to the large-scale failure of public education.  A single example can, I believe, be generalized to what I do with these unprepared students.  

    Five years ago, a third-year university student enrolled in one of my classes, and I quickly saw that she had very low reading proficiency and could barely write.  I asked her how she had managed to get through two years of university classes, and she said that her teachers were easy and really didn't ask her to do any writing or reading; thus they were unaware of her difficulties.  I then asked her whether she wanted to learn.  She said "yes," so I asked whether she was willing to do the hard work necessary.  Again, she said "yes."  From that point on, I met with her every afternoon for 1-2 hours, helping her develop her academic vocabulary and working with her on writing.  We did this for about 5 months.  She was able to pass my class, and then she asked me to continue tutoring her during her senior year as her capstone mentor.  I agreed.  We continued our afternoon sessions throughout her senior year.  Her writing and reading improved so much that she earned a top grade on her capstone.  After she graduated, she went on to a doctoral program in psychology and will be completing her PhD next June.  Not all of my students go on the doctoral programs, but when they leave my care, they can perform academic tasks better than they ever could before.

    What I find insulting is Erasmus' assumption that any professor would spurn such students.  Perhaps they do at his school.  I am always available to students who want my help, even at night and on weekends.  As for the "blame" issue, I do not blame students and did not in my previous posts, for they are the victims of a failed education system, but I most certainly do blame our schools, teachers who don't teach, and politicians who are willing to perpetuate failure through failed policies. 

  • Tricia James added an answer:
    How can I utilize my word wall to make it more meaningful for students, particularly those with learning disabilities?
    As I teach students with learning disabilities, I am becoming increasingly curious as to how I can make substantial use of word walls to assist them in developing vocabulary skills.
    Tricia James · Walden University

    Thanks for the suggestions Brenda!

  • Molaodi Tshelane added an answer:
    How can we enhance the principal's leadership role in the usage of ICT for teaching and Learning?

    Scholars are in agreement that the leadership role of the principal is critical in the implementation of ICT for teaching and learning. However, teachers seems to be reluctant in using ICTs to enhance professional curriculum practice.

    Molaodi Tshelane · University of the Free State

    Thanks Doc

  • Ferran Gimenez added an answer:
    Does anyone know of good models or references to analyze the management process of creating a new undergraduate degree?
    In my view, case studies of educational experiences are in general discipline bias, either ‘pedagogy’ or ‘management’ centered. One consequence of that is not having an interdisciplinary perspective that comprehensively considers the managerial dimension of the work of creating a new university program.
    Ferran Gimenez · Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
    Right now I’m considering looking at the case from the perspective of Entrepreneurship, like the point of view of Stevenson, for instance:

    Stevenson, Howard H, and J Carlos Jarillo. “A Paradigm of Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Management.” Strategic Management Journal 11, no. 5 (1990): 17–27.

    Anyone with experience in that field could please give me a hint?
  • Gerald Ogbuja added an answer:
    What is intercultural competence?
    Intercultural competence is merely conceived as one of the competences should be developed as part of the communicative competence (communicative and linguistic approach). However, this competence is highly related with a wider competence is developed through a new approach related with curriculum and school, curriculum and education, that's why more and more educative programs have been developing curriculum through a more intercultural perspective. Seen this competence as a competence every single individual must develop in this new century of globalization!
    Gerald Ogbuja · University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

    In any multicultural society, there is no one way of looking at things. Reality must be perceived in broad perspective rather than a narrow viewpoint. Based on this premise, diversity and multiculturalism call for plurality in ideas. Anyone who thinks that his/her own story is the end of it all, should know that there are other rich stories out there yet to be told. What makes other cultures thick should not be seen as weakness in another culture. Anytime, we criticize a language, we are indirectly criticizing our own very language before the same individual and before the consul of reason. It is like telling another individual that he has an accent, without realizing that before that same individual you are manifesting a kind of accent different from what he is familiar. The ability to give an open ear to another accent in order to understand different accent and language makes you adaptable, competent and diversity-oriented. But, when you shut down your mind to other values, other cultures and languages that are different from you, you make matter difficult for adaptation and comprehension. It is equivalent to cultural disaster or linguistic suicide.The ability to mortify your pride and accept other cultures different from you knowing fully well that in other cultures, there are values so real, something mysteriously better and even more enduring than the culture and values you know makes your culturally competent. It makes an individual more tolerant to others, adaptable to new thoughts and ideas without being narrowed down to a given frame of mind. A mind that is locked up cannot be freed from its intellectual imprisonment. Neither can such mind be open to enculturation and acculturation of new thoughts and ideas. Such narrowed mind cannot not be trusted in the web of cultural competency or in the lattice chain of diversity.

    An Asian man who lives in an English speaking country but decides to put aside particular language and culture he knows but embrace English culture and language is culturally competent. A German who lives in London but refuses to learn English as lingua franca or refuses to adapt to English way of life is not culturally competent. This is applicable to any Tran-cultural or Trans-Atlantic habituation. In this regard, competency implies, learning new things greater and different from you; adapting to new ways of life, assimilating new languages, and most importantly, appreciating other cultures and values while retaining a prior cultural values and heritages inherent in you.
  • Beth Robelia added an answer:
    Do you have any special words for carbon monoxide in your everyday language?
    We use a word "czad" which is often confused with "smoke". I'm going to write a paper dedicated to vernacular misconceptions in chemistry.
    Beth Robelia · Walden University
    Marcin, This is really interesting. There are a number of misconceptions about ozone and about carbon. Your carbon footprint is really a carbon dioxide footprint. What other words are you looking at? I have some background for your paper that might be helpful.
  • Ferran Gimenez added an answer:
    What theoretical position could be used to support the analysis of a bachelors' curriculum design and development?
    The best known curriculum theories are rooted mainly in primary education experiences. Is there a comprehensive theory that could be used to analyze an undergraduate curriculum design and development case?
    Ferran Gimenez · Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
    Many thanks Kathleen. I agree that Situated Learning Theory consistently supports the ‘pedagogical’ dimension of a Bachelors’ curriculum. In my opinion, a Bachelors' program is a multifaceted system with two dimensions interwoven with the ‘pedagogical’ one: ‘profession-discipline’ and ‘management’. Besides its own logic, each of these dimensions have complex interactions between them.

    From my professional experience, the mechanics of this interaction are critical for designing and developing a Bachelors’ curriculum. I’m searching for a theory that considers the bachelors’ curriculum from this multidisciplinary perspective.
  • Xavier E Fazio added an answer:
    The concept of curriculum integration has often been maligned and discarded but it keeps making a comeback. Why is this so?
    Curriculum integration (CI) has been utilised by democratic educators because it maximises flexibility for curriculum design and, as research shows, it actively engages students in their learning (especially young adolescents). In theory, CI seems like a promising approach but when implemented it has a patchy record: sometimes it is wonderful, other times it is awful. What are your thoughts?
  • Mario Diaz Villa added an answer:
    How can globalized higher education systems and institutions form graduates capable of professing in local contexts?
    In an increasingly globalized world, higher education is being affected at the first place: imported curricula, international body of faculty and staff members, and students from different cultures and nations. How are such ingredients able (are they?) to form professionals capable of practicing their job in local contexts? I am more interested in the case of higher education particularly in Architecture.
    Mario Diaz Villa · Universidad del Valle (Colombia)
    The expression "globalized higher education systems" is part of the language of globalization, that encourage policies, regulations, and similar forms of goverrnance of what can be called "the global market of higher education (HE)". One of the key questions of this "globalization" is that HE has become the space for the reproduction of generic models able to produce generic professionals. The generic language of training has weaken the boundaries between local contexts and global contexts, and promoted generic skills and competences relevant to generic workplaces: competence has become the common language which supports the new basis for the culture of the new professionals (flexible, generic). This, in turn, has eroded not only the relevance of academic knowledge, relevant to specific national contexts, but the identity of national HE systems which now must respond to global educational policies of the global knowledge economy.
  • Denise Morel added an answer:
    Do teachers in schools engage in curriculum planning and decision making? How?
    Do teachers in schools engage in curriculum planning and decision making? How?
    In Quebec, there are a lot of bureaucratic levels between the teachers in the field and the Ministry of Education at the State level. Teachers answer directly to the school administration (principal and vice principal), but schools themselves answer directly to their school board (there are over 70 regional boards spread throughout the province), and the school boards answer to the Ministry. When the Ministry reforms the curriculum and develops new programs of study, teachers naturally perceive it as a top-down imposition (even though some of their colleagues participated on the development committees), and resent it. They resent it mostly because new programs necessarily require new teaching/learning materials (e.g. textbooks, lesson plans, electronic resources) to implement them in the classroom; without these, each teacher has to devise her own materials and lesson plans for every lesson, using whatever resources she can find. This adds a lot of extra time and effort to their existing workload, which they feel is already stretched to the limit. They are also highly protected by the provincial teachers’ union, which sets strict limits to the number of hours teachers can be asked to work and the kinds of responsibilities that can be assigned to them. And school administrators themselves vary in their commitment to the curriculum reform – some are pedagogical visionaries and others are simply businessmen – and so the amount of encouragement and support for professional development activities varies from school to school.
  • Marc Demeuse asked a question:
    Is somebody as a reference to papers related to curriculum analysis thought fictions (like Harry Potter)?
    I have published a paper (in French) regarding curriculum analysis and fiction. This paper was inspired by a paper form Eric Margolis concerning Harry Potter's school. I have found other references concerning Potter's school and I am now interested by other papers concerning curriculum analysis and fictions. It is a good way for me to increase my students' interest to curriculum analysis. Could you help me? What is your opinion about it?
    Link to the paper:
  • Lennart Rolandsson added an answer:
    What are the important factors for collaboration between teachers at different schools?
    In my investigation I have found a couple of Swedish teacher associations (TA), active during the 1970s and 1980s, who found their incitements for collaboration in the need for managing computer hardware and software. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education and National Board Of Education it seems like TA are influential concerning the development of informatics (computer science) curriculum. Somehow today things have changed and the formation of TA are constrained by other regulations (political, economical or technological). Or would you say it's not?

    For instance Educational secretary Michael Gove in England has recently presented a National Curriculum framework, where computing curriculum is supposed do be shaped from the bottom-up where teachers are going to share and use services on the internet for collaboration. He holds the idea of using Master Teachers which will spread the word. In such a situation I wonder if the collaboration will be driven from the needs of the teachers, the hope from the politicians, or from the programmers ideas about user interfaces.

    QUESTION: The question about whether Gove's implementation will work or not, is another thing which the future will reveal, I therefore would appreciate if you could tell me (based on your research or experience from curriculum implementation) what is important for the existence of teacher associations and collaboration? What are the important factors?
    Lennart Rolandsson · KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    @Robin There is a reference summarizing how teachers could be involved in curriculum change. See
    Aikenhead, G.S. (2003, August). Review of research on humanistic perspectives in science curricula.
    A paper presented at the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference,
    Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. Available at:
  • Ahmad Raza added an answer:
    What are some of the tensions between curriculum theory and pedagogical practices? How can we mitigate if not eliminate these tensions?
    How do researchers and scholars approach this?
    Ahmad Raza · University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)
    Kim Young Chun wrote and article, titled, ;Post-colonialism and Korean curriculum studies", published in Journal of Curriculum Theorizing,Spring 2005,Vol;20;No;1,ISSN: 1057-896X.The article presents an excellent theoretical and analytical synthesis of the issues involved in curriculum theory and pedagogical practices. Ahmad
  • Arlindo Mendes Vieira added an answer:
    How to develop the curriculum to deal with world crisis and to give some hope to the new generation?
    In the context of the global crisis we live in, the curriculum is unable to respond to crises that seem insurmountable. How can schools provide an education/skills necessary for youth to solve the uncertainties of global society?
    Arlindo Mendes Vieira · University of Cape Verde
    I want to thank everyone who posted their comments on this issue. I think we should continue with debates, raising pertinent questions. best regards
  • Asha Baiju added an answer:
    HIV education curriculum
    I am working on a proposal right now and its a comparative study based on a programme incorporated into HIV education curriculum at seconday school level for two african countries. It is some kind of evaluation. I have just met this new concept on models and would like those with an idea to please guide me.
    Asha Baiju · University of Kerala
    A 'programme review tool' may be good enough to asses the strength and weakness of the programme in the two countries. Then go for comparison both qualitative and quantitative
  • Felix Mustapha Nantogma asked a question:
    How do we ensure quality in higher education?
    As a result of dwindling central government support to higher education institutions in some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa the school authorities have devised means of increasing their internally generated funds by increasing students enrollment which usually tend to affect quality.
  • Alvaro Romo asked a question:
    Why is it possible to prepare for the future in higher education using current global trends analysis?
    Various methods, including the delphi method and other tools give good foundations to good planning in higher education. The global market needs universities to prepare students not only for the present, but for the future.

    Also, the analysis of demographic movements (especially south to north) indicate a need to stress intercultural dialogue more than ever.
  • Closed account asked a question:
    Good Luck!
    I look forward to following this important group. My interest is international higher education , especially in developing countries, where we hope to connect with curriculum specialists.Good Luck!
    International Professors Project

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