• Pris Tatipikalawan added an answer:
    How do you evaluate student creativity? More specifically, how do you define creativity?

    I’m interested in how teachers quantify student creativity in to grades (especially in the arts classroom). However, the question can also be addressed to the different disciplines.

    Most school disciplines have strict quantitative parameters of evaluation. In the arts classroom and for the arts teacher, quantifying into grades ours students work can be very challenging.  What parameters do you use when evaluating student visual creative expression?

    Pris Tatipikalawan

    Oh no, this is not what I meant. I'm a lousy teacher :o)

    I don't think creativity is an act. I think creativity is a neurologic ability. To create something tangible (like a piece of art work), a whole set of cognitive processes is activated in the brain. I would define 'creativity' as the ability to create.  

    An act of creativity would be generating an idea, a strategy, a solution, an approach, a painting, etc.. The verb that describes the act would be to generate. This is where the brain is actively processing information to generate something that will help the person forward. 

    Then, a creation is a manifestation of the result of that neurological process, e.g. the idea, strategy, solution, approach, painting, etc.

    What I'm saying is, that inhibition limits the ability to create. Inhibitons can be mind sets, preconceived ideas, standards or norms that we think we have to live up to, items that must have a certain shape, etc. 

    In my apple example, the given time (3 minutes), the obligatory use of paper and pencil, inhibited the free creation of an apple. Further restraints to creativity would come from the students preconceptions of what an apple looks like.

    To answer your question if shy creators tend to remain in structures and extrovert creators don't, I would respond with the more inhibited the creator is, the less he'll tend to go out of the ordinary. 

  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    How can a professor use Research Gate among his students to enhance a spirit of innovation, creativity, and discovery?
    Having returned from the United States to Colombia, I have found that my students almost always use the "we-can't-do-that" expression. I wish to expose them to innovative ways of thinking. I also wish to help them see things from various perspectives and basically I wonder if Research Gate can be a good tool to enhance discovery, creativity, and innovation.
    Manuel Morales

    A revised "Flawed Scientific Method" document has been uploaded to replace the previous version. This version is designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables (see link).

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Albert Einstein held the belief that quantum mechanics was an incomplete theory and that there were local hidden variables that would give us a complete sense of reality. As the findings show, he was correct about there being hidden variables. However, he was incorrect as to where to find them. The basketball examples serve to illustrate the findings of the Tempt Destiny experiment and the mechanics involved. The "Flawed Scientific Method" illustrations were designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is fundamentally flawed and how to fix it.
  • (Pastor) Debbie Jean Lancaster added an answer:
    Do head space and workload hinder Creativity?

    Does creativity and growth happen only when people have the head space for it, or does a creative mind find the head space whatever the workload?

    (Pastor) Debbie Jean Lancaster

    Excerpted from the article "When Less Is More: Exploring the Relationship Between Employee Workload and Innovation Potential" from the Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO) (2002) is the following:
      "Contrary to many managers’ assumptions that workload is a good indicator of 
      employee output, our research shows that as their workload increases, workers
      report that their capacity for creative work decreases."

    Link where you can find the article:

    As well, I located another article on how the brain develops creativity if you think that may be an avenue of resource for you.

    And one more that perhaps you would like to channel is a study done on women in the workplace as mothers. This is a little different perspective; but, it is within the same theme of your question.

  • Monika Reuter added an answer:
    Theories of creativity in sociology?
    I have looked at 50 years of research in Psychology, but cannot find any formal theory of creativity. Does anybody know?
    Monika Reuter

    My book on a sociological theory of creativity is being published by Palgrave/MacMillan on Sept 18.  It is on amazon in the U.S., and on I have looked at creativity from a constructionist perspective. There is a model, a theory, and the results of the past 6 years of research, i.e., over 1700 student surveys, and over 550 open-ended electronic employer interviews. I would like to hear from everybody what would be a prudent and interesting new approach to studying creativity, i.e., I have been thinking of doing a content analysis of creativity courses taught, or possibly an ethnomethodological participatory study in a creative workplace - what do you think?  If you read the book, I would be very interested to hear what you have to say!

  • Gloria Latham added an answer:
    Does your university include creative writing within its courses focusing upon critical literacy for educators or other professionals?
    I am researching undergraduate, postgraduate and lecturer perceptions of the value and prevalence of creative writing in teacher education program.
    Gloria Latham

    We have a course where our Pre-service teachers create ( write and illustrate) a  text for upper primary students. We teach writing by having our students write and publish their own text. During the course their drafts are workshopped as are their designs. The text can be in print form or using multimedia. It is a very daunting task for students but they learn a tremendous amount about the writing process.

  • Kathleen Ryan added an answer:
    Is it possible to establish an objective uniform grading scheme for different jurors in works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture?

    Grading the works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture by different jurors is often more subjective than objective. Please/ what are your suggestions and opinions.on how to grade creative works objectively?

    Kathleen Ryan

    Following up on Angela Kelly's comments,  consider the work of Amabile and the consensual assessment technique which identifies characteristics to identify such as technical, aesthetic and function. I have adapted the technique to assessing design student work by non-experts and experts. Amabile, T. M. (1982). The social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 43, 997-1013. Amabile, T. M. (1983a). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag. Amabile, T. M. (1983b). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45,357-377.

  • Y. Sreekanth added an answer:
    Are there articles that provide evidence that society discourages creativity (e.g., in the workplace or classroom)?

    It's often said that society discourages creativity but what I'm looking for is data that supports this. 

    Y. Sreekanth

    I am of the view that teacher's impression about students makes lot of difference. If a student is considered bright, every time he/she responds, the child gets appreciation though does not deserve it. The opposite is also true. This is a big encouragement/limitation in the school system.

  • Megan Just added an answer:
    Are there any reliability generalization (RG) studies known to have been conducted on some of the "uses tasks" in creativity research?

    Although I know much work exists demonstrating reliability of these measures, I am wondering if a formal RG study has been conducted on any/all of the "Uses" tasks (e.g., Guilford's Alternate Uses (1967), Wallach and Kogan (1965), Torrance (1962), etc.).   

    Many thanks for the direction and guidance.   

    Megan Just

    Thank you, Dr. Runco.   With so much research using DT (via Uses tasks) as proxies for all creative thinking, I recognized the need to sort it out.  So, I will send you an email with more specific questions indeed.   Incidentally, I'm hoping to come up to UGa next summer to take the training in TTCT administration and scoring. I see your website offers info on other instruments, so that is exciting.  I will certainly check it out.



  • Ferenc Hörcher added an answer:
    Can literary studies increase creativity?
    One of the benefits of reading literature and engaging in literary studies is that it has the ability to increase inter-subjectivity and expand ones' own experiences. Does the expansion of subjectivity facilitate creativity and creative thinking, or are the benefits simply limited to the above.
    Ferenc Hörcher

    As I see it, a simple consumption of leterary works does not necessarily enhance creativity directly. However, fictional works can help to develop our ability to use our phantasy, which is a prerequisitie of creativity. Also, through a widening up of one's vocabulary and stylistic refinenement one's ability to write creatively might also develop.

  • Jeff Lubin added an answer:
    Can anyone refer me to a CLEAR and DETAILED explanation of open and axial coding in the grounded theory procedures?
    I have key books on this subject by Corbin & Strauss ('Basics of Qualitative Research' & 'Grounded Theory in Practice') but neither gives a detailed description of these two coding methods. The most useful explanation would take the form of a few concrete examples. I need this info as an aid in assessing creative interventions in psychotherapy and possibly also in developing a theory of psychotherapeutic creativity.
    Jeff Lubin

    Thx so much Janet and Alfred.

  • Mark A. Runco added an answer:
    How can we measure creativity?
    Can the creativity be measured? What would be the parameters? Is there any method to do the assessment.
    Mark A. Runco

    Going back to what was called the fundamental question (in this thread), is it worth measuring... Yes. By all means. As long as you realize that you are measuring potential and not creativity per se. If you treat a "score" as an indicator or predictor and not a synonym of creativity, a great deal of useful information can be obtained via measures of creativity.  The next question, after the fundamental one from this thread, is, what is the score an indictor or predictor of?  And the answer to that is, which measure are you using. There are dozens of measures, as is implied by the introduction at     It is even possible to obtain useful data of "general creativity" (across domains, ages, and cultures).

  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    Who is/are the leading scholar/s in creativity research?
    I am organizing creativity workshops for students and corporate partners. At the moment I am pondering about whether to start my PhD in the field of creativity research and innovation. Therefore I would like to know more about the main scholars in this field and their research, respectively. Thank you!
  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    What are the measures to evaluate computational creativity in computers?
    Say I have programmed something in computer which acts as a creative thinking, it could be an idea, plan or any artifact. I want to know how we will evaluate this artifact as being creative.. Are there any standards to measure creativity like Turing test?
  • Daniela Vandepeer added an answer:
    Does reflective thinking also include meta cognitive thinking if it is interwoven between thinking critically and creatively?

    I am now studying reflective thinking skills that are currently not very popular. I've got a lot of feedback the results of discussions on this forum about the interwoven process of critical thinking and creative thinking in reflective thinking skills. I'm now also thinking that interwoven thought processes are included in meta cognitive thought process. But I still doubt, meta-cognitive thought process is defined as thinking about thinking, while reflective thinking is thinking about the result of thinking? What do you think?

    Daniela Vandepeer

    Acquiring the thinking skills in the first place (learning how to learn by making thinking visible) and adopting/engaging dispositions/habits of mind can lead to a more successful phase of  reflection.

    See Hattie, Hyerle, Burden

  • Filippo Salustri added an answer:
    What is the relationship between analogical reasoning and creativity?

    I will also need articles about this topic. Many thanks for responses.

  • José M Cardeñoso added an answer:
    What real power benefits are provided with the new fashion in research and design, the pedagogical intervention for gifted?

    When we know how important is education for all, to barbarism, ignorance and inequality prevailing in this wildly globalized world
    As we explain that the effort is not engaged the attention of the less gifted or benefited by society.
    Could it be that again, we neglect the great mass, and invest only in subjects that the political system requires, for the few jobs that offer creative quality?

    José M Cardeñoso

    Hello everyone and thanks for the contributions received: nuances, suggestions, light and shadow

    Well, the question already died in his hands. My initial interest was not feeling alone in this swim upstream. I wanted to identify colleagues who do not get carried away by money and fashion it generates, support research lines and not others, indexed research and publication.

    Also, certainly, we know we're not the only ones who will not compete for those officers money, given away from European banks (Mediterranean) rescued by public funds. Entities using their existence to score more poverty for the basic salaries are below the poverty line, as indicated by the European community, although the minister prime Spain still ignoring it.

    Is it compatible with the signing of Horizon 2020 Protocol and taking investigative purposes marking the capital? Where is education for Sustainability?
    Which of the principles of environmental sustainability, risk, social accountability college ... it is fulfilled when we dictate what we should investigate?

    Perhaps if this is the real debate, and surely compensate launch as a new matter, for visibility

    Thanks in advance, and to ask you that you might be interested in responding, that it might be best done through new question


  • Sudev Naduvath added an answer:
    Does creativity influence academic success?
    Can anyone recommend experiments or publications that prove this concept?
    Sudev Naduvath

    Definitely yes. Creativity is one of the major keys to success in the academic field also like in any other fields. Creativity is backbone of research and development. It is important in creating good and effective presentations also. Creativity plays a vital role in designing effective tools for teaching and learning as well as measuring academic achievements. 

  • Hoi-Yung LEUNG added an answer:
    Is there any free creativity questionnaire scale?

    I already found many questionnaire and inventory of creativity but most of them are too expensive. I am a self finance student  so I am looking for a free questionnaire of creativity. I would be grateful if you helped me.

    Hoi-Yung LEUNG

    I think you should clarify what construct you are assessing first. Otherwise, you cannot explain the relationship of creativity and population. What are the sample size of your study?

  • Iouri Belski added an answer:
    What are some successful approaches for teaching creativity and innovation in a lecture context?

    Lecturing about creativity seems oxymoronic. I'm trying to give students tools for thought and design that can help them arrive in new places, but with 70 students, I can't imagine how to include much design or making as part of the course activity. I'd really appreciate suggestions (and no, I can't get more TAs). Thanks!

    Iouri Belski

    Dear Brenda,

    You may consider presenting real case studies or stories on creative designs to your students and discussing the creative sources behind these designs with students. In my experience such activities engage them well and bring students to conclusions that adequate problem representation and reframing are very important and that some existing ideation methodologies are worth to learn. Also, vivid case studies are remembered by students and in the future can trigger innovative designs via analogical transfer.



  • Douglas R. Daugherty added an answer:
    How can constraint contribute to creativity and formation of a personal artistic style?

    Can invention of a constraint or a set of constraints to the creative process contribute valid artistic effects? How is constraint different from a concept? I am also looking for visual artists applying the "oulipian" principle and publications which could enhance my understanding of the subject

    Douglas R. Daugherty

    Dear Olga,

    Constraint can be very helpful to creativity. For example, a person is attending a school with a mandatory dress code and the student is one who expresses him/her self through clothing. To be able to make a statement each new day within the constraint of a dress code takes creativity. The same hold true for personal expression through graffiti art, the constraint is legal and yet your expression is painted.

    Throughout the middle ages the power of the Church limited personal artistic style through laws, and Gods will in what was acceptable and what was off limits as it pertains to works of art, literature, and science yet peoples managed to find creative ways around the constraint.

    In fact modern life is a constraint in and of its self. Laws, religion, experts, reviews, stereotyping, surveillance, and common sense constrains personal artistic creativity. Visually, style itself is a constraint for the poor but to see the fashion statements expressed by clothing is a great source of personal creative artistic expression. 

    I hope this helps


  • Chris Jeynes added an answer:
    When were the Creation accounts in Genesis 1 & 2 composed, and who by?

    I am reading Mark Smith's "The Priestly Vision of Genesis 1" (2010) and finding it very frustrating.  He is so convinced that P wrote the account in the 6th century he doesn't bother to tell us why he is so sure.  I am not much disposed to believe in P, J  JE, RJE etc etc considering the fiasco that is the story of Q.  What is the evidence?  Note that I say "composed",  not "written"?  One issue is the canonical text and its editor.  Another issue is the set of sources the editor used.  A third issue of great importance is how the editor used his sources,  and what creative freedom he allowed himself.

    Chris Jeynes

    Hi Roger,  I am an academic.  I don't base knowledge on videos!   I absolutely don't believe you if you dismiss the age of the universe.  I have gone into this a little and am convinced by the depth of evidence that backs it up.  Your assertions appear spurious to me ...


  • Leona M. Ungerer added an answer:
    What types of creative learning experiences have been incorporated in K-12 school music education since the year 2000?
    What benefit the students received from participation in the type of learning experiences?

    What challenges do music educators face, and what rewards do they experience from incorporation of creative learning experiences in their classroom?
    Leona M. Ungerer

    Hi Desmond, I realised  I have collected some more posts (some more relevant than others). It seems as if new opportunities are indeed opening up for using technology in music education. I hope some music educators will add their views about challenges, rewards and benefits to students.

    + 6 more attachments

  • Rita De Vuyst added an answer:
    Can spontaneous activity, creativity and spirituality be accomodated to increasing regulations, bureaucratization and quantitative evaluations?
    There is a big contradiction between conditions for creativity and spontaneous activity and regulations, bureaucratisation and quantitative indicators at the same time. How can we solve this unpleasant situation in order not to kill new creative initiatives?
    Rita De Vuyst

     A good and sane society leaves room for improvisation.

    There is a lot of creativity necessary if the profession is independent.

     More and more people have no impact on the situation. Most of the people are working with components and have no influence on the whole of the machinery. That is boring.

    The accent have to be on qualitative invention.

    The moment we put creativity into a special box I think it is dying soon.

  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    How can creativity be measured in the tourism and travelling domain (consumer perspective)?

    In general, I know that it is always a challenge to operationalize creativity. Moreover, some pose a question as to whether this phenomenon can be captured at all. But I am curious about your ideas and I will appreciate any comments.

    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Tourism and Travel creativity is a function of the diverse experience that can be packed densely in time and space.

    Point of reference:

    • Destination-wise:nation states, municipalities, islands that despite their small sizes (spatial constraint) are able to pack a punch in terms of tourism experiences. (e.g. Monarco and Bali). 
    • Attraction-wise: a space that despite suffering from space-time compression is timeless, even iconic (e.g. St.Mark's Square and the Eiffel Tower)
  • Zol Bahri Razali added an answer:
    Examination of mindfulness in the innovation context
    Could mindfulness influence innovation and in what manner could it do so?
  • Rohit M Parikh added an answer:
    Mindfulness vs Creativity
    Novelty could be common between mindfulness and creativity. Could you please share your view on the differences between mindfulness and creativity?
    Rohit M Parikh

    Creativity is a natural gift ,a source of power of inspiration ,concentration & which his utmost faith from the within .He brings something novel for himself  with an inclination to pass to the social fabrics.

    Mindfulness works with the care ,his belief  sometime confusion & indecisive & which is thinking & concentration of his energy force of mind such person also take recourse to meditation ,& with all the dilemma he can find the road to way of his life in correct direction .

  • Closed account added an answer:
    How do you differentiate creative entrepreneurship and non creative entrepreneurship?
    Are there any external factors that stimulate the emergence of creative entrepreneurship?

    Hi, I know this is an old question, but I'm new so in case anyone else is looking to answer it as well, Watson discusses creativity. He pretty much reaches the conclusion that all entrepreneurial activity is creative because all non-habitual human action is creative.

    Putting this aside for a moment, entrepreneurship literature does have the tendency to lean either towards investigating the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur OR (and more recently) to the external elements of the marketplace that allow for it to happen (such as structural holes a la Burt). Watson argues for a third way, investigating entrepreneurial action - which would strongly imply a phenomenological approach (with empirical data collection methods because action is directly observable). This kind of begs the question, how do you watch a entrepreneur be entrepreneurial? 


    Watson, Tony J. (2012). Entrepreneurship: A suitable case for sociological treatment. Sociology Compass 6(4), 306-315. Blackwell. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020-2011.00455.x 

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Complexity, mindfulness, creative thinking, personality, education, genius and madness

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