- Manuel Morales added an answer:9In what diverse ways can qualification-inflation lead to the devaluation of the academic currency?
In recent times, emphasis in education especially in developing countries has been placed on quantity of school products than on quality of the products. Schools at almost all levels are 'mushrooming' or springing up due to a desire to make education more accessible to many. In so doing, the tendency to sacrifice quality is a possibility. The consequence is production of a lot of so-called graduates without the requisite academic and social skills to change society.
Perhaps this research project would spark some student interest?
Although my invite to "Search For First Cause" are initially focused towards grade school children, graduates, and post-graduates, I invite my colleagues here at RG to feel free to participate as well (see link).
Besides RG can you recommend open source resources for students to use to conduct their research with?Following
- Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi Al-Hudawi added an answer:4How do philosephy approaches effect on educational planning?Any country have special educational planning to development their educational structure. this comment going to compare relationship between structures of education in all a country.
how is educational planning in your country according to philosophy approaches?
Ali has tried to explain his questions further. But it seem more confusing. May be Ali could consult any English editor and ask him how to express his concern correctly.Following
- José Walter Pedroza Carneiro added an answer:16Does any one know any successful curricular innovations in specific industrialized countries?
Dear colleagues, I am interested in finding out more about innovations in the curriculum that have been considered successful in driving development in specified industrialized countries. I will be grateful if anyone can give me such information that can serve as a model to inspire other countries that desire to develop their educational system through changes in their curriculum.
Many thanks in advance.
You are welcome
- Jagadeesh Rajashekharaiah added an answer:16How can industry and industrialists be brought into the umbrella of curriculum development?
The combination academic and industry personnels can improve the curriculum development. How these peoples can be brought in to the single domain?
It is essential that both the parties agree on a win-win partnership and exchange views and encourage each other. Industry people can give suggestions regarding the curriculum based on the industry needs. Because they will be busy in their routine work they may not be inclined to visit the institutes and spend time. Hence it is better the institute people meet them whenever they are free and discuss the matter. But industry people may have their own expectations and preferences and they may not show interest in every institute.Following
- Arlindo Mendes Vieira added an answer:13How to develop the curriculum to deal with world crisis and to give some hope to the new generation?In the context of the global crisis we live in, the curriculum is unable to respond to crises that seem insurmountable. How can schools provide an education/skills necessary for youth to solve the uncertainties of global society?
Thank you Barbara for yours comments.Following
- Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:1Why is it possible to prepare for the future in higher education using current global trends analysis?Various methods, including the delphi method and other tools give good foundations to good planning in higher education. The global market needs universities to prepare students not only for the present, but for the future.
Also, the analysis of demographic movements (especially south to north) indicate a need to stress intercultural dialogue more than ever.
This is a very good question as higher education becomes more portable and borderless with the advancement of technology. I did my most of my higher education in the U.S. (Associates to PhD) and I met several other international studients from four other continents on the globle. One of the challenges I had was that the curriculum was very U.S. centric and did not accommodate enough for a developing country context like the Caribbean region. So it is important that such global trends analysis be done so that higher education institutions can better accommodate for the international diversity of its students among other factors. Here's what is available in ResearchGage on your topic:
I extend best wishes for every success in your research!
- James Field added an answer:3How do we ensure quality in higher education?As a result of dwindling central government support to higher education institutions in some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa the school authorities have devised means of increasing their internally generated funds by increasing students enrollment which usually tend to affect quality.
A huge topic! This might throw some further ideas into the mix - a well-respected and noted piece of research from the UK Department for Innovation, Business and Skills
- Shaaban K. Fundi added an answer:4Would you use the VARK Questionnaire to determine students' learning preferences in a dissertation study?
Would you use the VARK Questionnaire to determine students' learning preferences in a dissertation study?
I have decided to use the VARK for my research. I appreciate you taking your time to respond to my question. Keep in touch.
- Heulwen Sweet added an answer:9How can I utilize my word wall to make it more meaningful for students, particularly those with learning disabilities?As I teach students with learning disabilities, I am becoming increasingly curious as to how I can make substantial use of word walls to assist them in developing vocabulary skills.
Technology that the students in our school approve of......
Spelling city... This is like a modern version of look, write, cover and check and it means that the student can input the words, then listen to them as a word or as a sentence. This was particularly important to give them context.
Quizlet - This is more teacher driven but really helps with vocabulary building.
I personally have disliked word walls as they look like blobs of letters and I cannot see how that is helpful. If they can pattern via colour for verbs or join together in a pattern that is helpful.Following
- Kevin Larkin added an answer:3What are some of the tensions between curriculum theory and pedagogical practices? How can we mitigate if not eliminate these tensions?How do researchers and scholars approach this?
I think major tensions can occur when curriculums go beyond prescribing the content that it to be taught and drifts into the sphere of how the content should be taught. Of course, the type of content to be covered already has an impact on pedagogy. For example, if a curriculum indicates a large knowledge component than a directed teaching approach is probably intended; however, if the curriculum is more values based, then a differing form of pedagogy is required.
- Brandon Moore added an answer:28Do teachers in schools engage in curriculum planning and decision making? How?Do teachers in schools engage in curriculum planning and decision making? How?
The deliberative curriculum is one way to engage all stakeholders. Wesley Null has written about this in his book Curriculum: From Theory to Practice. You can see an extensive review of this book below.Following
- Jeong-Nam Kim added an answer:8Why don't practitioners use the Excellence Theory any more?
Recent survey of PR pro's found few using Excellence Theory although research reports indicate it is the major theory used by scholars?
I believe Jim pointed out well that practitioners often lack the vocabulary and not have the same lexicon as the theorists/researchers do. This is common in many fields, and not using the theory/concepts as academicians put doesn’t mean that practitioners disagree or not using them.
Fraser delivers the view well from the field/industry in that ‘people in field might not have the vocabularies we have in academic researchers’, but they have ‘tacit knowledge’ about what is poor or unethical practice and there are good demand from practitioners for prescriptive knowledge of what could be the better ways of working. I also add my witness the principles from Excellence Theory are well observed across societies from my teaching, researching, and interactions with field professionals, although the excellence principles are not in abstract way in books and often be ‘spottily’ observed, the practitioners’ tacit knowledge is similar to the principles. In fact, as any practical field advances there arises a good amount of conceptualized ‘common knowledge' more than individualistic, down-to-earth ‘tacit knowledge’, and the common knowledge provides foundation for diversification of knowledge – sometimes there are debates and sometimes there are lumping or specifications. The IABC study and Excellent theory have laid the base for public relations and communication management going beyond the tacit knowledge to elaborated common knowledge.
Of course, many practical minds suspect and puzzled how to ‘digest and apply’ the conceptual and theoretical ideas in their practice, but theories are not skill sets such as how to write annual report, how to pitch campaign programs to clients. These are important skills solving day-to-day problems, but Excellence theory and the knowledge solve different problems such as what makes some organization more or less successful and what are the roles of communication management (public relations). As we know, practitioners more deal with day-to-day skill-set problems, esp. as Dave noted common problems when they are technicians or when they have lack of knowledge for sophisticate, strategy-building tasks occupied by managers. But, we are questioned by non-PR colleagues -- why they need us and have to answer this important question. IABC Excellence study and the theory give the theoretical answer for this 'raison d'être question' thrown to public relations' and communication management.
Excellence project researchers have addressed this fundamental question through their two-decade long research efforts. And if you read their reports, we realize that it is not a specific skill-set knowledge. It is a defining statement of ‘who we are’ and 'how and when we do better'.
Interestingly, even before pre-Excellence Theory, there existed successful PR/Communication Managers and organizations, but they were more based on some ‘heroes or heroines’ and a few champions and their heroic works. Such successful approaches and cases often shared anecdotally, and often exclusive and limited to their circles.
Here, the value of good (academic) theories arises. Excellence in communication management researchers connected the 'dots' distributed in the fields. The theory transformed good tacit knowledge elaborated and available and inclusive to practitioners -- the Excellence theory set to free the tacit knowledge available to many others whoever seek out. Good theories can and should remove entry barriers for many who want to do better practice and help even those with little access to those tacit knowledge often exclusive and spottily distributed. Good theories reduce the sunk cost from parallel, repeated trials/errors in practice and provide stepping stones for furthering common knowledge and improving ideas. We know many things are often reinvented but that way people’s creativity resources and assets are wasted. Good theories set the common ground and facilitate more and better knowledge by creating common foundation and it helps solve researchers' coordination problem--it facilitates researchers to be more constructive with their resources without redundancy.
Excellence theory and its principles also provide a theoretical benchmarking yardstick for org/communication managers. A theoretical benchmarking is possible and rewarding more than benchmarking with some peers because few organizations/companies are perfect in all aspects.
Many CEOs and senior managers demand what are the Best Practice of public relations. I have opportunities to talk with senior managers who don’t have PR/Communication background in the past but they usually see the values of Excellence Theory immediately once I explained them. This includes Asia, Europe, and US. They often suggested to help them for benchmarking insights using the Excellence Theory and interested in auditing their modus operandi against the principles so that their organization get specific directions.
Many suspect and remain skeptic about the value or role of ‘democracy’.
Those skeptics argue that we never ever had “a true or perfect democracy’ in the way it is conceptualized. To their eyes, it’s idealistic and obsolete. But, if we don’t ground on the conceptual idea of ‘democracy’, what kind of a world could it be? Democracy (as a normative theory) is surely conceptual and abstract, it may be hard to find in its full shape as it is conceptualized. Yet, it is real in its effects as a “regulating ideal’ for those who subscribe to it.
It shapes and reshapes present to a better future. We realize it only when we can envision something in mind ahead. Theory is like that and Excellence Theory and Principles do this for the field of public relations. Absence of perfect case of something cannot discount the value or role of some theoretical statements, esp. when theories are used for prescriptive purpose. Normative theories are tool for betterment and vehicles of changes or improvements though slow and incremental. Otherwise, we do things randomly. We better not our field left with random practices and only to the hands of some heroes and heroines.
We rarely think about 'democracy', but we are influenced by it and living on it. So do we for some good theories.
We realize better public relations practice with good theories we build today. We may leave efforts to some atheoretical paths, but there will be much cost, and it is counter-field-betterment.Following
- Molaodi Tshelane added an answer:16How can we enhance the principal's leadership role in the usage of ICT for teaching and Learning?
Scholars are in agreement that the leadership role of the principal is critical in the implementation of ICT for teaching and learning. However, teachers seems to be reluctant in using ICTs to enhance professional curriculum practice.
Andrian, I strongly agree with you and my agreement is driven by my conclusion that leadership does not reside in an individual but in the relationships between individuals, and it is orientated towards social vision and change as argued by Hellen Gunter ( 2001).Following
- Carlinda Leite added an answer:14How have PISA results influenced educational policies in your nation?
At this moment in Brazil, the government is designing a National Curriculum for Basic Education.
In Portugal the Pisa’s results and the place in the ranking has a huge impact. On the other hand, the Pisa report has a strong influence in curricular policies and in the schools workFollowing
- Rahimi Ali added an answer:15How can I research about effectiveness hidden curriculum ?
Hi , I want research about effectiveness hidden curriculum on learning students in the high school .
here is the article :
and see attached please.
Good luck with your research
- Daniel --- Tanner added an answer:4What is a macro curriculum in higher education?Can we consider courses of study as macro curriculum? How can we evaluate macro curriculum in higher education? Can we consider micro curriculum as goals, content, etc. (Components of higher education curriculum), only? What are the differences between macro and micro higher education curriculum ? Is there any model in curriculum development that evaluates the course of study? For designing a model in curriculum development which principals and stages do we have to consider?
exploratory&Thre are essentially three macrocurricula: (1) the major field of concentration for career, (2) general education core, and (3) exploratory & enrichment studies (elective options).Following
- Gregg W. Etter added an answer:30How does one's paradigmatic orientation affect their definition of educational aims, goals and objectives in curriculum discourse?
There are clear differences in the notions: educational aims, goals and educational objectives. It is possible that the paradigmatic orientation of an individual would determine to a large extent, the difference in response with respect to these notions. How true is it that one's orientation may explain these terms. Your views are welcome
I teach Criminal Justice at a Division II University. Before I was a full time professor, I was a cop for 30 years. I obtained my doctorate as a practicing law enforcement officer and administrator. I find myself agreeing with Aysha in both students and professors have different paradigms and that effects their actions or needs. In criminal justice, there is a four way split. Among the professors there are the theorists (who contemplate what should work in theory) and the pracacademics (those who have actually done the job at some point). In our major there are those students who wish to become law enforcement officers (about 50%) and those who wish to enter other areas of the field (Probation/Parole/Juvenile about 20%, Corrections about 10%, Law School about 10%, and academia about 10 %). This leads to some interesting mixes, especially when you consider that we have a wide range of students in age as well. While most students are traditional college students coming straight from high school, our university has many returning veterans, many current military reservists/guardsmen, and returning adults. This influx of more experienced students adds to the diversity of the classroom and their experiences are a plus to the overall educational atmosphere of our major. The paradigms of those that have done it and those that have thought about are different. The paradigms of those who are older or more experienced and the traditional students are different. The educational goals and paradigms of those planning to become law enforcement officers and those that are not are different. The trick is how to meet the educational needs of them all. This is the point where I find myself in agreement with Cheryl. We can't just teach to the test. We are not training parrots. We hopefully are educating critical thinkers and developing competencies in our students. The wise professor will develop an educational pedagogy or andragogy to incorporate the development of skills that encompass not only competencies, but critical thinking skills as well. Our program is writing intensive and the teaching of research and writing skills at all levels is a must.Following
- Miriam Lopez added an answer:20Is there any investigation related to the students´ perception on Evaluations?
I will appreciate if anyone can tell me about any recent (No more than 5 years) investigation made related to students´ perception of Evaluations. Excellent help if it is specifically about peer-evaluation and self-evaluation. Blessings.
Zainab Jaafar, I loved your work and I would like to use some of it for my work. How do I have to write the reference based on your work in APA style?Following
- Steven Newton added an answer:19Further reading on resistance created by curriculum structureLooking for some pointers towards some further reading in order to formulate a thought I am still struggling to articulate.
In the students I am researching, I am seeing a pattern in their responses to the format of formal learning they have experienced. There is a dissatisfaction in being expected to engage in learning that is repetitive or abstract, or being asked questions by adults who already know the answer or to which the answer is obvious.
It is evident in my data collection there is a connection between the student rejection of the curriculum and the structure of the curriculum and I was looking for pointers to further reading on this.
Thanks Douglas, my research is underpinned by the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Paul Willis, and aligns strongly with the second conceptual pathway.you mention. It was good to hear it articulated by another. Quite powerful to 'see' my ideas through the words of another. Though the main issue Im having isnt with conceptualising and articulating at a theoretcial level (although according to my latest supervisor feedback this is still an area I need to work on), it is articulating what that means at a practical level. For instance, currently if I were to explain my research to my teaching colleagues, it would in no way impact on tomorrows practice as the gap between the theoretical and practical is quite wideFollowing
- Auxencia Limjap added an answer:8Is there any recent research on the efficacy of reflection strategies in the middle school?
Preferably Scottish CfE curriculum at BGE level. English preferred.
Limjap, A. A. (2013). Mathematics Learning Episode that Promotes Reflective Thinking among Elementary Pupils, In B. Kaur (ed.). Nurturing Reflective Learners in Mathematics Yearbook 2013 Association of Mathematics Educators (pp. 289-310). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.Following
- Hanzhou Pang added an answer:8Could you give me any information or suggest any methodology about emotional intelligence in multicultural higher education?
I'm currently trying to shape a project to focus on emotional intelligence in multicultural education. My plan is to approach this in these following directions: policies regarding international students and faculty members, how mentors train their TAs or Postdocs about intercultural teaching assignments, multicultural classroom discourse, and feedback to multicultural class members. Could you give any information about these directions? Could you suggest any methodology?
Most universities have international programs that provide orientation and consultation services to international students and scholars. I would have to find those policies that deal with emotional issues from the administrators. Do you know how to get those?
I was an English Writing instructor and writing tutor in US for 11 years, assistant professor of English in Seoul, Korea, and Khabarovsk, Russian. I need to collect more samples of feedback [speaking or writing] to multicultural class members.
Most researchers are good at survey or primary research design. But I'm new. How can I get any potential information from multicultural students, instructors, and administrators? Thank you.
Thank you, Samuel and Douglass. Thank all, folks. Attached are two questionnaires for my class visits. I'm quite immature in doing empirical research. Your expertise and advice will be appreciated. The only thing that I feel OK to present is the "Metro of Emotion," which you will find first in the file of "Master Class Survey." I wish some of you may be interested to take me into your own projects. That will be my honor. Have a good one. HanzhouFollowing
- Ferran Gimenez added an answer:3Does anyone know of good models or references to analyze the management process of creating a new undergraduate degree?In my view, case studies of educational experiences are in general discipline bias, either ‘pedagogy’ or ‘management’ centered. One consequence of that is not having an interdisciplinary perspective that comprehensively considers the managerial dimension of the work of creating a new university program.Right now I’m considering looking at the case from the perspective of Entrepreneurship, like the point of view of Stevenson, for instance:
Stevenson, Howard H, and J Carlos Jarillo. “A Paradigm of Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Management.” Strategic Management Journal 11, no. 5 (1990): 17–27.
Anyone with experience in that field could please give me a hint?Following
- Gerald Ogbuja added an answer:5What is intercultural competence?Intercultural competence is merely conceived as one of the competences should be developed as part of the communicative competence (communicative and linguistic approach). However, this competence is highly related with a wider competence is developed through a new approach related with curriculum and school, curriculum and education, that's why more and more educative programs have been developing curriculum through a more intercultural perspective. Seen this competence as a competence every single individual must develop in this new century of globalization!Miguel,
In any multicultural society, there is no one way of looking at things. Reality must be perceived in broad perspective rather than a narrow viewpoint. Based on this premise, diversity and multiculturalism call for plurality in ideas. Anyone who thinks that his/her own story is the end of it all, should know that there are other rich stories out there yet to be told. What makes other cultures thick should not be seen as weakness in another culture. Anytime, we criticize a language, we are indirectly criticizing our own very language before the same individual and before the consul of reason. It is like telling another individual that he has an accent, without realizing that before that same individual you are manifesting a kind of accent different from what he is familiar. The ability to give an open ear to another accent in order to understand different accent and language makes you adaptable, competent and diversity-oriented. But, when you shut down your mind to other values, other cultures and languages that are different from you, you make matter difficult for adaptation and comprehension. It is equivalent to cultural disaster or linguistic suicide.The ability to mortify your pride and accept other cultures different from you knowing fully well that in other cultures, there are values so real, something mysteriously better and even more enduring than the culture and values you know makes your culturally competent. It makes an individual more tolerant to others, adaptable to new thoughts and ideas without being narrowed down to a given frame of mind. A mind that is locked up cannot be freed from its intellectual imprisonment. Neither can such mind be open to enculturation and acculturation of new thoughts and ideas. Such narrowed mind cannot not be trusted in the web of cultural competency or in the lattice chain of diversity.
An Asian man who lives in an English speaking country but decides to put aside particular language and culture he knows but embrace English culture and language is culturally competent. A German who lives in London but refuses to learn English as lingua franca or refuses to adapt to English way of life is not culturally competent. This is applicable to any Tran-cultural or Trans-Atlantic habituation. In this regard, competency implies, learning new things greater and different from you; adapting to new ways of life, assimilating new languages, and most importantly, appreciating other cultures and values while retaining a prior cultural values and heritages inherent in you.Following
- Beth Robelia added an answer:8Do you have any special words for carbon monoxide in your everyday language?We use a word "czad" which is often confused with "smoke". I'm going to write a paper dedicated to vernacular misconceptions in chemistry.Marcin, This is really interesting. There are a number of misconceptions about ozone and about carbon. Your carbon footprint is really a carbon dioxide footprint. What other words are you looking at? I have some background for your paper that might be helpful.Following
- Ferran Gimenez added an answer:2What theoretical position could be used to support the analysis of a bachelors' curriculum design and development?The best known curriculum theories are rooted mainly in primary education experiences. Is there a comprehensive theory that could be used to analyze an undergraduate curriculum design and development case?Many thanks Kathleen. I agree that Situated Learning Theory consistently supports the ‘pedagogical’ dimension of a Bachelors’ curriculum. In my opinion, a Bachelors' program is a multifaceted system with two dimensions interwoven with the ‘pedagogical’ one: ‘profession-discipline’ and ‘management’. Besides its own logic, each of these dimensions have complex interactions between them.
From my professional experience, the mechanics of this interaction are critical for designing and developing a Bachelors’ curriculum. I’m searching for a theory that considers the bachelors’ curriculum from this multidisciplinary perspective.Following
- Victoria Blue added an answer:8The concept of curriculum integration has often been maligned and discarded but it keeps making a comeback. Why is this so?Curriculum integration (CI) has been utilised by democratic educators because it maximises flexibility for curriculum design and, as research shows, it actively engages students in their learning (especially young adolescents). In theory, CI seems like a promising approach but when implemented it has a patchy record: sometimes it is wonderful, other times it is awful. What are your thoughts?
In reflecting upon this issue and my own schooling (K-8), teachers had a broad understanding of all subjects because they were required to teach them. I feel this model supported integration and continuity in learning. Teachers had the knowledge and ability to offer connections between and among the various subjects they were teaching. This also supported students making meaningful connections rather than enduring disconnected subject matter. The advent of education design changes, e.g. primary, middle, and junior high, and compartmentalizing subjects taught (teacher -subject specialization), further fractured teaching, learning, and environmental stability. I'm curious to know if current teacher preparation programs address curriculum integration strategies, provide research supporting the benefits when executed well, and cultivate the mind-set and skills sets toward implementation - authentically and effectively?Following
- Mario Diaz Villa added an answer:15How can globalized higher education systems and institutions form graduates capable of professing in local contexts?In an increasingly globalized world, higher education is being affected at the first place: imported curricula, international body of faculty and staff members, and students from different cultures and nations. How are such ingredients able (are they?) to form professionals capable of practicing their job in local contexts? I am more interested in the case of higher education particularly in Architecture.The expression "globalized higher education systems" is part of the language of globalization, that encourage policies, regulations, and similar forms of goverrnance of what can be called "the global market of higher education (HE)". One of the key questions of this "globalization" is that HE has become the space for the reproduction of generic models able to produce generic professionals. The generic language of training has weaken the boundaries between local contexts and global contexts, and promoted generic skills and competences relevant to generic workplaces: competence has become the common language which supports the new basis for the culture of the new professionals (flexible, generic). This, in turn, has eroded not only the relevance of academic knowledge, relevant to specific national contexts, but the identity of national HE systems which now must respond to global educational policies of the global knowledge economy.Following
- Marianne Frilund added an answer:1Is somebody have a reference to papers related to curriculum analysis thought fictions (like Harry Potter)?I have published a paper (in French) regarding curriculum analysis and fiction. This paper was inspired by a paper form Eric Margolis concerning Harry Potter's school. I have found other references concerning Potter's school and I am now interested by other papers concerning curriculum analysis and fictions. It is a good way for me to increase my students' interest to curriculum analysis. Could you help me? What is your opinion about it?
Link to the paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249656968_Et_si_Eurydice_visitait_Poudlard...ou_comment_un_petit_dtour_par_le_frique_permet_de_mieux_comprendre_le_rel?ev=prf_pub
I have heard about something called Story telling. In England the method has been used and developed. Polly Wright is a name I remember , working in this area. She are an artist, but pre pear medical students by using the method in their education. Story telling is often liked to some kind of psykodrama.
The little I know about the method and would like to learn more about the method, and test the method together with students.Following
- Lennart Rolandsson added an answer:12What are the important factors for collaboration between teachers at different schools?In my investigation I have found a couple of Swedish teacher associations (TA), active during the 1970s and 1980s, who found their incitements for collaboration in the need for managing computer hardware and software. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education and National Board Of Education it seems like TA are influential concerning the development of informatics (computer science) curriculum. Somehow today things have changed and the formation of TA are constrained by other regulations (political, economical or technological). Or would you say it's not?
For instance Educational secretary Michael Gove in England has recently presented a National Curriculum framework, where computing curriculum is supposed do be shaped from the bottom-up where teachers are going to share and use services on the internet for collaboration. He holds the idea of using Master Teachers which will spread the word. In such a situation I wonder if the collaboration will be driven from the needs of the teachers, the hope from the politicians, or from the programmers ideas about user interfaces.
QUESTION: The question about whether Gove's implementation will work or not, is another thing which the future will reveal, I therefore would appreciate if you could tell me (based on your research or experience from curriculum implementation) what is important for the existence of teacher associations and collaboration? What are the important factors?@Robin There is a reference summarizing how teachers could be involved in curriculum change. See
Aikenhead, G.S. (2003, August). Review of research on humanistic perspectives in science curricula.
A paper presented at the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference,
Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. Available at:
- Asha Baiju added an answer:1HIV education curriculumI am working on a proposal right now and its a comparative study based on a programme incorporated into HIV education curriculum at seconday school level for two african countries. It is some kind of evaluation. I have just met this new concept on models and would like those with an idea to please guide me.A 'programme review tool' may be good enough to asses the strength and weakness of the programme in the two countries. Then go for comparison both qualitative and quantitativeFollowing
About Curriculum Theory
Curriculum design for education programms