• Geoffrey Blondelle added an answer:
    What prospective memory tasks yield the most accurate performance?

    Which prospective memory/ongoing task combinations result in the highest proportion of correct prospective memory responses?

    Geoffrey Blondelle

    No, not to my knowledge. Contact authors remains, in my view, the best option.

    Good continuation Brandon.

  • Otto Lappi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a visual task that is not cognitive?

    It is possible to have a non-visual task that is cognitive, but I was wondering whether it was possible to have a task that was visual but not cognitive? Is this even possible?

    It's likely that all tasks are, to some extent, cognitive. In that case, what are the some of the least cognitively demanding visual tasks?

    Otto Lappi

    Depends on what you view as "cognitive", of course, but if it means processes that are 1. "controlled" (require executive attention, not highly automatic), 2. subject to visual short term memory/working memory capacity limitations and 3. relatively slow, then I would suggest that "pre-attentive" visual feature pop-out in a Treisman-type visual search task is a prime example of "non-cognitive" visual processing. 

  • Richard Traub added an answer:
    Can anyone please cite any studies they know on the following?

    Namely, studies specifically investigating and positively evidencing associatedness of high expertise with predominantly "bottom-up" cognitive learning-strategies? (My thanks to all !)

    Richard Traub

    Dear Béatrice,

    Thank you! You are so kind, and I'm deeply grateful.

    Very best wishes,


  • Nicholas Almond added an answer:
    How does cognitive psychologists view behavior analysis?

    I am currently researching within a field called behavior analysis, which is essentially modern behaviorism. Researchers in this field tend to emphasize different methodologies, such as single-case designs, and often avoid statistical methods.

    In terms of psychology, behavior analysts are not interested in cognitive phenomena. This is not because they reject the existence of private events, but because they argue that cognitive events cannot be observed; only its behavioral outcomes.

    There are several papers that address how behavior analysis sees cognitive psychology. They often refer to the misuse of hypothetical constructs and unnecessary group designs. However, I was wondering if there are papers discussing behavioral analysis from the cognitive psychologists point of view?

    Most psychology textbooks will refer to behaviorism as dead, often with reference to Chomsky's critique of Skinner. According to behavior analysts, Chomsky's critique is flawed, but in mainstream psychology, behavior analysis remain a minority subdiscipline.

    So, I was wondering if there are any good articles discussing cognitive/internal/private events, and behavior analysis/behaviorism, that are written from a cognitive psychologist point of view? There are plenty such articles in behavior analysis journals, but I am wondering if the issue of cognition vs. externally observed behavior have been discussed elsewhere, from a cognitive viewpoint?

    I guess what I am asking is, what papers from cognitive psychology exist that address why behavior analysis is obsolete, and internal, private events are perfectly acceptable to investigate?

    Nicholas Almond

    Hi Jim,

    My point is that CBT or RFT is more effective than simple behaviour therapy. So you might call it radical behaviourism but I would call it an acceptance by behaviourists that thought patterns can change behaviour.



  • Michael Gaebler added an answer:
    Does anyone have a rating scale for meta-analysis?
    When conducting a meta-analyses, all the works included are rated on the basis of their methodological qualities. Which rates, scales, or criteria should be used? Does anyone have a rating scale available?
  • Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad added an answer:
    What is the safe level of uridine consumption from edible mushrooms?

    Uridine is one of the building blocks or precursor components to ribonucleic acid.

    edible mushrooms are rich in uridine.

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine) and three nucleotides (guanosine-5′-monophosphate (GMP), adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP)) in nine edible mushrooms including Lasiosphaera Seu Calvatia (puffball), Agrocybe aegerita, Boletus nigricans, Boletus fulvus, Tricholoma matsutake, edible tree fungus (Auricularia auricula), Tuckahoe (Poria cocos), white fungus (Tremella fuciformis) and Polyporus umbellatus.

  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:
    What is a simple inhibitory control task (to use on MediaLab)?

    Trying to decide between the Spatial Stroop, Flanker, and Simon Task. Any Advice on which might be the best/easiest to use?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Dear Shayna, 

    Check these out:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Would it be helpful to inform a driver about when a conflicting traffic situation is going to occur? We tested whether temporal orienting of attention could enhance executive control to select among conflicting stimuli and responses. Temporal orienting was induced by presenting explicit cues predicting the most probable interval for target onset, which could be short (400 ms) or long (1,300 ms). Executive control was measured both by flanker and Simon tasks involving conflict between incompatible responses and by the spatial Stroop task involving conflict between perceptual stimulus features. The results showed that temporal orienting facilitated the resolution of perceptual conflict by reducing the spatial Stroop effect, whereas it interfered with the resolution of response conflict by increasing flanker and Simon effects. Such opposite effects suggest that temporal orienting of attention modulates executive control through dissociable mechanisms, depending on whether the competition between conflicting representations is located at perceptual or response levels.
      Experimental Psychology 12/2009; 57(2):142-8. DOI:10.1027/1618-3169/a000018

    + 3 more attachments

  • Marc Le Goc added an answer:
    How can I operationalize Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT) (Fauconnier & Turner) for Information Extraction (IE)?

    There are a few computational models of CIT for concept invention out there (eg. Pereira, 2007; Li, Zook, Davis & Riedl, 2012). I was wondering whether this idea could be turned on its head and repurposed in streamlining information extraction from corpora. Any suggestions on how one could go about it?

    Marc Le Goc

    @Asterio: 2 remarks.

    First, only time introduces an order in a dynamic system. The notion of state (or mode, if you prefer) has been introduced by humans to model the behaviors of dynamic systems. In other words, there is no state in artificial or natural artifact but only in models.

    And second, an innovation is a modification of the current state of affairs that must be coherent to be new and so, subversive: if the modification does not bring its own and new coherence, it is only an effect of the stochastic properties of a dynamic system (nothing new, nothing subversive, nothing can be learned)


  • Ofir Yakobi added an answer:
    EEG during continuous pursuit tracking task - ideas for reducing artifacts?

    I'd like to collect EEG data during a computerized tracking task, using a 2-axis joystick. 

    My main concern is that EMG (especially jerks) and EOG contamination is much greater in these settings. Any thought or experience with the above?

    Ofir Yakobi

    Thank you Ross, it is helpful.

    I might consider a compensatory tracking task instead, that way head and eyes movements and will be minimized.

  • Christin Köber added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest where I could find research which looks at context-dependent memory and flashbulb/autobiographical memories?

    I am writing a piece of coursework whereby I am exploring my own personal flashbulb memory and situations whereby I have returned to the area and experienced similar feelings of the situation and also imagery of the situation. I am exploring if flashbulb memories are related in any way to the context that you were in. The rest of the essay explores how flashbulb memories differ in their accuracy of recall depending on whether the event was negative or positive, in my situation this particular event of discussion was negative.

    Thanks in advance!

    Christin Köber

    And you may want to check out their work:

    It's about the malleability of flashbulb memories.

    Good luck with the coursework!

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Within a week of the attack of September 11, 2001, a consortium of researchers from across the United States distributed a survey asking about the circumstances in which respondents learned of the attack (their flashbulb memories) and the facts about the attack itself (their event memories). Follow-up surveys were distributed 11, 25, and 119 months after the attack. The study, therefore, examines retention of flashbulb memories and event memories at a substantially longer retention interval than any previous study using a test-retest methodology, allowing for the study of such memories over the long term. There was rapid forgetting of both flashbulb and event memories within the first year, but the forgetting curves leveled off after that, not significantly changing even after a 10-year delay. Despite the initial rapid forgetting, confidence remained high throughout the 10-year period. Five putative factors affecting flashbulb memory consistency and event memory accuracy were examined: (a) attention to media, (b) the amount of discussion, (c) residency, (d) personal loss and/or inconvenience, and (e) emotional intensity. After 10 years, none of these factors predicted flashbulb memory consistency; media attention and ensuing conversation predicted event memory accuracy. Inconsistent flashbulb memories were more likely to be repeated rather than corrected over the 10-year period; inaccurate event memories, however, were more likely to be corrected. The findings suggest that even traumatic memories and those implicated in a community's collective identity may be inconsistent over time and these inconsistencies can persist without the corrective force of external influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
      Journal of Experimental Psychology General 03/2015; 144(3). DOI:10.1037/xge0000055
  • Milad Amini added an answer:
    Does anyone have a simple reaction time task in E-Prime?
    I'm using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in my research at the moment and it requires a simple competitive reaction time task in which participants indicate when a stimulus in the centre of the screen changes colour (e.g. a blue square become red), and are given immediate feedback on their performance.

    The nature of the stimulus isn't really important, as long as some sort of obvious change occurs.

    I was planning to create this task using E-Prime (which I'm entirely new to), but does anyone have a similar task already set up that I could maybe 'recycle'? Or if not, any tips for setting one up in E-Prime?
    Milad Amini

    Dear Zara

    I'm working on Lateralization of emotion word in the  brain . I nead a task with a  go/no-go procedure for 3 kind of words. I woud be grateful if you could help me. 


    Milad amini

  • David Paulo Catela added an answer:
    Who knows commentaries, opinions on Gregory Hickoks "The myth of mirror neurons"?

    As a psychotherapist I am interested in research on embodied, situated, grounded cognition. Hickoks critique of these approaches seems to be sound. Since I am not an expert in the field of neuropsychology I would like to know if there are arguments to question his position. How do the protagonists of embodied cognition object to his arguments?

    Thanks for your ideas, Michael

    David Paulo Catela

    perception and action have neural paths that simplify information processing Milner & Goodale, 1991, 1992). maybe mirror neurons benefit from those paths, making interpretation and understanding of action a different way.

  • Lasse Bang added an answer:
    Can I use corrected gray matter volume (GM volume/intracranial volume(ICV)) as a covariate when examining predictive value of ICV on cognition?

    I'm currently working on a project to identify possible predictors for the level of cognitive functioning in patients matched for the degree of cerebral atrophy. I was planning on operationalizing cerebral atrophy as gray matter volumes. But to account for head size, I would correct this gray matter volume by intracranial volume which gives the fraction of the total volume which consitutes gray matter and thus corrected gray matter volume..

    The problem is that I want to examine intracranial volume itself as a possible predictor for cognitive function with corrected gray matter volume as a covariate. Is it valid to use intracranial volume and corrected gray matter volume (GM/ICV) in one regression model as predictors or would this somehow lead to statistical difficulties?

    Lasse Bang

    Not sure I understand completely what it is that you want to do. But it seems you're interested in ICV, gray matter, and white matter (if you use ICV as a predictor, and covary out gray matter volume, you're left With white matter, right?). If this is the case, why not convert both GM and WM to fractions (by dividing them With the ICV), and run separate analysis for GM, WM and ICV? Or alternatively put GM and WM in the same model. It seems that Your suggestion of ICV With GM as a covariate is in reality an Exploration of WM (and possibly CSF) volume...? It seems weird to run an analysis where the covariate is partly a function of Your predictor.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer:
    How does the human brain ask itself a question?
    How does the human brain ask itself a question? Asking questions is essential for scientific progress. How does our brain do this job? In *The Cognitive Brain* I have detailed the neuronal mechanisms that enable us to ask ourself questions about our world - self-query. Chapters 6 and 8, in particular, deal with this aspect of human experience. Have any other kinds of brain mechanisms been proposed that can perform self-query?
    Arnold Trehub
    Wilfried: "Is an inconsistent representation a cause for such a self-query?"

    It depends on the personality of the individual. I think that in most people an "inconsistent representation" would induce self-query.
  • Alfredo Campos added an answer:
    Does the Method of Loci (MOL) interact with Working Memory (WM)?

    I investigated MOL in relation to WM:

    1. There were two groups: participants (a) exposed to MOL and (b) not exposed.
    2. I assessed the WM using a psychometrical instrument based on the multi-modal model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) that returns two indicators:
    • participant’s preference towards using a specific component of the WM: (1) the visual sketchpad or (2) the phonological loop;
    • WM Quotient – a general quotient reflecting the functioning of all three components described in the model (executive administrator included).

    The data was analyzed in two ways: strict scoring (serial recall) and lenient scoring (free recall).

    I could not identify an interaction between MOL exposure * Participant’s preference towards a specific component of the WM. This makes sense, as MOL is a highly complex mnemonic device and evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that it rather reflects a general functioning of the WM than a higher score for one of its components.

    When I looked for an interaction between MOL exposure * the WM Quotient I found these surprising results:

    1. For strict scoring
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.74)
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient higher than 120 recalled fewer words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.79)
    1. For lenient scoring the same pattern emerged:
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.01, d = 0.91)
    • participants with a quotient higher than 120 exposed to MOL tend to recall fewer words than those exposed to MOL (this was not significant at 0.05 => p = .07, d = 0.31).

    I dare to say that the results are meaningful, pointing out that MOL works exactly for those who need it the most, but this is intriguing as MOL efficiency is hypothesized to be related with superior functioning of the WM.

    Do you have any idea why this occurred? Or, can you point me to papers that obtained similar results?

    Thank you!

    Alfredo Campos

    Hello, Constantin,

    The method of loci is very effective method but has conditions to be effective. For example, it takes a while to process each item.

    The method needs to be used with many items. If we use a few items, the participants use onlyt he method of repetition. If the participant is intelligent, he can dare to use the method of repetition.

    For the participant to choose the method of repetition or method of loci, it is necessary that he has experience of having properly used the two methods, and he has seen the effectiveness of the two methos.

    The method of loci requires training to be used.

    I researched much the keyword method.

    Good luck

  • Jose Hernandez-Orallo added an answer:
    If you could measure machine intelligence like a humans IQ, what would you measure and how?

    What level of intelligence do machines actually need/posses and how can this be compared. If the community is to create a Machine Quotient (MQ), how would this be compared to human cognition?

    Jose Hernandez-Orallo

    Dear all,

    This question has been around for decades, and is still open.

    In my opinion, the notion of IQ is not very appropriate for machines, basically because there is no normative population of machines to derive any meaningful score. Also, the (re)use of items found in IQ tests for machine evaluation doesn't seem to be very appropriate:

    Nonetheless, I also think that machine intelligence evaluation is possible, but it must be based on different principles. If you are interested in some of these ideas, you can have a look at

    and for a more comprehensive view of the evaluation of cognitive abilities:

    In any case, it is a fascinating problem that will become more and more relevant in the near future.

    Best wishes,


  • Daniel Reyes Galvis added an answer:
    Functional Fixedness: functional features vs physical features?
    I'm currently working on research about Functional Fixedness, and I have found some discrepancies between explanations about this phenomena. It is not clear if there's a difference between the physical features and the functional features of objects to produce functional fixedness.
    Daniel Reyes Galvis

    The main issue is that maybe people think about "function" based on physical features. What I'm trying to say is that objects are invented with some goal, which do not necessary match all the possible goals based on the materials of which the new object is made of. So, some people may think just as the inventor, but others may find novel uses due to their experience with objects made of those same materials, specially if no-one tells them the true goal of the inventor.... and in fact there is empirical evidence supporting this idea.

    Thanks for taking the time to answer.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    Is there any cognitive benefit of being or becoming bilingual?
    Today, more of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual than monolingual. In addition to facilitating cross-cultural communication, this trend also positively affects cognitive abilities. Researchers have shown that the bilingual brain can have better attention and task-switching capacities than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another. In addition, bilingualism has positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum: Bilingual children as young as seven months can better adjust to environmental changes, while bilingual seniors can experience less cognitive decline.
    Anthony G Gordon

    Here is a rare example of helpful data ; Cheuk et al Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children Paed Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19;303;

    • Language development was unrelated to social class or multilingual exposure for normal children
    • The more languages in the home, the more likely there was specific language impairment.
  • Gabriele Cotronei added an answer:
    For a client with expressive aphasia, can anyone provide the Mental Status Examination?

    Along with that, also which psychological testings, treatment would be the best for such client?  Give me overview of symptoms as well....

    Clinical Observation:

    In Cognition, only Abstract ability, judgment and insight was poor.  Memory, Orientation, General Info was intact and adequate.  Speech was relevant, goal directed but slurring, anxious behavior, low productivity, tone, delayed.

    No perceptual disturbances were found but thought blocking was observed.  When enquired, he reported thought flow is good but only not able to express.  

    Send me your answers please here


    Sailaja Pisapati

    Gabriele Cotronei

    It really depends on the clinical environment you work in. I'm working in a Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation facility and we have a set of exams, but they might differ from the ones performed in, for example, Neurology departments. I suggest you check with the facility you are working in, and what their usual evaluation tests are. In our facility we usually have a Neuropsychiatrist evaluate them first and then our team works with them.

  • Daniel Wright added an answer:
    Is the memory of a dramatic personal event an autobiographical episodic memory only or can it be characterized as a flashbulb memory as well?

    Suppose you can vividly remember every single detail surrounding a dramatic PERSONAL event: where you were, who you were with, what you were doing, who told you, how you felt, what happened afterwards, etc. Is that only an autobiographical episodic memory, or is it also a flashbulb memory, even though it refers to a PESONAL event and not one of historical importance?

    Daniel Wright

    Nicholas, I think we're in agreement on 99%. The 1% is "How we define FB memories is arguably irrelevant because all they are is very intense episodic memories."  I think how FB is defined is relevant to deciding which memories are part of this category.

    Your definition of FBs are "very intense episodic memories" and I am not sure everyone would agree with this definition (and it would depend on what "very intense episodic memories" means, which I guess means having intense emotion during the recollection, so different from what I said above with high memorability, though from reading your comment it could also be "linking" different brain areas, or "very strongly encoded" memories from your comment above so that's four definitions already.) Over the decades lots people have defined FBs in lots of ways, so that is fine. 

    Since Vicky's question is about a definition, my answer is that different people have different definitions and therefore I would be cautious using the phrase. Your response, and tell me if I am interpreting this correctly, is that according to your emotion at recollection definition of FBs, in which "all they are is very intense episodic memories", dramatic personal memories can qualify in this category (and as I said at the start of this thread, B&K would agree with this as would most people I think who talk about FBs). I think everyone would agree that according this this definition personal events could be FBs.

    So my 1% is I think how you define FBs is relevant to what memories are placed within the category. 

  • Richard Traub added an answer:
    What is the difference between daydreaming and mind wandering from cognitive psychology and neuroscience point of view?

    Is there any? Could you send me refs? Thanks

    Richard Traub

    McVay and Kane's papers may be useful to you:

    Also try the following searches on PubMed Central:

    A daunting number of open-source research articles and reviews here!

    The following has several chapters (by various authors) of broader relevance:

    Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition
    Attention, Memory, and Executive Control

    Editors: Aleksandra Gruszka, Gerald Matthews, Blazej Szymura

  • Richard Epworth added an answer:
    What are the timescales of perception and memory?

    When does perception end and memory begin? This question is rarely considered but has important implications for the science of psychology.

    Folk intuition suggests that perception ends once the object of experience is no longer stimulating the senses. However, this demarcation lacks scientific rigor and is inconsistent with many physical theories of time.

    Take for example time considered as a spacetime continuum. Meaningful events that unfold relative to an organism are always defined by time-like intervals. Therefore, the use of spacetime as a model for time in psychology would lead to the conclusion that every experience is memory-based.

    I would be happy for any contributions you might have to this discussion!

    Richard Epworth

    Brandon, you might be interested in the surprisingly low information rate of learning novel information (a few tens of bits per second maximum). This would suggest that we retrospectively construct an internal narrative that makes sense of sensations. In addition, the briefest glance can capture around 50 bits of information that is subsequently processed and memorised.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Alfredo Spagna added an answer:
    Does anybody know about the script for the Lateralized Attention Network Test (Greene and collaborators)?

    or a similar task: I am with several students of the University of Nice Sopia Antipolis  investigating interhemispheric interaction in relation to the influence of hormones (for attention, visual perception, language...).

    I use usually E-Prime (1, 2 and Professional) and sometimes with SuperLab.

    Alfredo Spagna


    Contact Dariusz Asanowicz.

    IMHO, he is the only one that have found reliable results on the lateralization of the attentional networks. 

    Here his paper:



    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that hemispheric asymmetry of attention has been widely studied, a clear picture of this complex phenomenon is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to provide an efficient and reliable measurement of potential hemispheric asymmetries of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive attention. Participants (N=125) were tested with the Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT) that allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the networks in both visual fields (VF). We found a LVF advantage when a target occurred in an unattended location, which seems to reflect right hemisphere superiority in control of the reorienting of attention. Furthermore, a LVF advantage in conflict resolution was observed, which may indicate hemispheric asymmetry of the executive network. No VF effect for alerting was found. The results, consistent with the common notion of general right hemisphere dominance for attention, provide a more detailed account of hemispheric asymmetries of the attentional networks than previous studies using the LANT task.
      Brain and Cognition 04/2012; 79(2):117-28. DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.014
  • Andrei Gonzales I. added an answer:
    Is there any current research on the topic „comfort zone“?
    My current project is called “Maturity levels of Self-development”.
    In this project I am gathering information from sciences [philosophy, psychology, Neuro-sciences etc.] as well as from spiritual and even magical literatur including other religions too.
    My starting point is the 2000 year old “Gnothi seauton” or “Know Thyself”.
    So the basic vocabulary I am dealing with is (extract): psyche, self, conciousness, unconciousness, mind, body, emotions, feelings, will, archetypes, development, transformation, individuation, etc.
    I am convinced that the popular word “comfort zone” describes a very helpful construct for my project work, insofar, as each level of maturity has its own comfort zone, all of which are qualitatively different.
    Andrei Gonzales I.

    We need more information to help you, how do you give a levels of maturity?, it is mixed.

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    Do you know a good online course on how to use Psychopy software?
    I used Psyscope X during the last years but now I’m obliged to change software as our fMRI scanner cannot be interfaced with a mac but only with a PC. So I need to learn a new software that should be as easy as possible and allows me to trigger devices like TMS, EMG, etc. I think a good solution for me could be Psychopy as it is freeware and it's also a cross-platform software, so that it allows one to program using a Mac and then upload the software in the fMRI-PC. So the question is, is there any online course or podcast to learn step by step how to use it? This is so important to me that I will also consider using another software if it has a very good course. Thanks
    Rahimi Ali

    Dear Giuseppe

    here it is :

    good luck with your research


  • Brandon Thomas added an answer:
    Can anyone give me examples of real-world tasks where 'habitual motor responses' or 'response inhibition' play a role?
    I am looking for examples of real-world tasks (e.g. jobs, situations, etc.) where habitual motor responses are a factor, for good or for bad.

    For example, a situation where a simple motor task or response is performed many times in rapid succession, until it becomes 'automatic', and then when there is eventually a need to withhold from performing this task/response it is difficult to do so.

    Any help would be much appreciated.
    Brandon Thomas

    It is oftentimes difficult to write your new age when it is not long after your birthday. This generally applies to writing dates that change on longer timescales (months, years, etc.). Your body wants to write the old one for awhile!

  • Monica Gagliano added an answer:
    Do plants have cognition?
    The question of plants having cognition came up in an exchange.

    The next morning, I looked out of the window and saw this tree before our house, growing towards the light. I believe that this tree perceives things, has character, displays learning, and adapts its behavior too.

    I believe that plants have cognition. Perhaps they can also do tricks, like addition. Is anybody aware of this?
    Monica Gagliano

    Hi Joris, 

    I realise I am joining this conversation, somewhat, late, but I think your question has already found answers in science. I have recently written a review exactly on this topic and I feel you will find some of the examples of great interests. Moreover, I have conducted experiments in my lab recently that confirm (beyond any philosophical doubt) that plants are cognitive agent - will share the results once they are officially published (you know how this publishing game works). Hope you enjoy the review for now. Best wishes, Monica

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: It is increasingly recognised that plants are highly sensitive organisms that perceive, assess, learn, remember, resolve problems, make decisions and communicate with each other by actively acquiring information from their environment. However, the fact that many of the sophisticated behaviours plants exhibit reveal cognitive competences, which are generally attributed to humans and some non-human animals has remained unappreciated. Here, I will outline the theoretical barriers that have precluded the opportunity to experimentally test such behavioural/cognitive phenomena in plants. I will then suggest concrete alternative approaches to cognition by highlighting how (1) the environment offers a multitude of opportunities for decision-making and action and makes behaviours possible, rather than causing them; (2) perception in itself is action in the form of a continuous flow of information; (3) all living organisms viewed within this context become agents endowed with autonomy rather than objects in a mechanistically conceived world. These viewpoints, combined with recent evidence, may contribute to move the entire field towards an integrated study of cognitive biology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.
      AoB PLANTS 11/2014; 7. DOI:10.1093/aobpla/plu075
  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    How to find situations?
    Consider situations as collections of objects. When looking in any direction we see hundreds of objects. Most of these objects are not related to any meaningful situation. The possible number of collections of objects is near infinite. How the brain learns useful situations and sorts them from random collections of objects?
    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Taking an ecological perspective to 'situations', one way is to think in terms of a maze, and given stimuli, to proceed by muddling through, eventually leading to a solution/mapping/sorting. Of course the muddling through must be coupled with feedback to appraise the situation in terms of affordances given objects and obstacles in the navigation space (or any space consciously-investigated). So a theory based on interaction, may lead to the incremental but thorough parsing of the solution space.Intelligence may be of a low level type-based on impulse more than look forward (the scenario of 'infinite objects'may already reduce this to zero?)

    + 2 more attachments

About Cognition

Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge.

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