• Christopher A Varnon added an answer:
    How does cognitive psychologists view behavior analysis?

    I am currently researching within a field called behavior analysis, which is essentially modern behaviorism. Researchers in this field tend to emphasize different methodologies, such as single-case designs, and often avoid statistical methods.

    In terms of psychology, behavior analysts are not interested in cognitive phenomena. This is not because they reject the existence of private events, but because they argue that cognitive events cannot be observed; only its behavioral outcomes.

    There are several papers that address how behavior analysis sees cognitive psychology. They often refer to the misuse of hypothetical constructs and unnecessary group designs. However, I was wondering if there are papers discussing behavioral analysis from the cognitive psychologists point of view?

    Most psychology textbooks will refer to behaviorism as dead, often with reference to Chomsky's critique of Skinner. According to behavior analysts, Chomsky's critique is flawed, but in mainstream psychology, behavior analysis remain a minority subdiscipline.

    So, I was wondering if there are any good articles discussing cognitive/internal/private events, and behavior analysis/behaviorism, that are written from a cognitive psychologist point of view? There are plenty such articles in behavior analysis journals, but I am wondering if the issue of cognition vs. externally observed behavior have been discussed elsewhere, from a cognitive viewpoint?

    I guess I am asking is, what papers from cognitive psychology exist that address why behavior analysis is obsolete, and internal, private events are perfectly acceptable to investigate?

    Christopher A Varnon · Oklahoma State University - Stillwater


    Thanks for the papers, I will look over them. I am not a CP expert, so I was not aware of work. If cognitive techniques are useful for treating CP, then I wouldn't be surprised if behavioral treatments were useful as well. There is a good deal of research on classical and operant conditioning of involuntary processes such as heart rate and drug tolerance. For something like CP, we might also consider if various techniques are treating CP or just treating the symptoms. But I'm afraid a discussion on treating the cause or symptom of a disorder is a very different discussion. As for you other comments, I really encourage you to keep a more open mind about behaviorism. It is not as restricting as you seem to think. It is simply one useful perspective in psychological science.

  • Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad added an answer:
    What is the safe level of uridine consumption from edible mushrooms?

    Uridine is one of the building blocks or precursor components to ribonucleic acid.

    edible mushrooms are rich in uridine.

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad · University of Tabuk

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine) and three nucleotides (guanosine-5′-monophosphate (GMP), adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP)) in nine edible mushrooms including Lasiosphaera Seu Calvatia (puffball), Agrocybe aegerita, Boletus nigricans, Boletus fulvus, Tricholoma matsutake, edible tree fungus (Auricularia auricula), Tuckahoe (Poria cocos), white fungus (Tremella fuciformis) and Polyporus umbellatus.

  • Shayna Skakoon-Sparling asked a question:
    What is a simple inhibitory control task (to use on MediaLab)?

    Trying to decide between the Spatial Stroop, Flanker, and Simon Task. Any Advice on which might be the best/easiest to use?

  • Marc Le Goc added an answer:
    How can I operationalize Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT) (Fauconnier & Turner) for Information Extraction (IE)?

    There are a few computational models of CIT for concept invention out there (eg. Pereira, 2007; Li, Zook, Davis & Riedl, 2012). I was wondering whether this idea could be turned on its head and repurposed in streamlining information extraction from corpora. Any suggestions on how one could go about it?

    Marc Le Goc · Aix-Marseille Université

    @Asterio: 2 remarks.

    First, only time introduces an order in a dynamic system. The notion of state (or mode, if you prefer) has been introduced by humans to model the behaviors of dynamic systems. In other words, there is no state in artificial or natural artifact but only in models.

    And second, an innovation is a modification of the current state of affairs that must be coherent to be new and so, subversive: if the modification does not bring its own and new coherence, it is only an effect of the stochastic properties of a dynamic system (nothing new, nothing subversive, nothing can be learned)


  • Ofir Yakobi added an answer:
    EEG during continuous pursuit tracking task - ideas for reducing artifacts?

    I'd like to collect EEG data during a computerized tracking task, using a 2-axis joystick. 

    My main concern is that EMG (especially jerks) and EOG contamination is much greater in these settings. Any thought or experience with the above?

    Ofir Yakobi · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

    Thank you Ross, it is helpful.

    I might consider a compensatory tracking task instead, that way head and eyes movements and will be minimized.

  • Christin Köber added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest where I could find research which looks at context-dependent memory and flashbulb/autobiographical memories?

    I am writing a piece of coursework whereby I am exploring my own personal flashbulb memory and situations whereby I have returned to the area and experienced similar feelings of the situation and also imagery of the situation. I am exploring if flashbulb memories are related in any way to the context that you were in. The rest of the essay explores how flashbulb memories differ in their accuracy of recall depending on whether the event was negative or positive, in my situation this particular event of discussion was negative.

    Thanks in advance!

    Christin Köber · Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

    And you may want to check out their work:

    It's about the malleability of flashbulb memories.

    Good luck with the coursework!

  • Milad Amini added an answer:
    Does anyone have a simple reaction time task in E-Prime?
    I'm using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in my research at the moment and it requires a simple competitive reaction time task in which participants indicate when a stimulus in the centre of the screen changes colour (e.g. a blue square become red), and are given immediate feedback on their performance.

    The nature of the stimulus isn't really important, as long as some sort of obvious change occurs.

    I was planning to create this task using E-Prime (which I'm entirely new to), but does anyone have a similar task already set up that I could maybe 'recycle'? Or if not, any tips for setting one up in E-Prime?
    Milad Amini · Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University

    Dear Zara

    I'm working on Lateralization of emotion word in the  brain . I nead a task with a  go/no-go procedure for 3 kind of words. I woud be grateful if you could help me. 


    Milad amini

  • Leonard F Koziol added an answer:
    Who knows commentaries, opinions on Gregory Hickoks "The myth of mirror neurons"?

    As a psychotherapist I am interested in research on embodied, situated, grounded cognition. Hickoks critique of these approaches seems to be sound. Since I am not an expert in the field of neuropsychology I would like to know if there are arguments to question his position. How do the protagonists of embodied cognition object to his arguments?

    Thanks for your ideas, Michael

    Leonard F Koziol


  • Lasse Bang added an answer:
    Can I use corrected gray matter volume (GM volume/intracranial volume(ICV)) as a covariate when examining predictive value of ICV on cognition?

    I'm currently working on a project to identify possible predictors for the level of cognitive functioning in patients matched for the degree of cerebral atrophy. I was planning on operationalizing cerebral atrophy as gray matter volumes. But to account for head size, I would correct this gray matter volume by intracranial volume which gives the fraction of the total volume which consitutes gray matter and thus corrected gray matter volume..

    The problem is that I want to examine intracranial volume itself as a possible predictor for cognitive function with corrected gray matter volume as a covariate. Is it valid to use intracranial volume and corrected gray matter volume (GM/ICV) in one regression model as predictors or would this somehow lead to statistical difficulties?

    Lasse Bang · Oslo University Hospital

    Not sure I understand completely what it is that you want to do. But it seems you're interested in ICV, gray matter, and white matter (if you use ICV as a predictor, and covary out gray matter volume, you're left With white matter, right?). If this is the case, why not convert both GM and WM to fractions (by dividing them With the ICV), and run separate analysis for GM, WM and ICV? Or alternatively put GM and WM in the same model. It seems that Your suggestion of ICV With GM as a covariate is in reality an Exploration of WM (and possibly CSF) volume...? It seems weird to run an analysis where the covariate is partly a function of Your predictor.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer:
    How does the human brain ask itself a question?
    How does the human brain ask itself a question? Asking questions is essential for scientific progress. How does our brain do this job? In *The Cognitive Brain* I have detailed the neuronal mechanisms that enable us to ask ourself questions about our world - self-query. Chapters 6 and 8, in particular, deal with this aspect of human experience. Have any other kinds of brain mechanisms been proposed that can perform self-query?
    Arnold Trehub · University of Massachusetts Amherst
    Wilfried: "Is an inconsistent representation a cause for such a self-query?"

    It depends on the personality of the individual. I think that in most people an "inconsistent representation" would induce self-query.
  • Alfredo Campos added an answer:
    Does the Method of Loci (MOL) interact with Working Memory (WM)?

    I investigated MOL in relation to WM:

    1. There were two groups: participants (a) exposed to MOL and (b) not exposed.
    2. I assessed the WM using a psychometrical instrument based on the multi-modal model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) that returns two indicators:
    • participant’s preference towards using a specific component of the WM: (1) the visual sketchpad or (2) the phonological loop;
    • WM Quotient – a general quotient reflecting the functioning of all three components described in the model (executive administrator included).

    The data was analyzed in two ways: strict scoring (serial recall) and lenient scoring (free recall).

    I could not identify an interaction between MOL exposure * Participant’s preference towards a specific component of the WM. This makes sense, as MOL is a highly complex mnemonic device and evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that it rather reflects a general functioning of the WM than a higher score for one of its components.

    When I looked for an interaction between MOL exposure * the WM Quotient I found these surprising results:

    1. For strict scoring
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.74)
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient higher than 120 recalled fewer words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.79)
    1. For lenient scoring the same pattern emerged:
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.01, d = 0.91)
    • participants with a quotient higher than 120 exposed to MOL tend to recall fewer words than those exposed to MOL (this was not significant at 0.05 => p = .07, d = 0.31).

    I dare to say that the results are meaningful, pointing out that MOL works exactly for those who need it the most, but this is intriguing as MOL efficiency is hypothesized to be related with superior functioning of the WM.

    Do you have any idea why this occurred? Or, can you point me to papers that obtained similar results?

    Thank you!

    Alfredo Campos · University of Santiago de Compostela

    Hello, Constantin,

    The method of loci is very effective method but has conditions to be effective. For example, it takes a while to process each item.

    The method needs to be used with many items. If we use a few items, the participants use onlyt he method of repetition. If the participant is intelligent, he can dare to use the method of repetition.

    For the participant to choose the method of repetition or method of loci, it is necessary that he has experience of having properly used the two methods, and he has seen the effectiveness of the two methos.

    The method of loci requires training to be used.

    I researched much the keyword method.

    Good luck

  • Jose Hernandez-Orallo added an answer:
    If you could measure machine intelligence like a humans IQ, what would you measure and how?

    What level of intelligence do machines actually need/posses and how can this be compared. If the community is to create a Machine Quotient (MQ), how would this be compared to human cognition?

    Jose Hernandez-Orallo · Polytechnical University of Valencia

    Dear all,

    This question has been around for decades, and is still open.

    In my opinion, the notion of IQ is not very appropriate for machines, basically because there is no normative population of machines to derive any meaningful score. Also, the (re)use of items found in IQ tests for machine evaluation doesn't seem to be very appropriate:

    Nonetheless, I also think that machine intelligence evaluation is possible, but it must be based on different principles. If you are interested in some of these ideas, you can have a look at

    and for a more comprehensive view of the evaluation of cognitive abilities:

    In any case, it is a fascinating problem that will become more and more relevant in the near future.

    Best wishes,


  • Daniel Reyes added an answer:
    Functional Fixedness: functional features vs physical features?
    I'm currently working on research about Functional Fixedness, and I have found some discrepancies between explanations about this phenomena. It is not clear if there's a difference between the physical features and the functional features of objects to produce functional fixedness.
    Daniel Reyes · National University of Colombia

    The main issue is that maybe people think about "function" based on physical features. What I'm trying to say is that objects are invented with some goal, which do not necessary match all the possible goals based on the materials of which the new object is made of. So, some people may think just as the inventor, but others may find novel uses due to their experience with objects made of those same materials, specially if no-one tells them the true goal of the inventor.... and in fact there is empirical evidence supporting this idea.

    Thanks for taking the time to answer.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    Is there any cognitive benefit of being or becoming bilingual?
    Today, more of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual than monolingual. In addition to facilitating cross-cultural communication, this trend also positively affects cognitive abilities. Researchers have shown that the bilingual brain can have better attention and task-switching capacities than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another. In addition, bilingualism has positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum: Bilingual children as young as seven months can better adjust to environmental changes, while bilingual seniors can experience less cognitive decline.
    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    Here is a rare example of helpful data ; Cheuk et al Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children Paed Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19;303;

    • Language development was unrelated to social class or multilingual exposure for normal children
    • The more languages in the home, the more likely there was specific language impairment.
  • Gabriele Cotronei added an answer:
    For a client with expressive aphasia, can anyone provide the Mental Status Examination?

    Along with that, also which psychological testings, treatment would be the best for such client?  Give me overview of symptoms as well....

    Clinical Observation:

    In Cognition, only Abstract ability, judgment and insight was poor.  Memory, Orientation, General Info was intact and adequate.  Speech was relevant, goal directed but slurring, anxious behavior, low productivity, tone, delayed.

    No perceptual disturbances were found but thought blocking was observed.  When enquired, he reported thought flow is good but only not able to express.  

    Send me your answers please here


    Sailaja Pisapati

    Gabriele Cotronei · John Cabot University

    It really depends on the clinical environment you work in. I'm working in a Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation facility and we have a set of exams, but they might differ from the ones performed in, for example, Neurology departments. I suggest you check with the facility you are working in, and what their usual evaluation tests are. In our facility we usually have a Neuropsychiatrist evaluate them first and then our team works with them.

  • Daniel Wright added an answer:
    Is the memory of a dramatic personal event an autobiographical episodic memory only or can it be characterized as a flashbulb memory as well?

    Suppose you can vividly remember every single detail surrounding a dramatic PERSONAL event: where you were, who you were with, what you were doing, who told you, how you felt, what happened afterwards, etc. Is that only an autobiographical episodic memory, or is it also a flashbulb memory, even though it refers to a PESONAL event and not one of historical importance?

    Daniel Wright · ACT, Inc.

    Nicholas, I think we're in agreement on 99%. The 1% is "How we define FB memories is arguably irrelevant because all they are is very intense episodic memories."  I think how FB is defined is relevant to deciding which memories are part of this category.

    Your definition of FBs are "very intense episodic memories" and I am not sure everyone would agree with this definition (and it would depend on what "very intense episodic memories" means, which I guess means having intense emotion during the recollection, so different from what I said above with high memorability, though from reading your comment it could also be "linking" different brain areas, or "very strongly encoded" memories from your comment above so that's four definitions already.) Over the decades lots people have defined FBs in lots of ways, so that is fine. 

    Since Vicky's question is about a definition, my answer is that different people have different definitions and therefore I would be cautious using the phrase. Your response, and tell me if I am interpreting this correctly, is that according to your emotion at recollection definition of FBs, in which "all they are is very intense episodic memories", dramatic personal memories can qualify in this category (and as I said at the start of this thread, B&K would agree with this as would most people I think who talk about FBs). I think everyone would agree that according this this definition personal events could be FBs.

    So my 1% is I think how you define FBs is relevant to what memories are placed within the category. 

  • Richard Traub added an answer:
    What is the difference between daydreaming and mind wandering from cognitive psychology and neuroscience point of view?

    Is there any? Could you send me refs? Thanks

    Richard Traub · Understanding Piano Technique

    McVay and Kane's papers may be useful to you:

    Also try the following searches on PubMed Central:

    A daunting number of open-source research articles and reviews here!

    The following has several chapters (by various authors) of broader relevance:

    Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition
    Attention, Memory, and Executive Control

    Editors: Aleksandra Gruszka, Gerald Matthews, Blazej Szymura

  • Brandon Thomas added an answer:
    What are the timescales of perception and memory?

    When does perception end and memory begin? This question is rarely considered but has important implications for the science of psychology.

    Folk intuition suggests that perception ends once the object of experience is no longer stimulating the senses. However, this demarcation lacks scientific rigor and is inconsistent with many physical theories of time.

    Take for example time considered as a spacetime continuum. Meaningful events that unfold relative to an organism are always defined by time-like intervals. Therefore, the use of spacetime as a model for time in psychology would lead to the conclusion that every experience is memory-based.

    I would be happy for any contributions you might have to this discussion!

    Brandon Thomas · University of Cincinnati

    Thanks for your contribution to this thread, Alfredo. I believe that this account (along the lines of the Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model of memory) provides an important perspective on this discussion. Thus conceived, time is parsed relative to the duration of a CNS response to a stimulus.

    While this is perfectly reasonable and has led to immense productivity in our field, I still wonder whether there is a more lucrative description of time for psychology. After all, there is a paucity of meaningful aspects of experience that last a mere 500 ms. Most of our psychophysical experiments (purportedly testing perception) require participants to report on stimuli within a much longer time frame. This stimulus duration is not even long enough to control actions without the use of simulated feedback. Are we really capturing perception within this reference frame?

    I am hoping we can find a definition of time that lawfully captures the regularities of experience. If physicists and cosmologists can use models of time and space to capture fundamental regularities in the universe, can psychologists hope to do the same?  

  • Alfredo Spagna added an answer:
    Does anybody know about the script for the Lateralized Attention Network Test (Greene and collaborators)?

    or a similar task: I am with several students of the University of Nice Sopia Antipolis  investigating interhemispheric interaction in relation to the influence of hormones (for attention, visual perception, language...).

    I use usually E-Prime (1, 2 and Professional) and sometimes with SuperLab.

    Alfredo Spagna · City University of New York - Queens College


    Contact Dariusz Asanowicz.

    IMHO, he is the only one that have found reliable results on the lateralization of the attentional networks. 

    Here his paper:



  • Andrei Gonzales I. added an answer:
    Is there any current research on the topic „comfort zone“?
    My current project is called “Maturity levels of Self-development”.
    In this project I am gathering information from sciences [philosophy, psychology, Neuro-sciences etc.] as well as from spiritual and even magical literatur including other religions too.
    My starting point is the 2000 year old “Gnothi seauton” or “Know Thyself”.
    So the basic vocabulary I am dealing with is (extract): psyche, self, conciousness, unconciousness, mind, body, emotions, feelings, will, archetypes, development, transformation, individuation, etc.
    I am convinced that the popular word “comfort zone” describes a very helpful construct for my project work, insofar, as each level of maturity has its own comfort zone, all of which are qualitatively different.
    Andrei Gonzales I. · Universidad Mayor de San Andres

    We need more information to help you, how do you give a levels of maturity?, it is mixed.

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    Do you know a good online course on how to use Psychopy software?
    I used Psyscope X during the last years but now I’m obliged to change software as our fMRI scanner cannot be interfaced with a mac but only with a PC. So I need to learn a new software that should be as easy as possible and allows me to trigger devices like TMS, EMG, etc. I think a good solution for me could be Psychopy as it is freeware and it's also a cross-platform software, so that it allows one to program using a Mac and then upload the software in the fMRI-PC. So the question is, is there any online course or podcast to learn step by step how to use it? This is so important to me that I will also consider using another software if it has a very good course. Thanks
    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    Dear Giuseppe

    here it is :

    good luck with your research


  • Brandon Thomas added an answer:
    Can anyone give me examples of real-world tasks where 'habitual motor responses' or 'response inhibition' play a role?
    I am looking for examples of real-world tasks (e.g. jobs, situations, etc.) where habitual motor responses are a factor, for good or for bad.

    For example, a situation where a simple motor task or response is performed many times in rapid succession, until it becomes 'automatic', and then when there is eventually a need to withhold from performing this task/response it is difficult to do so.

    Any help would be much appreciated.
    Brandon Thomas · University of Cincinnati

    It is oftentimes difficult to write your new age when it is not long after your birthday. This generally applies to writing dates that change on longer timescales (months, years, etc.). Your body wants to write the old one for awhile!

  • Monica Gagliano added an answer:
    Do plants have cognition?
    The question of plants having cognition came up in an exchange.

    The next morning, I looked out of the window and saw this tree before our house, growing towards the light. I believe that this tree perceives things, has character, displays learning, and adapts its behavior too.

    I believe that plants have cognition. Perhaps they can also do tricks, like addition. Is anybody aware of this?
    Monica Gagliano · University of Western Australia

    Hi Joris, 

    I realise I am joining this conversation, somewhat, late, but I think your question has already found answers in science. I have recently written a review exactly on this topic and I feel you will find some of the examples of great interests. Moreover, I have conducted experiments in my lab recently that confirm (beyond any philosophical doubt) that plants are cognitive agent - will share the results once they are officially published (you know how this publishing game works). Hope you enjoy the review for now. Best wishes, Monica

  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    How to find situations?
    Consider situations as collections of objects. When looking in any direction we see hundreds of objects. Most of these objects are not related to any meaningful situation. The possible number of collections of objects is near infinite. How the brain learns useful situations and sorts them from random collections of objects?
    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew · Taylor's University

    Taking an ecological perspective to 'situations', one way is to think in terms of a maze, and given stimuli, to proceed by muddling through, eventually leading to a solution/mapping/sorting. Of course the muddling through must be coupled with feedback to appraise the situation in terms of affordances given objects and obstacles in the navigation space (or any space consciously-investigated). So a theory based on interaction, may lead to the incremental but thorough parsing of the solution space.Intelligence may be of a low level type-based on impulse more than look forward (the scenario of 'infinite objects'may already reduce this to zero?)

  • Stephen Doherty added an answer:
    Does anyone have any recommended references/sources for human eyes being attracted to movement in their peripheral vision?

    The context is in a project examining how TV viewers multi-task and have their attention divided between tasks, then re-visit the TV screen for certain events while they have been visually attending to another task. 

    Stephen Doherty · University of New South Wales

    Thanks all, these have all proven to be excellent suggestions for the project. 

  • Dr. Vaishali S. Parsania added an answer:
    What are cognitive implications for the visualization strategy?

    While facing big data, we developed a visualization strategy based on head/tail breaks in order to see a clear pattern from a hairball. The strategy is to recursively drop out the tail parts until the head parts are clear or visible enough. The head parts are self-similar to the whole, thus the parts enable us to see the whole:

    Waldo Tobler had the similar strategy by dropping out those below the mean; see

    I am curious, what are cognitive implications for the strategy?

    Dr. Vaishali S. Parsania · Atmiya Institute Of Technology & Science

    refer this  IEEE paper :

    I find some good perspective related to your question in might help you...

  • Anuratha Venkataraman added an answer:
    Does anyone know about method articles regarding analysis with both cognition and emotion?

    I am particularly interested in analysis done with the help of emotions. Has that been done by anyone?

    Anuratha Venkataraman · XLRI School of Business & Human Resources

    Look at the book Knowing How: Essays on Knowledge, Mind, and Action by John Bengson and Marc A. Moffett which offers a comprehensive tour of knowing believing understanding and relating it to how we feel. This is at the granular level. Horschild's book will explain how it happens and how the labour process conditions and extracts such behaviour. Also read C.Wolkowitz's Body's at Work.

  • Bryan D Devan added an answer:
    What are the functional roles of the patch-matrix system?
    There are several theories of basal ganglia function, leading many of us to propose segregation of functionally heterogeneous subregions within the dorsal striatum [e.g., see our 2011 review in Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 96, pp. 95-120]. Given the subregional variation in several neurochemical markers within the striatum, are the functional distinctions related to the compartmental organization of the patch-matrix system?
    Bryan D Devan · Towson University


    Thanks for your response  and my apologies for taking so long to get back to you.  I appreciate your focus on the outputs of the neurochemical compartments to DA cells in ventral tier from patches and GABAergic cells in pars reticulata from matrix, as well as the link to Gerfen's classic review, reminding us that there are multiple levels of organization to the mosaic.

    As you may know, I have focused on cortico-striatal connections and the functional dissocation between medial/lateral subregions within the neostriatum to approach a resolution to the ongoing debate between cognitive and other motor-related functions, respectively. Although I have collaborated with others on the noncognitive habit (stimulus-response) function of the neostriatum, I was fortunate to have had an opportunity to work with Ivan Divac just before he passed away in '99.  Ivan completed classic work on the cognitive functions of the neostritum (see Steven Dunnett's nice tribute to his work - Ivan Divac and the neostriatum as a cognitive structure, Brain Res Bull. 1999 Nov-Dec;50(5-6):429-30; and Ivan's classic-edited book with Gunilla Oberg in '79, The Neostriatum, where they pointed out the history of the structure and cognitive functions in two chapters - e.g., Oberg, R. Gunilla E., and Ivan Divac. "Cognitive functions of the neostriatum." The neostriatum (1979): 291-313.). 

    Noncognitive habit functions of the basal ganglia are a current topic discussed by many researchers, however there is now plenty of evidence supporting a functional dissociation between subregions of neostriatum receiving different cortico-striatal inputs.  My question is whether the patch/matrix neurochemical organization may be related to the functional dissociation several authors have described.

    What do you think about the tripartite model of the basal ganglia (cortico-striatopallial-thalamocortical) loops? 

    Thanks again for your valued input to a question I believe is very important to brain science...

    Best regards,


About Cognition

Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge.

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