• Ferenc Hörcher added an answer:
    Can literary studies increase creativity?
    One of the benefits of reading literature and engaging in literary studies is that it has the ability to increase inter-subjectivity and expand ones' own experiences. Does the expansion of subjectivity facilitate creativity and creative thinking, or are the benefits simply limited to the above.
    Ferenc Hörcher · Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    As I see it, a simple consumption of leterary works does not necessarily enhance creativity directly. However, fictional works can help to develop our ability to use our phantasy, which is a prerequisitie of creativity. Also, through a widening up of one's vocabulary and stylistic refinenement one's ability to write creatively might also develop.

  • Jeff Lubin added an answer:
    Can anyone refer me to a CLEAR and DETAILED explanation of open and axial coding in the grounded theory procedures?
    I have key books on this subject by Corbin & Strauss ('Basics of Qualitative Research' & 'Grounded Theory in Practice') but neither gives a detailed description of these two coding methods. The most useful explanation would take the form of a few concrete examples. I need this info as an aid in assessing creative interventions in psychotherapy and possibly also in developing a theory of psychotherapeutic creativity.
    Jeff Lubin · Université de Mons

    Thx so much Janet and Alfred.

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer:
    Is it possible to establish an objective uniform gradng scheme for different jurors in works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture?

    Grading the works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture by different jurors is often more subjective than objective. Please/ what are your suggestions and opinions.on how to grade creative works objectively?

    Napoleon Ono Imaah · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Dear Michele,

    Thanks for your very valuable contribution.

    My regards.


  • Mark A. Runco added an answer:
    How can we measure creativity?
    Can the creativity be measured? What would be the parameters? Is there any method to do the assessment.
    Mark A. Runco · University of Georgia

    Going back to what was called the fundamental question (in this thread), is it worth measuring... Yes. By all means. As long as you realize that you are measuring potential and not creativity per se. If you treat a "score" as an indicator or predictor and not a synonym of creativity, a great deal of useful information can be obtained via measures of creativity.  The next question, after the fundamental one from this thread, is, what is the score an indictor or predictor of?  And the answer to that is, which measure are you using. There are dozens of measures, as is implied by the introduction at     It is even possible to obtain useful data of "general creativity" (across domains, ages, and cultures).

  • Jerry Rhee added an answer:
    How can we use poems to foster students' higher order cognitive abilities?

    Competencies such as critical thinking, creativity, logical reasoning, inferencing, rhetorical devices, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, etc..

    Jerry Rhee

    Dear Rahimi,

    you neglected to include the Neglected Argument (abduction) in your topics list!   :)

    Here’s an attempt to formally relate poetry to higher cognitive abilities (scientific), which means it says very little about artistic license:

    “Peirce even wrote: “…that which was poetically divined shall be scientifically known… Bad poetry is false, I grant; but nothing is truer than true poetry.”

    ~ Sorensen, “The Concept of Metaphor according to the philosophers C. S. Peirce and U. Eco – a tentative comparison”

    “We still ask boys in college to think…but we seldom tell them what thinking means; we seldom tell them it is just putting this and that together; it is just saying one thing in terms of another.”

    ~ Robert Frost, “Education by Poetry”


    this = C, target domain

    that = A, source/base domain

    and C and A are related in Peircean abduction, a structure for meaning-making by,

             The surprising fact, C, is observed.

             But if A were true, C would be a matter of course;

             Hence, there is reason to suspect that A is true.   (CP 5.189)

    “A theory of analogy must describe how the meaning of an analogy is derived from the meaning of its parts. In the structure-mapping theory, the interpretation rules are characterized as implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a target domain…”

    ~ Dedre Gentner,

    Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy

    The above mostly from page 3 of

  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    Who is/are the leading scholar/s in creativity research?
    I am organizing creativity workshops for students and corporate partners. At the moment I am pondering about whether to start my PhD in the field of creativity research and innovation. Therefore I would like to know more about the main scholars in this field and their research, respectively. Thank you!
  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    What are the measures to evaluate computational creativity in computers?
    Say I have programmed something in computer which acts as a creative thinking, it could be an idea, plan or any artifact. I want to know how we will evaluate this artifact as being creative.. Are there any standards to measure creativity like Turing test?
  • Eugene H. Fram added an answer:
    Does reflective thinking also include meta cognitive thinking if it is interwoven between thinking critically and creatively?

    I am now studying reflective thinking skills that are currently not very popular. I've got a lot of feedback the results of discussions on this forum about the interwoven process of critical thinking and creative thinking in reflective thinking skills. I'm now also thinking that interwoven thought processes are included in meta cognitive thought process. But I still doubt, meta-cognitive thought process is defined as thinking about thinking, while reflective thinking is thinking about the result of thinking? What do you think?

    Eugene H. Fram · Rochester Institute of Technology

    Have you reviewed Boom's Taxonomy?  You also might be interested in these articles?

  • Filippo Salustri added an answer:
    What is the relationship between analogical reasoning and creativity?

    I will also need articles about this topic. Many thanks for responses.

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    Does your university include creative writing within its courses focusing upon critical literacy for educators or other professionals?
    I am researching undergraduate, postgraduate and lecturer perceptions of the value and prevalence of creative writing in teacher education program.
    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    Dear Janice,

    these kinds of questions are interesting and intellectually stimulating.

    Unfortunately,  skills like creative writing, logical reasoning, argumentative essay writing, rhetorical argumentation, and advanced writing have not received the proper attention in most curriculum developments and educational policies.




  • José M Cardeñoso added an answer:
    What real power benefits are provided with the new fashion in research and design, the pedagogical intervention for gifted?

    When we know how important is education for all, to barbarism, ignorance and inequality prevailing in this wildly globalized world
    As we explain that the effort is not engaged the attention of the less gifted or benefited by society.
    Could it be that again, we neglect the great mass, and invest only in subjects that the political system requires, for the few jobs that offer creative quality?

    José M Cardeñoso · Universidad de Cádiz

    Hello everyone and thanks for the contributions received: nuances, suggestions, light and shadow

    Well, the question already died in his hands. My initial interest was not feeling alone in this swim upstream. I wanted to identify colleagues who do not get carried away by money and fashion it generates, support research lines and not others, indexed research and publication.

    Also, certainly, we know we're not the only ones who will not compete for those officers money, given away from European banks (Mediterranean) rescued by public funds. Entities using their existence to score more poverty for the basic salaries are below the poverty line, as indicated by the European community, although the minister prime Spain still ignoring it.

    Is it compatible with the signing of Horizon 2020 Protocol and taking investigative purposes marking the capital? Where is education for Sustainability?
    Which of the principles of environmental sustainability, risk, social accountability college ... it is fulfilled when we dictate what we should investigate?

    Perhaps if this is the real debate, and surely compensate launch as a new matter, for visibility

    Thanks in advance, and to ask you that you might be interested in responding, that it might be best done through new question


  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer:
    Does creativity influence academic success?
    Can anyone recommend experiments or publications that prove this concept?
    Sudev Naduvath · Vidya Academy of Science & Technology

    Definitely yes. Creativity is one of the major keys to success in the academic field also like in any other fields. Creativity is backbone of research and development. It is important in creating good and effective presentations also. Creativity plays a vital role in designing effective tools for teaching and learning as well as measuring academic achievements. 

  • Chaoyun Liang added an answer:
    Is there any free creativity questionnaire scale?

    I already found many questionnaire and inventory of creativity but most of them are too expensive. I am a self finance student  so I am looking for a free questionnaire of creativity. I would be grateful if you helped me.

  • Iouri Belski added an answer:
    What are some successful approaches for teaching creativity and innovation in a lecture context?

    Lecturing about creativity seems oxymoronic. I'm trying to give students tools for thought and design that can help them arrive in new places, but with 70 students, I can't imagine how to include much design or making as part of the course activity. I'd really appreciate suggestions (and no, I can't get more TAs). Thanks!

    Iouri Belski · RMIT University

    Dear Brenda,

    You may consider presenting real case studies or stories on creative designs to your students and discussing the creative sources behind these designs with students. In my experience such activities engage them well and bring students to conclusions that adequate problem representation and reframing are very important and that some existing ideation methodologies are worth to learn. Also, vivid case studies are remembered by students and in the future can trigger innovative designs via analogical transfer.



  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    How can constraint contribute to creativity and formation of a personal artistic style?

    Can invention of a constraint or a set of constraints to the creative process contribute valid artistic effects? How is constraint different from a concept? I am also looking for visual artists applying the "oulipian" principle and publications which could enhance my understanding of the subject

    Douglas R. Daugherty · University of New Mexico

    Dear Olga,

    Constraint can be very helpful to creativity. For example, a person is attending a school with a mandatory dress code and the student is one who expresses him/her self through clothing. To be able to make a statement each new day within the constraint of a dress code takes creativity. The same hold true for personal expression through graffiti art, the constraint is legal and yet your expression is painted.

    Throughout the middle ages the power of the Church limited personal artistic style through laws, and Gods will in what was acceptable and what was off limits as it pertains to works of art, literature, and science yet peoples managed to find creative ways around the constraint.

    In fact modern life is a constraint in and of its self. Laws, religion, experts, reviews, stereotyping, surveillance, and common sense constrains personal artistic creativity. Visually, style itself is a constraint for the poor but to see the fashion statements expressed by clothing is a great source of personal creative artistic expression. 

    I hope this helps


  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    Are there articles that provide evidence that society discourages creativity (e.g., in the workplace or classroom)?

    It's often said that society discourages creativity but what I'm looking for is data that supports this. 

    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    I can still recall a school report from my chemistry teacher; "He has done very well, but must remember not to question or challenge what he has been told."

  • Chris Jeynes added an answer:
    When were the Creation accounts in Genesis 1 & 2 composed, and who by?

    I am reading Mark Smith's "The Priestly Vision of Genesis 1" (2010) and finding it very frustrating.  He is so convinced that P wrote the account in the 6th century he doesn't bother to tell us why he is so sure.  I am not much disposed to believe in P, J  JE, RJE etc etc considering the fiasco that is the story of Q.  What is the evidence?  Note that I say "composed",  not "written"?  One issue is the canonical text and its editor.  Another issue is the set of sources the editor used.  A third issue of great importance is how the editor used his sources,  and what creative freedom he allowed himself.

    Chris Jeynes · University of Surrey

    Hi Roger,  I am an academic.  I don't base knowledge on videos!   I absolutely don't believe you if you dismiss the age of the universe.  I have gone into this a little and am convinced by the depth of evidence that backs it up.  Your assertions appear spurious to me ...


  • Leona M. Ungerer added an answer:
    What types of creative learning experiences have been incorporated in K-12 school music education since the year 2000?
    What benefit the students received from participation in the type of learning experiences?

    What challenges do music educators face, and what rewards do they experience from incorporation of creative learning experiences in their classroom?
    Leona M. Ungerer · University of South Africa

    Hi Desmond, I realised  I have collected some more posts (some more relevant than others). It seems as if new opportunities are indeed opening up for using technology in music education. I hope some music educators will add their views about challenges, rewards and benefits to students.

  • Rita De Vuyst added an answer:
    Can spontaneous activity, creativity and spirituality be accomodated to increasing regulations, bureaucratization and quantitative evaluations?
    There is a big contradiction between conditions for creativity and spontaneous activity and regulations, bureaucratisation and quantitative indicators at the same time. How can we solve this unpleasant situation in order not to kill new creative initiatives?
    Rita De Vuyst · Afkikker/Klimop

     A good and sane society leaves room for improvisation.

    There is a lot of creativity necessary if the profession is independent.

     More and more people have no impact on the situation. Most of the people are working with components and have no influence on the whole of the machinery. That is boring.

    The accent have to be on qualitative invention.

    The moment we put creativity into a special box I think it is dying soon.

  • Mark A. Runco added an answer:
    How can creativity be measured in the tourism and travelling domain (consumer perspective)?

    In general, I know that it is always a challenge to operationalize creativity. Moreover, some pose a question as to whether this phenomenon can be captured at all. But I am curious about your ideas and I will appreciate any comments.

    Mark A. Runco · University of Georgia


    Thank you for writing. Sorry for the delay! My wife and I are moving house to house and its taking all of my time.  You are in Stavanger?  I worked in Bergen as Adjunct Prof for many years! I love Norway.  As for Social Validation: I would be happy to discuss it. Maybe we should go to email? And I have some papers I can share.  Try me at runco @ uga edu      Best, Mark

  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer:
    Examination of mindfulness in the innovation context
    Could mindfulness influence innovation and in what manner could it do so?
    Zol Bahri Razali · Universiti Malaysia Perlis

    Dear friend, very interesting question.
    However, the easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
    If yet to find the articles, do not hesitate to let me know. InsyaALLAH I will help you in detail.
    Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis

  • Rohit M Parikh added an answer:
    Mindfulness vs Creativity
    Novelty could be common between mindfulness and creativity. Could you please share your view on the differences between mindfulness and creativity?
    Rohit M Parikh · The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

    Creativity is a natural gift ,a source of power of inspiration ,concentration & which his utmost faith from the within .He brings something novel for himself  with an inclination to pass to the social fabrics.

    Mindfulness works with the care ,his belief  sometime confusion & indecisive & which is thinking & concentration of his energy force of mind such person also take recourse to meditation ,& with all the dilemma he can find the road to way of his life in correct direction .

  • Tom R. Burns added an answer:
    Theories of creativity in sociology?
    I have looked at 50 years of research in Psychology, but cannot find any formal theory of creativity. Does anybody know?
    Tom R. Burns · Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    As I wrote in an earlier letter when the discussion about the sociology of creativity was in its infancy, there is considerable work in sociology on human individual, group, and organizational, creativity. However, it is not often labeled “creativity” work but rather innovation, entrepreneurship, emergence. I referred to the work of, among others, Michael Farrell (“Collaborative Circles: Friendship Dynamics and Creative Work”) and Hans Joas (“The Creativity of Action) as well as to Tom Baumgartner, Alison Woodward and myself (together with others) who conducted studies of entrepreneurs and technological innovators in the area of energy technologies and production and to Marcus Carson, Dolors Calvo, and myself concerning our case studies of policy and institutional innovation in the EU.

    Recently Nora Machado and myself completed a small book on the “Sociology of Creativity: a sociological systems framework to identify and explain social mechanisms of creativity and innovative developments”. It is downloadable from Researchgate (and other sites)

    The message is straightforward. Creativity is a universal activity, essential in an evolutionary perspective, to adaptation and sustainability. This manuscript on the sociology of creativity has three purposes: (1) to develop the argument that key factors in creative activity are socially based and developed; hence, sociology can contribute significantly to understanding and explaining human creativity; (2) to present a systems approach which enables us to link in a systematic and coherent way the disparate social factors and mechanisms that are involved in creative activity and to describe and explain creativity; (3) to illustrate a sociological systems theory’s (Actor-Systems-Dynamics) conceptualization of the multiple interrelated institutional, cultural, and interaction factors and mechanisms and their role in creativity and innovative development with respect to diverse empirical bases.

    Applications and illustrations in the work are diverse ranging from, for instance: (a) “the lone coyote” who exercises creativity based on absorbing in a field of knowledge or practice, concepts, challenges, problems, solution strategies, creativity production functions or programs (he or she is likely to be in contact with libraries, relevant journals and may be directly or indirectly in contact with a network of others); (b) groups in their particular fields operating greenhouse driving problem-solving and creative activities – included here are self-organizing groups as well as groups established by external powers (whether a private company, a government, or a non-government organization or movement); (c) entire societies undergoing transformations and radical development, for instance, the early industrial revolution and the currently ongoing “sustainability revolution”.

    In our sociological systems framework, creativity is consistently and systematically viewed as a function of social, cultural, and institutional factors rather than exclusively or even largely psychological or biological factors (although the later should of course be taken into account).

  • Closed account added an answer:
    How do you differentiate creative entrepreneurship and non creative entrepreneurship?
    Are there any external factors that stimulate the emergence of creative entrepreneurship?
    Deleted · None

    Hi, I know this is an old question, but I'm new so in case anyone else is looking to answer it as well, Watson discusses creativity. He pretty much reaches the conclusion that all entrepreneurial activity is creative because all non-habitual human action is creative.

    Putting this aside for a moment, entrepreneurship literature does have the tendency to lean either towards investigating the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur OR (and more recently) to the external elements of the marketplace that allow for it to happen (such as structural holes a la Burt). Watson argues for a third way, investigating entrepreneurial action - which would strongly imply a phenomenological approach (with empirical data collection methods because action is directly observable). This kind of begs the question, how do you watch a entrepreneur be entrepreneurial? 


    Watson, Tony J. (2012). Entrepreneurship: A suitable case for sociological treatment. Sociology Compass 6(4), 306-315. Blackwell. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020-2011.00455.x 

  • Shahram Dehbozorgi added an answer:
    Creativity or Innovation or Publishing articles... which is more important in research?
    Creativity in doing the things which are already done or Innovating the new things or Just Publishing articles for the sake of doing research.
    Shahram Dehbozorgi · Ministry Of Petroleum

    Dear Mr. Shaik,

    Thanks for your nice question. I think that all of  the creativity, innovation and publishing articles are very important in general but if we look at each of them very deeply, we can see that all of them are attach together. I can say that creativity is the root between these three mentioned factors. then a creative mind can make innovation and the result can be present as publishing articles. That is all and nothing more. I wish you good luck. Take care of yourself, please.

    With best regards,


  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:
    I need a scale to measure 'self perceived creativity' among architectural students. Can anyone suggest a valid and reliable measurement?
    It is very urgent.
    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist · Stockholm University

    I tried this and I found it good!

  • Leonid A. Skvortsov added an answer:
    What is a free measure for Absorption?
    I am trying to locate a public access (or, at least, free to research) brief (30ish items or less) instrument to measure absorption. I am aware of the Tellegen Absorption scale as a premiere in this area but it is restricted by Minnesota Press and may not be used in online samples (e.g., MTurk). What are some viable alternatives to measure absorption/engrossment in imagination?
    Leonid A. Skvortsov · Polyus Research & Development Institute

    Traditional methods of measuring the absorption in the bulk materials and thin films are spectrophotometric (low accuracy) and more accurate calorimetric methods. To measure the weak absorption were developed multi-pass sells with multiple reflection [ 20, 21] and intracavity methods both active and passive. The sensitivity of these methods is ~ 10-3 - 10-4 . Nevertheless, for the measurement of the absorption, for example, in thin films or small exposure of bulk samples of this sensitivity is not enough.
    Laser photothermal spectroscopy is an alternative to traditional methods of absorption spectroscopy. Photothermal methods are active, are non-destructive and, in most cases, non-contact methods of research. A characteristic feature of all photothermal methods is to obtain information on the properties and composition of the medium to be analyzed on the basis of the direct detection of absorption of power by the concomitant changes in the physical and thermodynamic parameters of the medium. This immediately followed by the inherent features: 1) a method for measuring the zero (in the absence of absorption output signal is zero); 2) increase in sensitivity with increasing radiation power (up to the saturation regime of absorption); 3) the principal limitation the maximum sensitivity of the thermal fluctuations in the test environment.
    Thus photothermal techniques may be implemented in two ways. In the first method, a continuous laser beam acting on the sample is periodically amplitude modulated (so called modulation photothermal spectroscopy). The second method - a pulsed photothermal spectroscopy using repetitive laser pulses. Both in the first and second object instances by absorption of laser radiation therein thermal waves are excited, causing modulation of the temperature and the detected signal. Analyzing the time dependence of the detected signal and its phase, you can get information about the various physical properties of the object, including the magnitude and dynamics of photoinduced absorption .
    As noted above, photothermal spectroscopy is a modulation technique measurement when recurrent disturbance of any parameter of the test material, achieved by the action of a modulated (pulsed) laser radiation. The main advantages of its methods as compared to the conventional methods of spectroscopy due to the possibility of eliminating the background signal component unstructured and obtain the differential spectra. This is due to the fact that a detectable signal is directly connected not with the parameter to be measured and its variation, i.e. derivative of this parameter with respect to temperature. Therefore, photothermal spectra carry a particular analysis which gives an indication of the properties of matter, is not always manifested in the study by using the traditional methods of spectroscopy. Also, registering of a signal at the modulation frequency by using the synchronous detection greatly improves signal / noise ratio, which in turn improves accuracy.
    Depending on the method of registration of the modulated signal of photothermal methods research matter most widely used methods of photoacoustic spectroscopy , photothermal deflection spectroscopy ( mirage effect) , thermal lens method ( thermal lens spectroscopy) , fotothermal radiometry and interferometry , as well as thermoreflection method .

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