- Susan B Green added an answer:How can findings from studies conducted on model animal organisms be used in developing human medical technology?
It is my understanding that neurological studies are usually conducted first on specimens such as mice, rats, or flies. I am aware that these animals are model organisms, and that findings collected from studies conducted on their genes and physiology would shed hints on the workings of human genes and physiology.
That being said, I am sure that there are still several differences, and that just because finding A was shown to be the case for Mus musculus, it would not always be as similar in the case of a human subject. What information should one ascertain, now, in order to justify that studies on a model organism would be applicable to human biology, particularly in the field of neuroscience?
A very good question and you have correctly identified that there is a problem with translation arising from species differences when relying on animal models. You ask what information you would need to justify animal studies applicable for human biology in neuroscience. The answer is you should first search all the literature for systematic reviews of animal models of the particular field of interest. Start by looking at the archives of SYRCLE. The NIH have recently announced that the majority of animal research particularly in neuroscience is irreproducible and are hastily trying to assemble some initiatives to reduce the amount of wasted research.Following
- June Kang added an answer:Does anyone know where I could get a set of dynamic video stimuli of people making emotional facial expressions?
I am planning some facial EMG studies measuring facial mimicry, and it has been found that dynamic stimuli (videos of faces going from neutral to the full emotion) elicit a larger mimicry effect than still images. However, attempts to record my own from a student population have not been very sucessful, and I feel that videos created from morphing a still neutral face gradually into an emotional face don't give realistic results.
Also Check the database from Amsterdam.
(Schalk et al., 2011)Moving faces, looking places: validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES).Following
- Nikolaos C Aggelopoulos added an answer:When do firing rate distributions approximate a Gaussian distribution?
There is a theoretical upper limit of how fast a neuron can fire, based on the duration of its spike and refractory period. Therefore, under certain conditions, its firing rate might fit a Gaussian distribution. One possible situation would be the distribution of firing rate responses to a preferred stimulus. Has there been a treatment of that question in the literature in relation to stimulus selectivity?
I was referring to firing rates, not interspike intervals. Thank you both for your answers and for that useful reference. An upper limit in firing rates would stop a distribution from being Poisson, since rates cannot increase beyond a certain value. That upper limit by itself would not produce a Gaussian distribution but it would tend to favour a Gaussian-like distribution over a Poisson like distribution, once the distribution moved away from 0,
Presumably the distribution of responses to non effective stimuli would be gamma or Poisson like, the distribution of responses to highly effective stimuli would be affected by the upper limit and would look like their mirror images, while responses to intermediately effective stimuli with a rate a bit over 10 spikes/sec would tend to be approximated by a Gaussian distribution. Hopefully someone will come up with more formal concepts at some point.Following
- Lee O Vaasjo asked a question:What is the most behaviorally active and ethologically diverse nudibranch or sea slug?Sea slugs are an amazing model to study the neural circuits of behavior. How does a larger behavioral repetuar reflect in the brain of these "simple" creatures. Any names ?Following
- Sidharta Chatterjee asked a question:Comparative methodology to study evolutionary shortfalls in brain functions of animals other than humanOut-group analysis, etc.Following
- Sidharta Chatterjee asked a question:Do animals behave suboptimally. A 'Matter of Grey Matter' variation among terrestrial vertebrates.Answers may focus on cortical variations in mammals, vertebrates compared to humansFollowing
About Comparative Neurophysiology
Comparative Neurophysiology is a subdiscipline of Physiology that studies the diversity in functional neurophysiological characteristics among animals, primate groups and human beings.