• Dante Salatino added an answer:
    Are there special topics you would like to suggest for future issues of AIMS Neuroscience?

    We are looking for topics of interest in neuroscience that we can include in our journal. For those topics we will issue a call for paper submissions. Please keep in mind that our emphasis is on theory. Additionally, we have Registered Reports through our journal to assist with sound research design on planned studies.

    Dante Salatino · National University of Cuyo

    Dear Bob,
    effectively, my proposal is that much of the psychic activity enabled by brain structures and mechanisms is unconscious. The consciousness and all its manifestations are a direct result of this 'hidden' activity. Today much progress has been made in the identification of regulatory mechanisms and control of psychical activity, therefore, we may be able to explain, from a subjective point of view, the implication of these mechanisms in normal and pathological functioning.


  • Steven Telleen added an answer:
    A science of consciousness: How far did we get?
    Throughout the years, scholars have tried to discover the questions surrounding consciousness topic especially whether there can be a “science of consciousness”. Conferences, blogs, forums or scientific networks such as RG : unending debates seem to get more and more far from such a goal when they are expected to be closer.
    What may be objective obstacles toward a (widely accepted) science of consciousness? Can’t neuroscience pave the way?
    Steven Telleen · San Joaquin Delta College

    And finally, two more articles one related to "recovering" from loss of consciousness due to sleep and the other recovering from loss of consciousness after anesthesia which suggest some interesting similarities regarding consciousness:

  • Lev Goldfarb added an answer:
    What are the key questions for which we must find the answers in order to understand how cognition works?
    I propose the following:

    How is information encoded within the mind (in the brain)?
    What are the principles that determine its organization?
    What are the emergent properties?
    Are the conceptual and methodological tools that are currently available adequate in addressing the problems of cognition?

    This list is certainly incomplete. Do you have any suggestion?
    Lev Goldfarb · University of New Brunswick

    I made my decision (as to the key process) quite a while ago: inductive processes. Helmholtz and other very distinguished scientists made the same decision. Moreover, I don't see any other candidate process that can compete with the inductive process in that respect.

    However, it goes without saying that all possible candidates should be very carefully considered.

  • Justin Gabriel asked a question:
    Attitude and Behaviour at work, how do we differentiate clearly
    1. Attitude is said to have components such as cognition, affect and behaviour, the links explaining how they are applied is blurred to me, can someone help and explain clearly, especially attitue and behaviour?
  • Ion Juvina added an answer:
    Is it a reasonable abstraction to say there are three kinds of cognition, rational, emotional, and social?

    Much of experimental psychology and ACT-R models are models of rational cognition.  Emotions and related drivers may form a second kind.  Is social cognition, such as decisions to trust, distinct enough to be another?  I'm trying not to go the a full listing of all possible flavors of cognition, but the top kinds. The question is also trying to avoid whether perception and the development of skilled action sequences are "cognition". I'm also trying to avoid the System 1 System 2 issue, presuming rational is mostly System 2, emotional is mostly System 1, but social?

    Ion Juvina · Wright State University

    My point was that FFA was not specific to faces.  

  • Alejandro José Mena asked a question:
    Does somebody know something (papers) about national identity and cognition? Thanks for your suggestions!

    National identity, social cognition, cognition. 

  • Justin Snyder added an answer:
    How are cognitive processes regulated from mother to offspring?

    Memory is genetically regulated from mother to offspring or its all influence by her experiences during gestational period. What influences or what determines the offspring cognitive process and memory?

    Justin Snyder · Saint Francis University, USA

    Related to the answer above, it may be helpful to look at Rachel Yehuda's work on epigenetics, the transmission of trauma, and exposure to traumatic events among pregnant women.

    This is part of the broader study on epigenetics and stress during pregnancy, such as

  • Yong-Ku Kim added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on relationship of Mentality and Immunity?

    Do you can help me to find documents about relationship of mind (mood, anxiety, cognition & any thing you know and I don't...) and immune system? Or about effects of psychotropic drugs on immunity? God bless you

    Yong-Ku Kim · Korea University

     The immune abnormality is involved in the etiology and pathophysiology in mental illness, especially in major depression bipolar disorder schizophrenia and dementia. The interaction among immune, central nervous system neuroendocrine system induces psychiatric symptoms in mental disease. New drugs targeting at restoring the altered immune system may treat the mental illnesses.

  • Hagar Zidan asked a question:
    What is the best start for getting more knowldge about cognition in animals ?

    i want to get more knowldge about cognition & how scientists did their expriments using rats & latest updates .please,suggest good articles for reading.

  • John F. Wilhite added an answer:
    Does the brain generate ideas about phenomena itself via deep concentration or does the universe link it with the ideas?
    I want to know if the brain generates the ideas itself by thinking or if it is ultimately linked to the ideas in that field of spoken and discussed ideas. Because the spoken words and statements makes a cloud in the universe, to which we are linked, is full of ideas to which we pay deep attention. The work of brain is confined to just making the deep concentration, but is it so that brain generates the idea itself?
    John F. Wilhite · University of Tennessee

    "(T)he spoken words and statements make a cloud in the universe, to which we are linked."  I would rank this notion right up there with "ancient aliens made the pyramids of Egypt, the Americas, Atlantis," "people are abducted by aliens for medical experiments," vampires, zombies, ghosts, telekinesis, etc. are real.  Sorry.  Clouds have rain in them, not words.

    Calling these notions "theories" does a disservice to valid, viable theories worthy of inquiry.  There ought to be a word other than theory that can be applied to the "study" of reality/mystery/unexplained type TV show topics.  Perhaps "nonsensationalist."  Note the clever combination of nonsense with sensationalist.  Perfect.

  • Leonard F Koziol added an answer:
    How are we able to differentiate the cognitive functions of cerebellum and cortical areas in the behavior?

    Recent research identifies cerebellum is competent enough in cognitive functions like working memory, set shifting, abstract reasoning, Ref:

    1.  Jeremy D. Schmahmann (2006), cognition, emotion and cerebellum, brain, 129

    2.  Tavano et al., (2007). disorders of cognitive and affective development in cerebellar formation, brain, 130 


  • Ignacio Nieto added an answer:
    Has anyone researched the impact or the meaning that has the google search engine in cognition and specifically in mental maps?

    Im working for a presentation an any help will be cited.

    Ignacio Nieto · University of Chile

    I agree with you Jon, thanks Joachim for your suggestion, deeper inquery or a archaeology of knowledge (Foucault ,1969).

    Could someone suggest a research, where an engine give other alernatives to that process? Is there any engine who can help us to learn facts rather than found them, as Joachim suggest?

  • Arif Altun added an answer:
    What are good cognitive tests to assess neuroplasticty?
    I'm trying to examine the effects of complex quadrupedal movement on cognition in young healthy adults. Preferably something that's computerised like the CDR computerised assessment system.
    Arif Altun · Hacettepe University

    Who will be your participants?

  • Saivishal Daripelli added an answer:
    Will there be any difference in the Theta modulation ( EEG ) by a procognitive drug in anesthetized and freely moving animals?

    We are working on different classes of procognitive drugs like AChE inhibitors, 5-HT6 antagonists and 5-HT4 agonists to evaluate modulation theta rhythm by these compounds. As per the literature available these compounds are increasing the theta rhythm in hippocampus of anesthetized animals, with a continuous NPO stimulation. But in our studies with anesthetized and freely moving animals without stimulation, we are getting a decrease in theta rhythm after drug treatment. Is simulation is must to test the modulation of theta by a procognitive drug? Why we need stimulation?

    Saivishal Daripelli · Suven Life Sciences Limited

    Yeah, I have tested other high frequency bands like beta and gamma. Post treatment with those compounds in freely moving rats shown increase in power of these bands.

  • Nelson Orringer added an answer:
    Is Control-Knowledge the Strongest Form of Knowledge?

    Many years ago, when I was still a student, one of my professors occasionally said that we would have only then "really understood something", if we would be able to /implement/ "it" technically or algorithmically.

    In more philosophical terms, the professor's aphorism amounts to the question whether Control-Knowledge (or: Instrumental Knowledge) is the /strongest/ and /deepest/ possible form of knowledge, or ---even more bold and radical!--- if Control-Knowledge is perhaps even the /only/ epistemic entity which truly and rightly deserves the label "Knowledge" at all?

    Or, more concisely: What is the right understanding of "Understanding"?

    This difficult question I would like to discuss with Epistemologists, Gnoseologists, Hermeneuticists, Philosophers of Science, and Philosophers of Mind.


    Nelson Orringer · University of Connecticut

    Stefan, there is always the danger that practical manipulation of an object will somehow deform it.  Hence the difference between theory and praxis, between contemplation of something in its essence and action upon that something which may change that essence. Cognizing a frog in its natural environment differs from examining that frog in a test tube or cooking its legs for dinner (as some Southerners in the U.S. do).

  • Alvaro Pacheco added an answer:
    I am looking for a Professor in Germany to Ph.D. Topic: Sleep and Cognition

    I am looking for a Professor in Germany to the Ph.D. studies. (I will apply for a schoolarship), I want to research about Sleep and Cognition. 

    Alvaro Pacheco · Fundación Universitaria Los Libertadores

    Thank you for your answer.  Any country in Europe would be ok, to finish my PhD. I have done the first year. 

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    Why memories that are being forgotten, start to appear in the dream for one last time?

    I try to keep a track of my dreams and look for recurring patterns, one of which is:

    When I am preoccupied with something important for sometime, it does not affect my dream content in a predictable way. I can or cannot see it in my dreams, like any other thought.

    After some time I will begin to forget that thought due to being overwhelmed by new thoughts or by actively suppressing the thought. In this period as well, the content of my dream is not affected yet.

    However, as soon as the thought is completely forgotten in my conscious mind, I start to dream about it for a few days / weeks. And if I continue to ignore the thought in my conscious mind, the dream will disappear soon and usually never come back.

    This sort of dream happens most of the time for me, in a rather predictable pattern. I mean whenever a once-important thought is forgotten, I would see its dream for one last time.

    So my questions are:

    1. Is there anybody else experiencing this phenomenon or hearing it from their clients?

    2. Do you have any scientific idea about the reason for seeing this kind of dream?

    3. Do you find it a real phenomenon or some kind of bias in selectively remembering a specific part of my dreams, or else?

    That was excellent George. A relief to know it is a real and even common phenomenon.

    I was thinking it might be either (1) a cry for help from a once-loved but now-buried thought [something roughly similar to your interesting suggestion] or (2) a form of self-deception that works by selectively recalling or even faking specific parts of a random and quite routine dream that can serve to help the ego. The third possible mechanism was that it could be (3) some side effect of memory processes that might relay some memory residue to the conscious mind at some stage.

    Do you know any articles / books on this specific mechanism you suggested?

  • Damian G Kelty-Stephen added an answer:
    Would you trust a distinction between intention and volition?
    In the attachment there is a paper by Zhu, where the author tries to distinguish the concept of intention from that of volition. I found this paper interesting but at the same time not very convincing. I did not find any biological grounding to this idea. What is your opinion about this topic?
    Damian G Kelty-Stephen · Grinnell College

    Hmm, I think that perhaps one way to rephrase Beatrice's thought here might be that volition is the capacity to choose whereas intention is simply direction of action. Organisms might direct their actions towards a goal of their own volition or they might do so under duress.

    The question might be how much an organism wants what it sets out to do. If you take a strict view of intentional actions as pure drive satisfaction, then there are only physiological imperatives seeking a sort of homeostasis. However, in more comfortable times with fewer constraints on free behavior--close to what the psychologists Timberlake and Allison called the "bliss point"--organisms may vary as to where they find this bliss point with different activities.

    We all have to pay our bills, but we can decide when and how to do so. We all have the same intention when signing the check, but we'd probably rather keep the money. Paying money to a specific recipient is extremely intention, in the very explicit terms of directing a signal in a specific direction. So, that's intention without volition, except for volition in how we go about doing things we need to. At the same time, we may spend our money how we choose with what we have left over, bringing volition into the same intentional action of spending money.

    And I suppose there's also volition with out intention. We might fantasize or imagine things that are not the case or plan to do things that we do not have sufficient motivation to.

    So, yes, I suppose I can trust a distinction between volition and intention, but I can understand how it may seems suspect on first glance.

    Best wishes,


  • Elwood Siagian added an answer:
    Why can't we easily remember our dreams? Why can we remember the last night's dream better during falling asleep?

    I think there are different networks of memory recording and retrieval that differ depending on the person's state of mind. From my personal experience, it seems that dreams are recorded on a memory network different from the memory network used for our day memories. That network can be accessed more easily during a hypnotic state or when I am falling asleep (I mean when my state of mind is shifting -- I usually track the process of falling asleep which usually ends in seeing lucid dreams).

    I wonder if there are studies out there on this different levels and tracks or networks of memory?

    edit: I am more interested in the process of memory retrieval during the shift in the state of consciousness. Dreams can be remembered better or worse depending on the state of sleep when waking up or other factors such as cortisol level. Plus when one starts to follow their dreams, the dreams start to be remembered better and better. The interest and training in remembering the dreams plays a crucial role. However, my question is not about such factors.

    In general, dreams might be more likely to get remembered when the state of consciousness is altered. When falling asleep, I usually can remember a dream that was seen last night [during waking up] but could not be remembered.

    Elwood Siagian · Loma Linda University

    Dreams are memorable when there is a strong emotional context associated to it.  For example nightmares, erotic and bizarre type dreams can be recalled even decades later because it made an intense connection at the time of the experience.  And then there are the recurring dreams that are memorable probably just due to its repetitiveness.  

  • Pablo C Bernabéu added an answer:
    Is there always a tradeoff between spatial and object cognitive capacities?

    Given the repeated data that mental rotation and other spatial measures correlates positively with the Spatial scale of the OSIVQ and negatively with the Object scale, should we consider there's always a tradeoff between those cognitive capacities? And what is the role of the Verbal scale in that tradeoff?

    Pablo C Bernabéu · Tilburg University

    Hi, Molly. Thank you! I'll check those out.

  • Hima Mehta added an answer:
    What are the functional roles of the patch-matrix system?
    There are several theories of basal ganglia function, leading many of us to propose segregation of functionally heterogeneous subregions within the dorsal striatum [e.g., see our 2011 review in Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 96, pp. 95-120]. Given the subregional variation in several neurochemical markers within the striatum, are the functional distinctions related to the compartmental organization of the patch-matrix system?
    Hima Mehta · National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control

    Patch - matrix compartments .Defined by neurochemical markers ,this Organization appears to related separated population of Striatal medium spiny Neurons with distinct Input-output connections .

    Both patch and Matrix projects to substantia nigra , but patch behaves as  an input to Dopaminergic cells esp in ventral tier of Dopaminegic neurons while matrix neurons provide inputs to the location of the GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata.
    More details and source of my understanding so far is here ,
    pardon "the newbie"  for any mistakes .

  • Valdir F Pessoa added an answer:
    Color blindness for blue and yellow?
    I'm designing an experiment in which I'll use the Stroop task. I'm planning to use four colors: red, green, yellow and blue. For the sake of control, one of my reviewers asked me how I can control for color blindness. I found the Ishihara cards, which can reliably help me with red and green, but I can't find a test for blue and yellow. I'd appreciate your ideas on tests for controlling this.
    Valdir F Pessoa · University of Brasília

    You may use Farnsworth-Munsell, Lanthony or Neitz Color Vision Tests, but the last is faster, easier and reliable.

  • Miguel Cañete asked a question:
    What part of the differences between adult men and women is due to the biological component?

    From the biopsychosocial theory the interaction between the biological, psychic and social arises. None of them is sufficient to explain human behavior and cognition, but there are authors that suggest important differences in the weight of the biological.

  • Vahid Rakhshan added an answer:
    I have a theoretical model for consciousness. Where should I seek to publish it?

    I have a suggestion for the hard problem of qualia, mostly suited as a letter to the editor. Do you know any peer reviewed journals that welcome such theoretical suggestions?

    Many thanks dear Sultan.

  • Closed account added an answer:
    Does anyone use E-prime on Windows 8 tablets?
    I'm not satisfied with touch screens of most laptops when used with preschoolers. I think tablets would be better suited, but do they allow using E-prime for stimuli display and response times recording?
    Deleted · Aix-Marseille Université

    Thanks to all for sharing your experience.

  • Bryant Duda added an answer:
    Can BOLD activation related to reaction time be parsed apart from BOLD activity related to performance on a working memory task?

    I am try to see if RT activation on a work-memory task correlates with outside measures of cognition (different types of executive functioning) while controlling for activation related to performance on the working-memory task (n-back(2)). Is this possible? Thanks.

    Bryant Duda · University of Georgia

    Thank you, Aleksandra!

  • Joris Verrips added an answer:
    What is the difference between cognition and perception?
    Cognition and perception: which one precedes the other?
    Joris Verrips ·

    I welcome the efforts by Wilfried Musterle, Mehdi Hedayatpoor and Tarak Paul to sort out the semantics of our discussion. Of course, saying perception is not the same thing as saying cognition, just like thinking and being lucky are not the same thing. But... what those words refer to can be intertwined. As when Pasteur remarked that 'luck only helps the prepared mind'. Likewise, one may wonder 'is it a cat or is it a lion that approaches me in yonder bushes'. Perhaps one can not say that to think means that we perceive thoughts, but to me consciousness and perception are related. And when we discuss these subtle matters, it is always ... our perception of them! 

    By the way, these words, who clearly originated in my thoughts, are now perceived by you, because the owner of their intellectual property,, allows it. So those are no longer my words that you, the reader, may perceive!

About Cognition

Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge.

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