Combustion of Liquid and Gaseous Fuels

Combustion of Liquid and Gaseous Fuels

  • What is the environmental impact of fuel consumption in air pollution?
    What is the amount of Co produced for one liter of fuel combustion?

    CO and CO2 - a little dangerous components of pollutions. The least dangerous component, of course, is CO2, if you ignore the thermal pollution.

    The most dangerous components (ascending danger): hydrogen - carbon,

    nitrogen oxides NOx and benzoalfapiren.

    In diesel engines, of course, very dangerous nitrogen oxides NOx and soot (smoke).

  • Tamilalagan Natarajan added an answer:
    Can anyone help with power transformer dataset (DGA test results)?

    I am in urgent need of data from transformer DGA test results. I have some transformer dga test results with only key gases and hydrocarbon gases. 

    I need some DGA results with additional features such as moisture, oil breakdown values , acidity etc. All data will be kept confidential and will be used for research only. Please help.

    Tamilalagan Natarajan · Curtin University Australia

    Hi, I am not sure if I was clear. I am in need of a dataset from transformer DGA for testing. I am planning to use a combination of IEEE/IEC methods for fault diagnosis. If you happen to have any DGA results that contain more features, please share it with me. The more features, the better.

  • Manfredi Montalti added an answer:
    What are the hazards and risks from an offshore LNG production and storage facility?

    I am researching on the harzards and risk from FLNG and how they compare with other more familiar related technologies. Relevant literatures as well as your thoughts would be appreciated.

    Manfredi Montalti · University of Florence


    consider also the risks connected with health status of the operator.

    There are some guidelines about it  published by UKOOA, and Bergen county.

  • Petra Roosen added an answer:
    How much actual (practically) air is required for 1kg/hr coal combustion?

    How much actual (practically) air is required for 1kg/hr coal gasification?

    Petra Roosen · Fachhochschule Aachen

    @Rasool: You are right, but I was trading oxygen against ashes - at least for the 1st order approximation. :-)

  • Petra Roosen added an answer:
    How are gas turbine cycles affected by oxygen enrichment in the air?
    see above
    Petra Roosen · Fachhochschule Aachen

    In theory the turbines could combust more carburant specifically (per unit of gas throughput), thus arriving at higher combustion temperatures and higher efficiencies. But even with normal oxygen abundance the turbine material stability limits the amount of the combustible. I therefore regard the question as somewhat theoretical since oxygen enrichment would rather swallow resources.

  • Arun Kishore Eswara added an answer:
    What is the optimum acidity level of a bio-diesel for IC engine operation?
    Which components of the IC engine are affected?
    Arun Kishore Eswara · Indian Maritime University - Visakhapatnam
    Every engine manufacturer sets his own specification on the type of fuels and lubes that can be used. There are rules framed like in Maritime applications (by IMO) that the fuels should be free of inorganic acids. This is something to do with the health of the crew. Further if you refer some international standards like the EN 14214:2003 standard for bio-diesels, the maximum acidity specified is 0.5 mg KOH/g. While that of crude liquid bio fuels is 15mg KOH/g. The acidity is more important as to the suitability for the engine considering the type of materials used in the fuel systems, combustion and exhaust components and exhaust heat recovery units.
    The conclusion is TAN is mere acceptance to the engine hence quoted as maximum mg KOH/g.
  • Luis Le Moyne added an answer:
    What are the properties of glass used for combustion diagnostics application and how to measure the properties of the glass?
    Glass used for optical engines
    Luis Le Moyne · Institut Supérieur de l'Automobile et des Transports, U. Bourgogne
    optical acesses for combustion diagnostics must fit two main conditions :
    - mechanical and thermal constraints
    - wavelength copatibility with desired technique.
    Quartz offers the best compromize in mechanical strength, price and wide wavelength transparency but may not be adequate for IR or low UV for instance.
    Concerning the measure, properties of different materials are available in bibliography, it may not be of interest to meeasure them.
    hope it is of use for you
  • Luis Le Moyne added an answer:
    Why is cycle to cycle fluctuation in HCCI /PCCI engine very high, how can it be controlled?
    This is for gasoline PCCi engine running with gasoline alone without diesel injection at TDC.
    Luis Le Moyne · Institut Supérieur de l'Automobile et des Transports, U. Bourgogne
    normally, when PCCI/CAI/HCCI combustion is achieved one observes rather a high stability of cycle to cycle fluctuatution. Specially when compared to standard SI, petrol engines in auto-or controlled auto ignition modes present a high stability as the igntion process does no longer rely on spark and flame propagation (both very sensitive to cycle variations and not self regulating) but depends on the right distribution of radicals and respect of thermo-chemical conditions which tend to be self regulating. Nevertheless, as the conditions in which residual or recirculated exhaust gases are capital on ignition, variations even slight in temperature, pressure, injection timing, etc. can cause large variations in combustion behaviour. All this parameters must be monitored to eliminate variations in order to better control combustion efficiency and regularity
    hope it is of use for you
  • Mohammad Faisal added an answer:
    What is a good way to validate CFD results (i.e. exhaust velocity, temperature, pressure etc) for Rocket combustion for propulsion system?
    For aerodynamic design (aircraft or aerofoil or any body), we have wind tunnel tests which validate the CFD simulated results for aerodynamic design. Similarly for automotive combustion chamber, we can carry out experimentation of fuel combustion inside the chamber upto certain extent for the cfd simulated results.
    But for the cfd simulation like combustion chamber design or combustion modelling in rocket propulsion system, how the simulated results are validated as experimentation of propulsion is not possible or it gives a huge cost. What is the method of validation and comparison of simulated data as we do in external aerodynamics?
    Mohammad Faisal · University of Petroleum & Energy Studies
    Thanks a lot. It was really helpful.
  • Harjeet Nath added an answer:
    How can I measure the fluoride amount of a gas sample? Which is the best equipment and why?
    How can I measure gaseous Fluoride?
    Harjeet Nath · National Institute of Technology Rourkela
    Thank You, GC can be used??
  • Jeeva Balu added an answer:
    How can I measure the higher lambda value above 1.8 from a lambda sensor?
    1.Typical Lambda sensor range is between 0.2 to 1.8. How to measure higher lambda value more than 1.8 in experiments. i.e to measure very lean equivalence ratio? Can Brett schneider equation be used for low temperature combustion when the lambda value is more than 1.8. or brett schneider equation is valid only for lambda value closer to 1?
    2. whether lambda sensor is available for different ranges with digital display and connection to ECU for control?
    3. Fuel to be used diesel and gasoline.
    Jeeva Balu · Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
    Thank you for your reply
  • Stafford Williamson added an answer:
    Can we blend LPG and diesel fuel inside the cylinder?
    Through intake manifold can we inject LPG and mixing with diesel particle during the compression stroke?
    Stafford Williamson · Arizona State University
    Mr. Toth is basically correct, and this parallel's the way H2 is used to boost mileage on an IC gasoline engine, too. In the intake stroke, one would expect the LPG to not just distribute an aerosol of droplets, but also to gasify a good portion of its volume (possibly all of it, at low concentrations, although the benefits of higher LPG concentration reducing soot and NOx emissions as well as CO and soot formation as Mr. Okafor mentions). However this is essentially the same thing that T. Boone Pickens is promoting as part of his "Pickens Plan" to supplement diesel fuel with methane (aka natural gas, of which his companies have a surplus) for long haul heavy duty trucks and convert urban trucks to run on pure methane (aka CNG) because of low emissions (as has already been proven by bus fleets like those in Los Angeles). However LPG and CNG have a >0 cetane number, but a huge Octane number (127) (compared to gasoline in the 89 to 99 range, usually, depending on the standard by which you measure octane) (see also )
    That is because LPG and CNG (already being compressed) don't tend to ignite when compressed again by a CI engine, however the ignition of the diesel fuel due to compression (the cetane factor) ignites the LPG or CNG gas as well. The "energy" in the LPG or CNG (as measured by the LHV for each) is slightly more than that of diesel #2 (standard diesel fuel) by about 5% to 10%, so I would disagree that a cetane "enhancing additive" would be needed. Theoretically at least, you could either save 5 to 10% on the diesel fuel needed and still have the same power, or you could use the same amount of diesel fuel and get a boost in the power available from 5 to 10%. In fact you could even have a "switch" that allowed EITHER fuel economy or extra boost of power (going up a steep grade for instance).
    Since we are talking about "theoretical" engines for the moment, remember too that the LPG could be introduced to the cylinder during the compression stroke by having it come from a separate (dual) fuel injector that provides higher pressure. On the other hand, from my observation of the carburation (a very finicky adjustment) of the Yamaha "twin jet" 100cc motorcycle back in the late 1960's, I would suspect that would be a waste of engineering, and you'd get the best bang-for-your-buck by introducing the decompression stroke to mix with the air.

    Stafford "Doc" Williamson
  • Aimen Zeiny added an answer:
    Why is Naphtha not used as a fuel for Spark Ignition Engines?
    Can anyone tell me the main reasons that prevent the use of Naphtha as a fuel in SI engines?
    Aimen Zeiny · University Of Kufa
    Thank you Gautam. But I did a piece of research on using Naphtha in SI engine. I found that adding 7 vol.% of methanol to Naphtha enhances the engine performance and reducing emissions even better than using gasoline as fuel. Also, I measured the noise of the engine and I found that at this percentage the noise is lower than the noise generated when using Gasoline.
    What do you think?
    I would be grateful if I can hear your comment.
  • Marek Flekiewicz added an answer:
    Is there any study on the rate of natural gas loss in natural gas engines through piston rings? To what extend does this affect the performance?
    When gasoline or diesel engines are converted to natural gas, one obvious result is the reduction in power due to volumetric loss and slower flame speed. In addition, the charge heating value is reduced from the sipping out of natural gas through the piston rings during compression stroke. All these lead to power loss.
    Marek Flekiewicz · Silesian University of Technology
    I think the best way is to ask M.A.N directly. The report explains among other why the rings and piston have a different design. I do not know any other publications on this subject.
  • Ravindra Kumar added an answer:
    Does anyone know which type of ethanol blend is most effective in motorcycles?
    Different percentage mixes of ethanol and petrol used to drive motorcycles, have a significant impact on emissions and fuel consumption.
    Ravindra Kumar · Edinburgh Napier University
    Is it 5%, 10%,15% or 25% mix with petrol. Any idea
  • Tongchit Suthisripok added an answer:
    Why does self ignition temperature of a mixture decrease as we increase the equivalence ratio?
    Tongchit Suthisripok · Rangsit University
    Thank you, Mr. Francois. I should have mentioned less fuel or comparatively more air. Typically fuel used in the combustion will be rich or lean (not lean air or rich air).
  • Giuma Fellah added an answer:
    How do we explain why low temperature combustion engines achieve higher thermal efficiency?
    It seems to violate the Carnot efficiency for heat engines. Low temperature combustion engines have gained significant interest in engine research due to lower average burning temperature, lowering heat loss that contributes to the reduction of thermal efficiency. However, according to the Carnot heat engine thermal efficiency definition, increasing source temperature increases thermal efficiency.
    Giuma Fellah · University of Tripoli
    In this case we should reduce the amount of heat rejected to surroundings, i.e. we should reduce the ratio of heat rejected to heat supplied to the engine. This can be done be reducing the average temperature of the exhaust gases. However, the exhaust temperature must be always greater than the dew point. We may need larger surface areas to insure the desired rate of the heat transfer for closed systems.
  • Jose Gros added an answer:
    What is the thermal efficiency of some of the commercially available automobile engines?
    I am working on collecting data of thermal efficiency of already existent engines.
    Jose Gros · Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica
    GM is reported having conducted research on Single Sleeve-Valve engines for cars, and having discarded this arrangement. A review on the Sleeve Valve subject at an student's level exists in Wikipedia
  • Ge Yan added an answer:
    Do fossil fuels contain residues from bacterial biomass?
    Is it possible to identify the bacterial signatures in fossil fuels and their combustion exhaust?
    Ge Yan · Seoul National University
    Thank you very much for your reply. Could you give an estimate on the bacterially derived content in these fossil fuel?
  • Xuebin Wang added an answer:
    What is the amino acid content of fossil fuels, such as coal, crude oil, and gasoline?
    Is it significant? If so, will these amino acids be emitted during combustion processes and thus present in the exhaust fume?
    Xuebin Wang · Xi'an Jiaotong University
    In coal, N (~1%) is mainly as heterocyclic ring forms and the content of amino acid is low. In biomass, N (~0.x-1%) is as the form of amino acid.
  • László Kótai added an answer:
    What is the component in biodiesel that will plug the fuel filter in a diesel engine?
    When biodiesel is used as a fuel-mix with diesel oil (B20), in a road test for 2,500 km.
    László Kótai · Hungarian Academy of Sciences
    It depends on many factors. Agreeing with the previous answers, I can tell you, if copper is present in the fuel system, the polyunsaturated components of biodiesel can be polymerized and form resin-like materials. This is a frequent reason for appearing resins and plugging.
  • Junaid Ahmad added an answer:
    Which journal in Energy & Fuels category of ISI-WOS index gives a fast decision regarding manuscript?
    I am doing M.Eng.Sc. on biofuels (biodiesel). I need to publish 1/2 papers to become graduated. I want to submit paper now. But I need quick decision on it (to be specific, within 2 months). Can anyone suggest any suitable journal??
    Junaid Ahmad · Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
    Dear try Energy conversion and management,
    Bioresource technology
    Fuel processing technology
  • Per Tunestal added an answer:
    How do you find percentage of oxygen required during combustion of c i engine?
    During suction stroke how much oxygen or air is required to calculate a single cylinder (5 HP) C I engine?
    Per Tunestal · Lund University
    The work output per cycle divided by the engine efficiency gives you the amount of fuel energy required per combustion event. Divide by the fuel heating value (about 42 MJ/kg for diesel) to get the fuel mass per combustion event. A CI (diesel) engine operates with an air/fuel ratio of about 20. Multiply the fuel mass by this factor and you get the air mass per cycle. The power (5 hp) is given, but you need the rated engine speed (number of cycles per second) to determine the work output per cycle.
  • Ekenechukwu C Okafor added an answer:
    Can we see different flame propagation of component gases when a premixed multi component gaseous fuel is ignited with a spark in a combustion chamber?
    Example of a multi-component fuel is a gas that contains H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and N2 etc.
    Ekenechukwu C Okafor · Kyushu University
    I have examined both turbulent and laminar premixed flames of H2 + CH4 + O2 + N2 in a constant volume chamber ignited with a spark. The flames propagated like those of homogenous mixtures. Different flame propagation of the component gases was not evident. The effect of the different component is seen in the global flame properties in the form or increase or decrease of the properties due to the concentrations of the components. For instance, increasing H2 content to some extent in that mixture would increase the burning velocity and decrease the markstein number. Although CH4 does not react with H2, they are not oxidized independently. increase in H2 concentration increases the rate of consumption of CH4 by by increasing the pool of OH and H radicals in the flame. Hence, one would not see different flame propagations due to the different components because they "burn together".
  • Santhosh Palanisamy asked a question:
    Can someone help to identify the Gas critical Velocity, while predicting liquid loading in gas well according to Nossier's equations?
    Nossier's equation which is an improvement of turner and Coleman's model of calculating critical velocity has the formula as below:

    Nosseir's Equation-I (Transition flow regime):
    vgc = 14.6[σ ^ 0.35(ρl - ρg)^ 0.21] /[(μg)^ 0.134(ρg)^0.426];

    Nosseir's Equation-II (Highly turbulent flow regime):
    vgc = 21.3[σ^1/4(ρl - ρg)^1/4] /[(ρg)^1/2];

    The above equation comes from a SPE paper. Also there are other equations on online calculators which has a different equation as below:
    Nosseir's Equation-I (Transition flow regime):
    vgc = 0.5092[σ ^ 0.35(ρl - ρg)^ 0.21] /[(μg)^ 0.134(ρg)^0.426];

    Nosseir's Equation-II (Highly turbulent flow regime):
    vgc = 1.938[σ^1/4(ρl - ρg)^1/4] /[(ρg)^1/2];

    The only difference is the constant values at the start but not sure how they arrived at the constant values. Had checked all the unit conversions and both uses the same units. The SPE paper equation seem to not give the correct answer for us. But the one from on line calculators gives me the expected answer and predicts minimum gas flow properly.

    I am not a oil and gas person to understand the difference between these equations. Any help will be greatly appreciated. Thanks.
  • Ftwi Yohaness Hagos added an answer:
    Which book is the best book to begin modelling of combustion in IC engines?
    I'm just getting started with combustion modelling. I have a brief background about FDM and FVM, but a bigger one in combustion analysis.
    Ftwi Yohaness Hagos · Universiti Malaysia Pahang
    Of course a book IC Engine fundamentals by Heywood (1988) is a bible of IC Engines. You start with this book then you go to other specific books after you gain the fundamentals.
  • Manuel Bax added an answer:
    How to model a simple 1D flame propagation in a SI engine?
    I want to model the propagation of a flame front using MATLAB. What model can be used? Any references from where I can get information?
    Manuel Bax · Technische Universität Braunschweig
    You can also try the book "Combustion Engines Development: Mixture Formation, Combustion, Emissions and Simulation" by Günter P. Merker, Christian Schwarz and Rüdiger Teichmann, published at Springer, ISBN 3642029515
  • Svaetopluk Zeman added an answer:
    If Natural Gas is 97% methane, is this equation (CNG= Compressed Methane) a correct equation?
    CNG has been used to fuel buses and large marine vessels for sometime now. So what's stopping compressed methane from doing the same thing?
    Svaetopluk Zeman · Euronex
    I prepared a simple graphics in excel to display relation between the concentration of methane in biogas to its calorific value. English version is to follow ... when? As soon as I find some free time again ...
  • Rajaram Muniswamy asked a question:
    What is the equation for finding the PV diagram on PC using dynamic pressure sensor and Encoder with help of NI card
    When we know bore ,stroke, connecting rod length and what other details required.

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