- Otto Lappi added an answer:Can anyone give me examples of real-world tasks where 'habitual motor responses' or 'response inhibition' play a role?I am looking for examples of real-world tasks (e.g. jobs, situations, etc.) where habitual motor responses are a factor, for good or for bad.
For example, a situation where a simple motor task or response is performed many times in rapid succession, until it becomes 'automatic', and then when there is eventually a need to withhold from performing this task/response it is difficult to do so.
Any help would be much appreciated.
If you learn to drive using a stick shift, you are very likely to hit the brake pedal when manoeuvering with an automatic, e.g. at a car park. (You need to make sure your "clutch foot" keeps away from the pedals - this may take some effort at first).Following
- Leonard F Koziol added an answer:How are we able to differentiate the cognitive functions of cerebellum and cortical areas in the behavior?
Recent research identifies cerebellum is competent enough in cognitive functions like working memory, set shifting, abstract reasoning, Ref:
1. Jeremy D. Schmahmann (2006), cognition, emotion and cerebellum, brain, 129 http://brain.oxfordjournals.org
2. Tavano et al., (2007). disorders of cognitive and affective development in cerebellar formation, brain, 130
Dr. Decorte has provided what I consider standard, very relevant additional references that should be meaningful in taking a step towards answering the original questions. In my opinion, since the neuronal make-up of the cortex, of the basal ganglia, and the infrastructure of the cerebellum are known, other replies that are idiosyncratic and that take a reader astray because they are not based upon neuroscientific principles should be avoided; thus far, since Saturday, a very considerable number of papers have been both posted for reading and cited for the purpose of obtaining and reading. I am wondering if some contributors to this discussion have even read and/or achieved a comprehensive understanding of the treasure-chest of information that has already been referenced. The logic behind this statement is hopefully obvious; some of the statements made in certain replies have no support in science, and some are actually contradictory to known, taught, accepted principles. I also admit I am biased because I believe that opinions must be derived from a well understood knowledge base that is supported by neuroscientific evidence, and not founded upon hunches and idiosyncracies that can easily be refuted; these replies remain misleading because they cannot be supported yet might be "believed." To be blunt, some statements and replies simply make zero sense, giving the impression that very relevant source material already offered was either misunderstood or completely ignored. What motivation would anyone have for participating in a discussion after basic, current, very relevant information has been offered as a sincere effort, and then disregarded, which is an obvious conclusion, easily derived from certain subsequent replies? - LKFollowing
- Laura Sánchez García added an answer:Is there a difference between the areas of the brain that are involved when reading a text, and those used when reading images?
Could anyone suggest me an article / book on the areas of the brain that are involved when reading a text, and those used when reading images? Thank you
Marie-Pier and Hans,
Thanks to both of you for this instigating moment!
I had not tought of that mapping...
I am 56 and I must focus my workspace from now on in order to have time to achieve some relevant and appliable results for deaf communities inclusion and cognitive developing, but for sure I will read the work you have kindly indicated!
- W. R. Klemm added an answer:A science of consciousness: How far did we get?Throughout the years, scholars have tried to discover the questions surrounding consciousness topic especially whether there can be a “science of consciousness”. Conferences, blogs, forums or scientific networks such as RG : unending debates seem to get more and more far from such a goal when they are expected to be closer.
What may be objective obstacles toward a (widely accepted) science of consciousness? Can’t neuroscience pave the way?
Two mutually inclusive possibilities:
1. Thinking exists as an unconscious stream, with consciousness (when it is present) able to become aware of and manipulate some of what is streamed in from conscious working memory and use some of it to program unconscious thinking.
2. All thinking exists as two parallel and interacting streams, unconscious and conscious, each informing and programming the other.Following
- Vladimir A. Kulchitsky added an answer:Do you know of journal sources on the POSITIVE effects of music on any of these areas: brain development, coordination, spatial IQ, cognitive IQ?
I am looking for journals to cite on the POSITIVE EFFECTS of music on any of these broad areas: brain development, coordination, spatial IQ, cognitive IQ, overcoming learning disabilities, overcoming neurological delays, increased chances of going to college. It is fine if the source is a recent or old journal. Please provide links, thanks.
(When I looked in RG, there was one, but it's still at an accepted article stage.)
When you hear great music and magical voice, the truth and love triumphant. Please, open files at Attachment.Following
- Ioannis-Evangelos Ntoulis asked a question:How many cilia trichoids are there roughly in our ear drums and what are they ''made of '' ?
referring to cochlia cilia in the inner earFollowing
- Bryant Duda added an answer:Can BOLD activation related to reaction time be parsed apart from BOLD activity related to performance on a working memory task?
I am try to see if RT activation on a work-memory task correlates with outside measures of cognition (different types of executive functioning) while controlling for activation related to performance on the working-memory task (n-back(2)). Is this possible? Thanks.
This was very helpful. Thank you, MatthewFollowing
- Oren Civier added an answer:Does anyone have a simple reaction time task in E-Prime?I'm using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in my research at the moment and it requires a simple competitive reaction time task in which participants indicate when a stimulus in the centre of the screen changes colour (e.g. a blue square become red), and are given immediate feedback on their performance.
The nature of the stimulus isn't really important, as long as some sort of obvious change occurs.
I was planning to create this task using E-Prime (which I'm entirely new to), but does anyone have a similar task already set up that I could maybe 'recycle'? Or if not, any tips for setting one up in E-Prime?
Did you find a solution already? I have a script I can share with youFollowing
- Pavel Prudkov added an answer:Are there real laws in cognitive science?The goal of any science is to establish natural laws. A natural law can be defined as follows: if certain conditions are present a particular phenomenon always occurs. Following this defimition, a law in psychology (cognitive science) obviously can be formulated so: under certain circumstances all people always do one thing (the term “do one thing” includes not only behavior but also cognition). However, if an individual is aware of such a law, he/she is able not do this. Hence, there are no laws in psychology. One may argue that there are certain laws in psychology such as the Weber-Fechner law or the changes associated with maturation and ageing. However, these examples describe processes which are beyond conscious influence. Therefore, such processes can be related to the neural and biological rather than cognitive level of the functioning of the organism. Are there cognitive mechanisms which are potentially under conscious influence but cannot be affected deliberately?
Your position seems strange. Indeed, you say that "your questions do not make any sense to me" This is absolutely normal. Each person can say about a lot of things that these things are not important, not interesting, meaningless, etc. for him. If a person faces such thing and there is no real need to respond to this then the wisest action is to pass by. Instead, you expect some explanations from me. :-)
I have presented my descriptions of these levels in one of the previous posts. You can find it.
In the question I do not oppose "potentially under conscious influence" mechanisms to "deliberately affected" ones. However, I am not sure that they are the same. If you are sure then this is your answer on my question.
- Sunil Kumar added an answer:What does (individual differences in) fMRI thalamus task-activation mean to you?
So I was reading a paper that correlated thalamus activation during an fMRI cognitive control task to clinical outcomes. I'm wondering what it really means. I see thalamus all the time in my reward work, and considering how the thalamus is supposedly the sensory-input relay to cortex, and how it has all these other cortical loops, I typically chalk up thalamus activation to a somewhat non-specific epiphenomenon, like arousal. Indeed, when I go to neurosynth.org and its reverse-inference tab and put the cross-hairs in the thalamus, a whole HOST of cognitive functions activate it with high probability. I'm just wondering if there are any good papers out there that integrate fMRI papers (and maybe other data modalities) in service of unpacking what the thalamus does and when it IS vs ISN'T engaged by certain task demands. Any ideas? It would be great if this correlation had a true mechanistically-plausible underpinning.
There may be several reasons responsible for individual differences in fMRI task signals. As our knowledge is improving about the network basis of a functional brain there might be several input and output from thalamus contributing to the individual differences in BOLD signals. At network level thalamus receive and send signals from the cortical and sub-cortical areas and everyone's brain functional connectivity to these different sub-networks of thalamus might be more or less activated during the task and may be affecting the BOLD signals. There are inherent differences in individuals brain (may due to genetic differences, environmental or social-environmental interactions) which can also be a major contributing factor in differences even if you are just looking at the task related BOLD signals thalamus. One the way to look at this is activation and deactivation of the thalmo-cortical network and look at differences in the ratio of BOLD signal in both condition.
- Molly Millians added an answer:Is there always a tradeoff between spatial and object cognitive capacities?
Given the repeated data that mental rotation and other spatial measures correlates positively with the Spatial scale of the OSIVQ and negatively with the Object scale, should we consider there's always a tradeoff between those cognitive capacities? And what is the role of the Verbal scale in that tradeoff?
In response to Pablo C De Juan Bernabéu's questions, the literature on the coordination of speech and gestures discuss the associations of construct of understanding, spatial thinking and integration into language. Articles by Alibali (2005); Hostetter & Alibali (2007) Chu & Kita (2008); Chu & Kita (2011), and Chu et al (2014) discuss this connection between elements of spatial thinking and gesture/language.Following
- Alfredo Pereira Junior added an answer:Is anybody interested in discussing neurosciences interdisciplinary frontiers?There are many interesting topics such as: Law and Neurosciences, Neuroeconomics, Neurofinances, Neuromarketing, Contributions of Neurosciences to Phylosophy, etc.
Dear Armando, please take a look at the RG link below and participate in the discussion!Following
- Serban C. Musca added an answer:What are the key questions for which we must find the answers in order to understand how cognition works?I propose the following:
How is information encoded within the mind (in the brain)?
What are the principles that determine its organization?
What are the emergent properties?
Are the conceptual and methodological tools that are currently available adequate in addressing the problems of cognition?
This list is certainly incomplete. Do you have any suggestion?
@Wes: Thank your for the nice things you say on my papers.
As a matter of fact, I agree that "its [ANN] operation cannot be equated with the operational principles of the brain". However, my view on ANNs (and my work this far) is that they can be used to i) derive ideas on how the brain works, because both the brain and ANNs are (for ANNs, on some conditions, i.e., not all ANNs are) complex nonlinear systems, and ii) to put constraints on the theory we make about the brain or, more modestly, about this and that cognitive phenomena found in humans. On the contrary, starting from the idea that there are representations in the brain and representations are cause-effective not only poses no constraint on a theory of cognition, but allow for "explaining" everything (and it contrary).
Now, as you seem to ask for simulation tools (say, ANN) that work as the brain does (i.e., that are related to neurotransmitters and the like), I would like to point out that there is a formal mathematical equivalence between an algorithm used to train the ANNs I have been using and CHL (contrastive hebbian learning) algorithm, which is closely based on what is known about LTP (long-term potentiation), and, crucially, depends only on the pre- and post-synaptic activity available locally. The reference is
Xie, X., & Seung, H. S. (2003). Equivalence of backpropagation and contrastive hebbian learning in a layered network. Neural Computation, 15, 441-454.
- Kamakhya Kumar added an answer:What is 'eating disorder cognition' and can it be managed?One of my friend wants some help with a study titled "A study of the effects of yogic intervention on eating disorder cognition among adolescents".
Thank you Lasse Bang, Thank you so much for your clear answer. I am also thankful to Mariana Sierra, for the submission...!!!Following
- Maria Ramsay added an answer:Where can I find some studies on deep repressed memories and techniques for their retrieval to the conscious surface?I am specifically look for any methods for the retrieval of distressful memories from childhood and any explanations as to how a travesty of some sort can severely impact the mind in subtle ways. I wish to study the profound effects a forgotten/repressed memory can have upon the actions of an individual, without the person having any conscious awareness as to the complexity and complete control it has during conscious "waking" states.
- Paulo Sousa added an answer:What are the cognitive, motivational, social and biological underpinnings of "thought disorder" in psychotic patients?Formal "thought" disorder (FTD) has been by large the most researched "symptom" in the field of "schizophrenia". Since the first word association studies and Cameron's work in the mid 30's different researchers from cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have proposed highly influential mechanistic theories of FTD. However, very little research effort has been put into understanding its motivational underpinnings and social predictors.
Thank you very much for your reply. I understand from your post that your perspective on FTD is very much in line with the early works of Chaika or even Kleist.
Although, I agree that some aspects of FTD seem to be purely linguistic and language-based. It is also true that a lot of the difficulties associated with FTD are not mediated by language - there is an extensive literature on this and probably the best exponent for this argument is Martin Harrow. There is also plenty of work showing that FTD is not a form of dysphasia or aphasia - much of it is covered in the book by Oh and McKenna: "Schizophrenic Speech" (2005).
The MRI and DTI studies that I know of are riddled with methodological problems e.g. they don't control for symptom co-morbidity (e.g. hallucinations) or the assessment of FTD is normally flawed (e.g. assuming that FTD is a one dimensional construct) amongst other limitations. In most cases, the n is small and replication is rare (several other areas have been implicated in FTD).
There is one meta-analysis published by Goghari (if I'm not mistaken) that shows a strong association between DLPFC and symptom-dimension - cognitive disorganisation - which reflects a rather ample set of experiences and not just FTD.
Finally, FTD is a very dynamic and context-dependent phenomenon in most human beings labelled with "Schizophrenia". There is a colossal amount of studies showing that most FTD is state-dependent (e.g. worsens with difficult topics) and most of the biologically-informed studies have completely ignored this aspect (which is probably one of the most well replicated findings in the field).
In most cases, when the individual is not distressed by a intrusive thought or experience you can only witness very mild difficulties at the level of deixis which would be hard to spot by the everyday listener.
In a nutshell, I don't think that one single factor is likely to explain an ample construct such as FTD. There other aspects related to the social brain that definitely play a role as communication and thought are social activities. Also, there is the all important aspect of personal meaning which is hard to explain with a single factor theory (e.g. the unfounded belief that FTD is genetic).
Anyway, I do appreciate the post as it keeps the conversation going.
- Priyanka Bharti added an answer:Is there any work done in the field of visual perception and user manuals?How do we perceive certain instructions and perform it. What all series of action runs through our eyes, brain and other body parts? How things get decoded once seen on piece of paper?
Thank you Markus Huff and B.L. William Wong for the reply. They are really helpful, i am happy that they are helping me out to see things with different perspective. Thanks a lot.Following
- Bernard M Groen added an answer:Suggestions for methods for eliciting implicit theories and mental models?I'm gearing up to do my dissertation on implicit mental models of governance held by nonprofit board members and I'd like to create an instrument for measuring implicit associations between various tasks or roles of board members that can be accessible to laypeople in its language and use, relatively quick and easy for participants to complete, and can be administered online or at least remotely.
I've thought about using some sort of visual concept mapping app (suggestions for platforms in this regard?), but I'd also like to get at *implicit* associations rather than just explicit/espoused ones.
Does anyone have a suggestion for methods that would fit the bill? Naturally, citations for examples of articles or dissertations using the method would be helpful!
I'm open to creative approaches too, beyond simple self-report surveys. Perhaps the IAT could be adapted to this context? Textual analysis of open-ended questions?Following
- Fernando Lobo Pimentel added an answer:How can neuroscience/neuroimaging data help to add advantage/disadvantage over behavioural data in decision making/cognitive science?How can neuroscience/neuroimaging data help to add advantage/disadvantage over behavioural data in decision making/cognitive science?
Looking at decisions through the lens of behaviour, psychological theories of decision making probably make some assumptions, from observation, about what is in the mind of a decision maker. By allowing a more direct access to the mind, neuroscience and neuroimaging might help to get closer to the real values, motivations and processes behind a decision, and validate some of those assumptions. I am all about centring decision making in one simple value dimension extracted from the criteria, to make it simple and clear what was in the mind of he decision maker (see in attachment "Unicriterion model: A qualitative decision making method that promotes ethics"). The validation through neuroscience of behavioural links with such way of making decisions could be interesting.Following
- Mohamed Yusuf added an answer:What are good cognitive tests to assess neuroplasticty?I'm trying to examine the effects of complex quadrupedal movement on cognition in young healthy adults. Preferably something that's computerised like the CDR computerised assessment system.Amit I want to asses Synaptic neuroplasticity.Following
- Orkid Coskuner added an answer:Do telomeres in the brain cells shorten as we age?Does anyone have a system to model telomere shortening in the brain during aging?Following
- Leonard James Smart added an answer:What are the essential concepts in attention and memory to cover in an introductory cognitive course?I am restructuring my institutions intro to cognitive psychology course - to include perception (which used to be a separate course) and action (motor control) - the current course already covers history, research methods, some neuroscience, decision making, problem solving, language in addition to the heavy dose of attention and memory - so adding more material to a course that is a week shorter. So the question is a both a theoretical and practical question - what are the key concepts that students should 'know' after a course like this?
Hi Davood and Jay - I agree, the quotes aren't meant to suggest that we don't need to study attention - for me it highlights the difficulty in studying it (in particular defining what it is). I like to use them as a discussion prompt (my next slide is a set of nine "definitions" of attention which are all being used currently - who has the 'right' one, is there a right one?).Following
- Sivaprakasam R added an answer:Which part of the hippocampus should I target to get cognitive/behavioural effects?I would like to target the hippocampus using viral vectors but I am wondering whether it would be better to target a specific part of the hippocampus in order to get some behavioural deficits.Following
- Béatrice Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:Would you trust a distinction between intention and volition?In the attachment there is a paper by Zhu, where the author tries to distinguish the concept of intention from that of volition. I found this paper interesting but at the same time not very convincing. I did not find any biological grounding to this idea. What is your opinion about this topic?
Yes I would trust a distinction between the two concepts based on: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary
Definition of VOLITION
1: an act of making a choice or decision; also : a choice or decision made
2: the power of choosing or determining
Origin of VOLITION
French, from Medieval Latin volition-, volitio, from Latin vol- (stem of velle to will, wish) + -ition-, -itio (as in Latin position-, positio position) — more at will
accord, autonomy, choice, self-determination, free will, will
Definition of INTENTION
1: a determination to act in a certain way : resolve
2: import, significance
3 a : what one intends to do or bring about
b : the object for which a prayer, mass, or pious act is offered
4: a process or manner of healing of incised wounds
5 : concept; especially : a concept considered as the product of attention directed to an object of knowledge
6: plural : purpose with respect to marriage
First Known Use of INTENTION
aim, ambition, aspiration, bourne (also bourn), design, dream, end, idea, ideal, intent, goal, mark, meaning, object, objective, plan, point, pretension, purpose, target, thing
As you see the synonyms do not overlap,
- Anthony G Gordon added an answer:Is there any cognitive benefit of being or becoming bilingual?Today, more of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual than monolingual. In addition to facilitating cross-cultural communication, this trend also positively affects cognitive abilities. Researchers have shown that the bilingual brain can have better attention and task-switching capacities than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another. In addition, bilingualism has positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum: Bilingual children as young as seven months can better adjust to environmental changes, while bilingual seniors can experience less cognitive decline.
" speaking as a bilingual myself (who has learned additional languages), I think it can only help and I can't imagine any cognitive disadvantages. "
Any disavantages would apply to a child learning its primary language. This is hard enough in the first place, and it is plausible that trying to learn two languages simultaneously would confuse the infant and delay language development. Teachers have often banned children from using alternative languages (eg sign language in Deaf schools, Welsh in schools in Wales) on the view that this interferes with the usage of the dominant classroom language. On the other hand, mastery of two languages should improve cognitive complexity. Distinguishing between these competing hypotheses can only be done with empirical data, of which there is surprisingly little.Following
- Horst Hörtner asked a question:Is a rainbow real or virtual?
According to the reality-virtuality continuum, there is nothing which, at the same time is real and virtual. There are several examples of concepts, where this distinction fails - at least I do struggle with.
Do you agree, that there is a certain "Realitäts-Anteil" and a certain "Virtualitäts-Anteil" in each Appearance? (might be compatible with Milgrams RV-continuum)
Do you agree that there are phaenomena where Virtuallity is embedded in it's Reality and vice versa. In other words: What is real , and what is virtual on a rainbow.
a face that you see in clouds crossing the sky, or a figure that appears in a moonshadow of a tree - or more technical: a 3D-object that is represented by single pixels, that cruise thru space (Spaxels).
And what is the difference between interpreting a cloud in the sky as an object or person - and the ability to interpret a stereoscopic displayed object or person as a 3D representation of such?Following
- Pisupati Sadasiva Subramanyam added an answer:Are learning (and teaching) EMOTIONAL or LOGICAL processes ?I remember the early days of my teaching, when I had to provide a simple example computer program to calculate 9/4=2.25. I would teach it like this:
*** CASE 1: Use two variables a, and b that can hold two fractional values (called float). Store a=9, b=4, and calculate a/b=2.250.
*** CASE 2: To calculate 9/4, choose INTEGER types which could not temporarily hold fractional values. I asked the students the following question: What happens when you divide 9 by 4 and multiply back by 4. The question was almost insulting to a highly intelligence 50 students, since 4*(9/4) should be 9. With great boredom, they watch me to write a computer program to divide 9 by 4, and multiply back by 4. The result was 8 !!! This happens, since integer type variables CHOP fractional values intermediately, so, 9/4=2 and 2*4=8 ...
The interesting thing is, whenever I used CASE 2 type of "surprise factor" in teaching, the retention of what is LEARNed went from 40%-50% to almost 100%. Why ? Let's borrow some research from neuroscience to explain this:
*** It takes approximately half a second (0.5 s) for stimuli content to reach consciousness (Libet , 1950)
*** Left hemisphere (LH) of the brain performs analytical processing: Although this is slower, it is a lot more detailed. Right hemisphere (RH) respond to unexpected stimuli, and is a lot faster (MacNeilage 2009)
*** Inter-hemispheric congruence means, both hemispheres are in concert. Each hemisphere has its own memory (Moss, 2014)
What these studies suggest is that, my brain is made up of twin-TOLGA's : TOLGA-E (emotional TOLGA, located on the RH) responds mainly to emotional and unexpected stimuli in about 0.15 seconds and has his own emotional memories. TOLGA-A (Analytical Tolga, on the LH) has a 0.5 second delay and can do a lot of analytical processing, with its own memories. The CASE 2 was able to engage both TOLGA-E and TOLGA-A, and made the recording of this example a lot stronger, thereby significantly improving retention.
This means that, in a class of 50 students, you really have 100 twins. One responds to unexpected stimuli faster, and the other (twin brother or sister) responds a lot slower with a lot more understanding on the details. When both of them record a memory, the retention is significantly better. So, does this mean that LEARNING (or TEACHING) are EMOTIONAL or LOGICAL processes ?
From the answers of Pierre Enel and Miche Owayjan we can find that both Emotion and Logic are important in Happy, Quick and Fast Learning.It is a sort of Bootstrapping between them. Which one should be First to start depends on the Individual's Initiative. Earlier days when the Parens say that they should or should not do it was taken as Gospel Truth and every one followed and they were also leaning well.Nowadays kids want to know the Reason or Logic before following a certain thing,For eg. if it is said that one should not walk abreast with others or should not walk in the Middle of the Road either by telling the Reasons or by showing a Video on the Consequences of such acts they Fall in Line.
It is like Right Hand Threaded Screw or Left Hand Threaded Screw.
Also it depends on the Bent of Mind of the Individual Some Enjoy doing Sums one after another Voluntarily,if they go on getting the Answers correcly or even if not for all.Another reluctant child,once made to solve the First Sum,he Develops interest and stats solving the Sums one after the other.This may be even called overcoming the Initial Inertia.
As it all Depends on Human Beings whose Behavior cannot be Predicted initially unless you study his Behavioral pattern,We cannot which leads or follows the other.There may be case where none of the two can work.
As I always tell my Students that it all depends on Mental make up.If you want to do,you can and Will.
- David Milford added an answer:Are there some behavioral tasks of procrastination?I have found many procrastination scales and some tasks conducted in animals, however, no tasks for measuring human beings' procrastination. I'm looking for the behavioral tasks that would measure individual procrastination.
Your difficulty in finding a measurement of procrastination is understandable as it is a multifaceted behavior. Procrastination can be measured (in part) by one's aversion to detail, it can also include the fact that some people need the comfort of being able to visualize a completed project (before starting it) as opposed to others who are comfortable jumping right in. I use the word "comfort" because all of us have a different comfort level that guides our decision making processes and whether you "jump before you think" or "think before you jump," neither should be considered universally more appropriate than the other.
Personally, I find that the MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator) instrument to be helpful in identifying a certain level of "procrastination" in my clients. I prefer to use the term "perceiving" because procrastination usually implies a certain degree of negativity.Following
- Molly Millians added an answer:Can someone advise on cognitive flexibility?I am researching the construct of cognitive flexibility. If anybody has any leads that would be really helpful. I would like to know what it is, how we are currently assessing it and how it applies to the field of education.
To add to Gal Podjarny's list of articles regarding cognitive flexibility and children, some other articles that may be helpful:
Zelazo, P. D., Muller, U., Frye, D., & Marcovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive function in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3), Serial No. 274
Jacques, S. & Zelazo, P.D. (2001). The flexible item selection task (FIST): A measure of executive function in preschoolers. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23 (3). 573-591.Following
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge.