Clinical Embryology

Clinical Embryology

  • Carla Jesus asked a question:
    What is the better time to mature in vitro for bovine oocytes?

    parthenogenetic activation

    with 27 hours of maturation occurs much spontaneous activation?

  • Venkata Harsha Vardhan Boddeda added an answer:
    What are simple assays done for toxicological studies of a compound on zebrafish embryos?

    I'm testing a compound (plant extract) on zebrafish embryos. Please suggest a few simple yet effective assays to test toxicity at cellular level. 

    Venkata Harsha Vardhan Boddeda

    You can follow the Fish embryotoxicity tests which have been given by OECD guidlines. 6hpf embryos should be taken and should be treated with test drug. 

    You can also perform cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity on 72hpf larvae. 

    You can do teratogenicity and also you can give scoring system in zebrafish based on structural malformations. 

    Check these links.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Murid Javed added an answer:
    Can a three parent baby be derived from an enucleated oocyte and the sperm nuclei from each of two males?

    Does the new UK law cover this or only two mothers and one father?

    Murid Javed

    I am sharing my thoughts.  Researchers have been trying androgenesis (production of off spring from 2 males) and gynogenesis (production of off spring from 2 females) since long.  It is possible in fish.  Please review this link <production of off spring from 2 males>.  we may not know yet in other species but possibility exists.

    The question "Can a three parent baby be derived from an enucleated oocyte and the sperm nuclei from each of two males" is creating curiosity.  For example, in case of cloning, enucleated oocyte can develop if the somatic cell nuclei is reprogrammed.  Would this enucleated oocyte process the haploid set of chromosomes from 2 sperm? A lot more need to be done to get to the answer.  In case of 3PN (when 2 sperm fertilize egg) efforts have been made to remove one of the male pronucleus to make this embryo normal. In such situations, if we remove female pronucleus, the resulting embryo will have genetic material from 2 sperm and mitochondreal genes from female egg, making it a 3 parent embryo.

    Mitochondreal augmentation is probably becoming an acceptable technique to boost energy of the eggs from advanced age females.  If we consider genetic contribution of mitochondreal genes, such embryos have genes from 2 females and one male (3 parent baby).  Can we purify mitochondrea from male somatic cells or sperm and inject into egg? In such cases, the resulting embryo will have genetic contributions from one female and two males.  There is a lot more of this science we do not know yet.

  • Closed account added an answer:
    What is the pH of the culture oil been used in embryo culture layering?

    PH of mineral oil used in the embryo culture and overlaying in the IVF medias.


    Dear Sir ,

    Thank U For Your  Descriptive Answer !!!


    Aamir Javed

  • Murid Javed added an answer:
    Do you think that it would be possible to recover sperm cells of any species, with a possible minimum cryoinjury, from the storage in LN2 ?

    osmotic injury, sperm recovery, freze-thawing, viability, DNA damage, fertility potential

    Murid Javed

    The interest in semen cryopreservation has been since 1776.  Semen cryopreservation has been achieved in wide variety of animal species and human.  Cryopreservation technology has evolved successfully over the past many decades.  With the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, a single sperm is needed for fertilization of the egg.  This technique is very useful in saving many endangered species. Therefore, depending on the species we are talking about I have the confidence to say that sperm can be frozen effectively for further generation for any species. The duration is storage does not affect the frozen sperm quality. Cryopreserved sperm have been used effective after storage of many decades.

  • Andrey Borodach added an answer:
    Are amnioblasts the progenitor cells for the mesothelial lining?

    The mesothelial cells line the abdominal, pleural, and pericardial cavities are thought of as being the mesenchymal origin [for example, Moore KL & Persaud TVN. The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th ed, Sauders, 2006; Histology for Pathologists, 3d ed (Mills S.E. ed.), Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2007; etc].

    However, during the embryonic development, the cells lining the amnion cavity are continuous with those covering the forming abdominal cavity from the very beginning of the histogenesis to app. the 10-11th weeks. What is known about the immunohistochemical similarity, if any, of the ameloblasts and the mesothelial cells? 

    Andrey Borodach

    May I suggest to look at the picture here below? (from Langman's Medical Embryology, 12th ed, , 2012, p.79).

  • Joe Graymer added an answer:
    What is the difference between pPNET and embryonal neuroblastoma?

    The good prognosis of those rare cases with pPNET and embryonal neuroblastomas

    elucidates questions concerning the tumor's biological behaviour and role of different 

    factors affecting cell differentiation, tumour growth and dissemination. 

    Joe Graymer

    According to D A casciato, editor, and M C Territo, associate editor, 2012, 'Manual of Clinical Oncology, 7th edition', page 881:

    Small Blue Cell tumors in children may be:


    *PNET/Ewing Sarcoma  


     *Synovial cell Sarcoma

     *Wilm's Tumor

    To distinguish among them, markers are: CK, EMA, CD99, S100, NET, WT1, and Muscular Markers (Desmin, MSA, MyoD1, myogenin) are of help

    Small Blue Cell tumors in Adults are:

    *Carcinoma                                                                                                                         *Carcinoma, Small Cell  

    *Carcinoma, Merkel Cell    

    *Desmoplastic Small Cell Tumor                                                                                  

    *Synovial Sarcoma                                                                                                        *Lymphoma  

     * Melanoma

     To discriminate, they propose: CK, EMA, CD99, S100, NET, CD45, Des, and other specific for some of the individual tumor types cited

  • Jason Peter Ross added an answer:
    Embryology: Do the 3 lineages give rise to layers in colon with 3 distinct patterns of ancestral somatic mutations?

    Is this really what happens? If so, the three lineages would give rise to layers in organs such as the colon with three distinct patterns of ancestral somatic mutations. Alternately, organs could be created by pluripotent stem cells that locally create the layers of tissue observed. In such a case local elements of layers would to some extent share a genetic pattern of somatic mutations.

    Jason Peter Ross

    A number of years back, some of my lab members published a paper on the very clear distinction in RNA expression patterns across the colon proximal-distal axis.

  • Joseph Carroll added an answer:
    Is there any neurological or embryological influence in the Foveal Development in Down Syndrome
    There has been no study which talks about any relation of the development of the eye in Down Syndrome and any neurological involvement in the same
    Joseph Carroll

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