Computer Communications (Networks)

Computer Communications (Networks)

  • Abdul Razaque added an answer:
    Can anyone help me in calculating performance metrics like delay,throughout,etc from ns-2 trace file for vanet routing protocols?

    I am not familiar with the scripts.

    Abdul Razaque · University of Bridgeport

    Hello Radhika,

    I have just checked your one TR file of AODV. 

    Do you want to create graphs for following metrics?

    Average throughput: ( single and multiple sessions)-2 GRAPHS

    Average End-to-End delay ( single and multiple sessions)-2 GRAPHS



  • V.r.sarma Dhulipala added an answer:
    I work on node classification using the markov process. Can anyone share code for this purpose, please?

    Hi, I am doing research on Ad Hoc networks. I want to analyze the behaviour of nodes. Therefore, I have planned to use the markov chain process to monitor the states of the nodes. If any one is doing research related to this please share your commands?

    V.r.sarma Dhulipala · Anna University, Chennai

    If it is node classification you may use matlab

  • Peng Xu added an answer:
    Has anyone here worked on key management or key exchange in DTN using one simulator?

    I want to analyse the effect of key management in DTN . I would appreciate any useful idea especially using ONE simulator.

    Peng Xu · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Hello Philip, I think that OMNET and NETA would be one of the available choices for your problem. 

  • A.V. Paneendra added an answer:
    How do I extract x,y,z signals as a single signal from an accelorometer gyroscope phone then decompose it into 3 signals?

    I need to extract f x,y,z signals, then combine them and re-extract them from the same signal without loss of data. 

    A.V. Paneendra · KMM Institute of Technology & Science

    Please say how to extract x,y,z data from ADXL345 gyroscope?

  • Youcef Baghdadi added an answer:
    Hi, is there a way to extract UML models from mobile applications' source code?

    I am reviewing literature about reverse engineering of mobile apps but all the publications I found are extracting domain models for generating test cases. I couldn't see any research that extracted UML model. 

    Youcef Baghdadi · Sultan Qaboos University

    The  logic of mobile application is the same for web application or stand-stand alone application. The difference, if any, is in the presentation. Therefore, the same reverse engineering tools can be used to extract the logic in UML in MDE in an ADM effort.

  • Leopoldo José Rios added an answer:
    How can I overcome DDOS threat in DATA center networks?
    w.r.t. above topic, can DDOS in an application layer be overcome by using ANN methodology or the Genetic Algorithm approach?
    Leopoldo José Rios · National Scientific and Technical Research Council

    Sorry, I hope my answer, I understand the question.
    I think you need to place a firewall that monitors incoming and outgoing connections, this is between your datacenter and internet. It can be a Linux antivirus software like Kaspersky, are already proven solutions, which has no impact on operating cost expensive data center infrastructure. The DDoS is just one of the avenues of attack.

  • Tarek Mohamed Salem added an answer:
    How can I use LEACH in NS-2 to implement a wireless sensor network?

    Wireless sensor network implementation.

    Tarek Mohamed Salem · Electronics Research Institute

    there is tool named mannasim worked in NS2 version 2.34 contain source code for leach

  • How can we add service level agreements in CloudSim? Service level agreements between user and provider how can we implement them in programming?


    Gandhi Kishan Bipinchandra · RK University

    In cloud sim aleray provided SLA class you can directly use in to your programme ...... and you can define your own SLA factors view this papers your query will be solved




  • Mohamed Al-mosawi added an answer:
    What are slight modifications we can do for the congestion control in MAC layer?

    I am attempting to modify Congestion Control in MAC layer with the help of Contention Window for better throughput and performance.

    Mohamed Al-mosawi · University of Portsmouth

    Ok the provided description is very broad, therefore there is no exact answer. That been said, to improve the network throughput, you can assign different priority levels to traffic classes to ensure the agreed QoS. TThis will enable the MAC to drop a designated packets as long as the agreed radio is still intact.

  • Rodrigo Ruas Oliveira added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with in-band and out-of-band control on SDN?

    I would like to know if any of you has heard about in-band control and out-of-band control on SDN and if there is any article that mentions both types of control?

    Rodrigo Ruas Oliveira · Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

    This refers to the medium in which control traffic traverses. That is, which links are used to exchange control-related data between the controller and the forwarding devices it commands, or among controller instances.

    Out-of-Band control uses separate Ethernet ports and links (i.e., a separate network) to connect forwarding devices to the controller and exchange control traffic. This separate infrastructure can be either physical or logical. In the first case, OpenFlow Switches have a physical "management" port which should be connected to controller or a traditional L2/L3 network connected to the controller(s) (this is traditional way used by todays' switch vendors). In the second case, tunneling or virtualization is used to create a separate logical network in the same physical infrastructure (e.g., in the original OpenFlow deploynment at Stanford, switches where configured with 3 VLANs, one for OpenFlow control traffic, one for experimenting data traffic with OpenFlow, and one for production traffic).

    In-Band control uses the same links (i.e., same network) for both data traffic and control traffic. This case usually requires the switches to have a predefined set of rules for establishing the connection with the controller.

    There is no much information about In-Band and Out-of-Band control in Software-Defined Networking. You can use the reference provided by Thomas Pfeiffenberger, as well as the OpenFlow and the OFConfig specifications to gain additional knowledge. Although, as far as I know, there is little information about it.

  • How to calculate the throughput of data center networks?

    I'm not sure about how the throughput in data center networks can be calculated.

    Could you please give me the exact formula that calculate the throughput of a data center network?

    Thanks in advance.

    Gandhi Kishan Bipinchandra · RK University

    yes you can calculate it with use of cloud sim  . IN Cloud sim already has an inbuilt functionality to  calculate throughput of datacenter . you can also view this



  • Rivalino Matias Jr. added an answer:
    Is there a specific tool for identifying Cloud Traffic ?

    Can someone suggest a tool that can identify Cloud Traffic or can differentiate Cloud services from other web services...

  • Abhishek Bajpai added an answer:
    Strategies to simulate traffic and routing in a mobile WSN?

    I'm working on a problem where I have a hierarchical structure for different people wearing sensors, where each of them move in a quasi-regular way. Now I need to test different routing algorithms, so I'm wondering if there's any tool (theorical or implemented) to model, at the same time, a 'regularly' moving topology, and routing algorithms.

    Abhishek Bajpai · Institute of Engineering & Technology, SRMU, Lucknow

    You are working on mobility models . So I will suggest go with NS3 . It is best solution than others .
    On the other hand you can do it with real time implementation using Motes .

  • V. Sankaranarayanan added an answer:
    What is the difference between End-to-End delay and End-to-End throughput?

    What is the difference between the two mentioned networking parameters?

    Can't we calculate one of them to get the other?

    V. Sankaranarayanan · B. S. Abdur Rahman University

    I agree with both the answers

  • Seil Jeon added an answer:
    What is the difference between interconnection networks and data center networks?

    Dear friends,

    I want to know the clear difference between these two topics. Please share your opinion here.

    Thanks all.

    Seil Jeon · Institute of Telecommunications

    Attached link provides good explanation about interconnection networks.

    "Interconnection networks are also called networks, communication subnets, or communication subsystems. The interconnection of multiple networks is called internetworking. This relies on communication standards to convert information from one kind of network to another, such as with the Internet."

    Data center is defined a pool of resources (computational, storage, network) interconnected using a communication network. So, data center networks could be regarded as an interconnection network specifically designed for a data center application.

  • Nordin Zakaria added an answer:
    Do you think " cloud computing " will replace " data center " for backup data?

    Hello , big companies that has data center are they going to shift from keep a backup of their data in "data center " to upload all backups to the cloud or something like that , please do share your opinion.
    thanks in advance

    Nordin Zakaria · Malaysia

    By cloud, do you mean public or private cloud?

    While companies and governments are not likely to be moving to public cloud (for security/legal issues), the trend is I think to setup a private, enterprise-wide cloud. The company will still have its Data Center, but this Data Center will be operated like a private cloud to address the needs of all the departments, divisions, etc. worldwide within the company,

  • Liang Mi added an answer:
    How can I develop localization app for a smart phone?
    For a project I need to develop an app that utilizes the WLAN interface for localization in indoor environment.
    Liang Mi · Arizona State University

    Follow tutorials in Youtube. Just search whatever you want to implement.

  • Pedro M. Wightman added an answer:
    How can I prove the improvement in energy consumption on any protocol in WSN?

    I would like to know what are the standards that should be used to compare between any protocol and improvement on this protocol in wireless sensor network.

    Pedro M. Wightman · Universidad del Norte (Colombia)

    Hello Moahmmed. One key issue related to energy consumption in WSN is the topology of the network: how many active nodes and active links the network has at a given moment. Controlling and reducing the topology to an acceptable level of service by keeping nodes in deep-sleep mode or by reducing the transmission range are feasible solutions to this problem, plus it keeps resources to extend the lifetime of the network. Check on topology construction and topology maintenance and you'll find many techniques to do this.



  • DJEDDOU Messaoud added an answer:
    In BPN, what kind of normalization technique can be used?

    I want to know whether zscore, biweight, minmax, or tanh can be used

    DJEDDOU Messaoud · Larbi Ben Mhidi University

    Hi rama,

    I have used Min-Max normalization for my data to train an ANN for prediction, it work good. Try it.

    Best regards.

  • Shuaishuai Tan added an answer:
    Any help about adding new algorithm to OPNET modeler 14.5 ?

    I'm working in modifying existed protocol (OLSR) and I want to add this modification into OPNET modeler 14.5 to check if it works well or not. 

    References are better for helping and also any other tools 

    Shuaishuai Tan · Xidian University

    Yes, I hope that someone can contribute to complete the MoSim, and provide a open sourced version

  • Anubhav Tewari added an answer:
    What are the possible ways of communication between femtocells belonging to different operators?

    Communication between femtocells. Is this even possible?!

    Anubhav Tewari · Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University

    The obvious idea is to make the channel protocol independent, i.e. both the operators will have their set of protocols, and will run on a protocol independent platform. Thus it is possible.

  • Abhishek Karwa added an answer:
    What is the difference between AWR, HFSS, ADS, CST?
    Under what circumstances and parameters is each best to be used? General Concept information about Microwave design softwares?
    Abhishek Karwa · JIET Group of Institutions

    I also need hfss related material at

  • Mohammadreza Amiri added an answer:
    Would you like to participate in a survey about M-learning?

    I am trying to carry out a survey on M-learning.

    It is 45 (choose from the list) questions which will take you about 10 minutes to complete, but it is vital for completing my research.
    Although the participation is voluntary, I would be grateful if you help me to do this survey. We will let you know the results by the time we analyzed the data.
    Please press following link to submit your responses:

    Mohammadreza Amiri · University of Tehran

    Thanks Dear Ljubomir

  • Muhammad Zakarya added an answer:
    An ISI journal in the field of data center network architectures and topologies

    Hi all,

    As you know, there is a lot of ISI journals in the field of data center and interconnection network architectures and topologies. Which one do you suggest me to submit our research papers? Our paper is about "introducing a new topology (architecture) for data center and interconnection networks".

    I found several journals, but I want to have your suggestions, too.

    Thank you so much in advance.

    Muhammad Zakarya · Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

  • Peter T Breuer added an answer:
    Can someone please let me know a custom card that can be connected to PCI?

    The card should have at least 9 pins each for AD and DA. Further, it should have atleast 10 pins for PWM/Encoder/Counter.

    Peter T Breuer · Birmingham City University

    Uh, Muhzir, I'm not sure, but I think he's talking about a custom card that can monitor an analog (A) signal or signals and digitize (D) it for the computer, NOT a device that connects to a modem... or he might be talking about digital audio (DA). Who knows!

    Of course, if the poster would actually explain himself, then we wouldn't have to guess. Communicating is a fundamentally human trait! I'm sure it can be managed, here too. Never use acronyms or jargon (shakes head); they're special shorthand for use between people who already know what domain they are talking about and cannot be used to establish context.

    "interface" to WHAT is the fundamental question!

    Doesn't the poster imagine that that might be necessary to know? Interface to plumbing? Interface to a TV. Interface to a fridge. Interface .... well, sure, I know plenty of PCI interface cards. There are ethernet cards, token ring adapters, digital audio pci cards, ....

    If none of those suit, he might google for something like PCI analog/digital conveter or sampler. The kind of thing one would use to monitor voltage levels from instruments on a field weather station. Or he might look in the Linux kernel for drivers for special pci cards. I'm sure he'll get good hints to what cards exist there....

    Say Y here if you want to build a driver for Sensable PHANToM device.

    If you say yes here you get support for the ALS APDS9802 ambient  light sensor.

    If you say yes here you get support for the Bosch Sensortec  BMP085 digital pressure sensor.

    The "Serial Peripheral Interface" is a low level synchronous protocol. Chips that support SPI can have data transfer rates up to several tens of Mbit/sec. Chips are addressed with a controller and a chipselect. Most SPI slaves don't support dynamic device discovery; some are even write-only or read-only. 

    SPI is widely used by microcontrollers to talk with sensors,  eeprom and flash memory, codecs and various other controller chips, analog to digital (and d-to-a) converters, and more.

    Blah, blah, blah ... yep, I'm sure Googling for "PCI digital to analog converter" would bring dividends. A good Googler is a valuable thing.

  • Love Kumar added an answer:
    Can I send a different TCP packet from 4 nodes to another in the same range to see the occurring collision and networks throughput by using OMNet++?

    See collision and throughput of network by OMnet++

    Love Kumar · Punjab Technical University

    one of my M.Tech student is wotking on OmNet++ ...for WSN ..What teh prob you r facing let me knw how cud i help you..

  • Rajkamal R added an answer:
    Which is the best simulation to simulate a wireless sensor network with smart grids in a home enviroment?

    I tried the Qualnet simulator but I don't know how to simulate smart grids such as PV

    Rajkamal R · Veltech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College

    It is not possible to simulate Smart Grid with OMNET ++. WSN and Smart Grid has to be simulated separately. However MATLAB can be used to simulate smart gird aspects and little support to WSN simulations

  • Samaresh Bera added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the best simulator for hetNetwork for Demand Response (DR) in smart grids?

    Going to start simulating a model of DR. Any suggestion of best simulator, where it would be easy to simulate DR model with HetNet ....

    Samaresh Bera · IIT Kharagpur

    Yes, I have used it in my recent works. You can refer one of my papers: S. Misra, S. Bera, and T. Ojha, "D2P: Distributed Dynamic Pricing Policy in Smart Grid for PHEVs Management", IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems; in which we propose PHEVs' energy management in a dynamic pricing scenario.

    In order to support various networks (such as home area networks, WMN), NS3 is quite better among the network simulations (to me). I believe that you have preliminary concepts about NS3 (how it works, how to install different layered architecture). Once you have implemented your required network environment, then rest of things (mathematical calculations and your proposed algorithms) can be done easily.

  • Armin Simma added an answer:
    What are some open challenges in cloud security at SaaS and IaaS?
    I am willing to do work on cloud security issues at SaaS and IaaS. for the same. Can anyone suggest approaches and future scopes for this?
    Armin Simma · Fachhochschule Vorarlberg

    A "hot topic" in IaaS clouds is trust: How can the cloud customer trust the cloud provider? The easy - in my opinion solved - "problem" is: confidentiality of DATA sent to STORAGE clouds -> solution: just encrypt the data at the customer's site; then send it. Same with integrity of data sent to storage clouds: just add a default integrity technology (MAC oder digital signature): check it after receiving back the data from the cloud.

    The real problem (and thus) the hot topic is: How can the cloud customer trust the cloud provider when sending CODE to the cloud. We cannot just encrypt the code at the customer site. The provider must decrypt the code on his site -> the problem is: the provider has full insight (and control) of code sent to the cloud. This scenario is the normal scenario in many cloud environments: sending code (=virtual machines) to the provider or hosting (private) virtual machines that belong to the customer at the provider site. If you are interested in this topic see the slides of my talk I gave at ECCWS2014 and my paper.

  • Kumar Saurav added an answer:
    How do I implement a LEACH protocol on OPNET modeler?
    Or If any one has C or C++ codes on LEACH they should help me. I have a project working on based energy performance analysis on WSns, that has to do LEACH cluster protocol. It will be good for me if anyone can enlighten me on how to simulate the LEACH routing protocol on OPNET simulator or send me C or C++ codes on LEACH.
    Kumar Saurav · IIT Kharagpur

    Source code for leach is available at

About Computer Communications (Networks)

A computer network is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information.

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