- Cynthia Evangeline Sellinger added an answer:26What is the best programming language for solar radiation data processing?
I just programmed macros in Excel, but I realize that sometimes (when the databases are very large and I would like to calculate many specific variables ) consumes many resources and computing time. I hear of people using Python, Fortran, C++, etc., but what is the best?
Interactive Data Language (IDL) works great for programming large data sets. Not only can you use the built-in statistical packages, but this language handles a large, matrix of information with ease.Following
- Uttam Ghimire added an answer:13Can anyone suggest software for performing statistical downscaling on climate data?I'm looking for a step-by-step description for statistical downscaling.
For CMIP3 models, SDSM can be regarded as one of the easiest methods. However for CMIP5 models adopted in IPCC AR5, you cannot use that.Following
- Amrit Thapa added an answer:6Do anyone have R code for distributing Temperature and Precipitation to each grid in DEM?
I am trying to distribute temperature and precipitation data in mountainous catchment. I have a data of one of the station within the catchment and want to distribute on each grid of the DEM using lapse rate and vertical gradient. I am planning to use R software to do so. How can i do this?
Dear Achut Parajuli,
Thank you for your suggestions.Following
- Michel M. Verstraete added an answer:1Where can I get the FLUXNET tower data for India to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere?
How much FLUXNET tower is installed in India? How and where do I get the tower data for NPP model validation?
Please visit the main web site of the FLUXNET programme at
to find information on the locations, time periods and variables available through this initiative.
According to the map of available sites
there is only one FLUXNET station in India, located at the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI):
and this site has published data only in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
In order to validate an NPP model, you will probably want to use data from other sites, with much longer time series.
I hope this helps. Cheers, Michel.Following
- Mark Žagar added an answer:10Which GCM result is best for wind resources downscaling in complex rerrain like Nepal?
I am currently doing thesis on "Impact of Climate Change on energy Generation from Wind Resources".
Wind resource estimates in complex terrain require a forcing dataset, and a mesoscale/microscale model for downscaling. A forcing dataset will typically be one of the multi-decade atmospheric reanalyses (NCAR, ERA Interim, etc.) or a similarly long series of operational atmospheric analyses (e.g. publicly available NOAA GFS analyses). All of these can be used to drive a mesoscale model, like WRF, down to a resolution of a few kilometres. Subsequent downscaling can be then performed on limited areas using a CFD model, for example.
In the same way as using past analyses for estimating the wind resources, one can use the climate prediction models to investigate future climate change impact on wind resources in complex terrain. The results will reflect changes in global/regional circulation patterns, but not the local features like forestation, glacier melting, etc., unless these surface characteristics are also being changed in the downscaling model according to the future predictions.
As the previous posters have said, the resolution of the nowadays' regional climate models is perhaps still too low to provide reliable information about future wind resources in complex terrain. This is why I would propose the method described above in the meantime.Following
- Kenneth M Towe added an answer:10Is there any scientific community (even informal) especially dedicated to the climatology of small oceanic islands?
I would greatly appreciate having feedback from scientists/groups specifically dedicated to the climatology of small oceanic islands worldwide (Including issues related with as climate change, water, etc), having information about their work, publications, etc.Following
- Anice Garcia added an answer:15Does anyone know a recent study addressing the spatialisation of temperature/precipitation/drought extreme events for the last 30 years?
Hello, I have been searching for a study addressing climatic extreme events. However I could not find a study covering the last decades (especially from 1980 till now) at a global level. I do not mean I am looking for a a extreme event with a global impact, but the spatial distribution of different extreme events across time.
M.K.V. Sivakumar, R.P. Motha and H. Das (eds.) Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture, Springer, Berlin (2005) 23–37.Following
- Andreas Will added an answer:13Is there any recent regional climate model for Africa?
There are a number of regional climate models for different regions. I am interested to downscale global climate models based on regional climate mode for dynamical downscaling. Any suggestion is appreciated.
Of course, there are many models and a broad band of evaluation results exhibiting a substantial spread.
If you are not familiar with a mesoscale model, I cannot recommend conducting own simulations without an experienced cooperation partner. It's easy to produce numbers which don't describe the nature in an acceptable way.
Using the CORDEX results first is strongly recommended.
You find all models and the reference configuration for Africa on the CORDEX-AFRICA webpage. However, there are several attempts to simulate parts of Africa at higher resolutions by different groups. If you are interested in that, you probably need a non-hydrostatic model system like COSMO-CLM or WRF. E.g. at the CLM-Community webpage you may find a contact person who can answer your detailed questions.
Good Luck, Andreas WillFollowing
- Ji Qing Tan added an answer:6Why do many researchers insist on using the Safir-Simpson hurricane scale to gauge the intensity of a tropical cyclone?
The Safir-Simpson hurricane scale is a classification method to identify the intensity of a tropical cyclone by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Bob (Robert) Simpson, but this method proved to be useless due to its failures to identify the two thirds of the top 156 deadliest hurricanes from 1851 to 1996. I found the overgeneralization problem caused this.
I developed a new classification method to deal with this problem, but many reviewers and editors told me that even though what you said is correct, we still insist on using SSHS, and your paper can't be published at least in the journals of USA due to common people accepting SSHS. I really don't know why this thing could happen in scientific world, any people know the true reason?
one year ago , I found it , and downlaod from the official weasite. But I don't know why they disaperar recently, if you want , I would forward the data which I download one year ago.Following
- Brij Kishor Pandey added an answer:3How do I get the no.of regression parameters /coefficient for GCM models ?
I need the number of parameters of the IPCC AR4 GCM models for evaluation of model performance. Is there any representative equation or no. of parameters available for GCM models ?
Thanks Vishal ...Following
- Vladimir E Kostylev added an answer:2This is a great summary map, used by many. Could you advise on the availability of more recent/high resolution maps of sensitivity to sea level rise?Possibly new storm surge models can be used to generate these.
An excellent assessment of the SLR impacts is published by Withey et al (2015) based on Shaw (1998) work. They estimate that over 2009–2054 period the coastal adaptation to SLR could cost Canada in the range of $53.7 and $108.7 billion in present value GDP.Following
- Farhad Ashkani added an answer:7Does anyone know some native experimental methods for predicting drought?
Due to low rainfall, people in central Iran have some amazing ways.
These methods have been developed over several thousand years and may have a higher accuracy than the current academic methods.
For example, in some days of September and October, they put cotton on their roofs in order to check weight change due to wetting. They use this method to determine whether the current year is going to be dry or wet.
One of the most ingenious methods that Iranians used in past was Kariz or Qanat in order to have fresh water without using any pump or doing any over-extraction.
The other useful methods have been in ancient architecture of Iran. The materials and the methods that they used made their houses cooler in summer and less depended to extra devices to cool them. The cooling system was a part of body of the building.
- Aidan Farrow asked a question:OpenHow can I run GEOS-Chem for 1990 using GEOS-4 data and 2010 using GEOS-5 data so that the output is comparable?
I am running a long time series simulation with GEOS-Chem starting in 1986 and running to the present day. How can I make the simulations directly comparable when some years are forced with GEOS-4, GEOS-5 and current GEOS data? It seems like there is a step change in the emissions input data between GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 (See attached image of global mean NOx from 1986-2010).Following
- Closed account added an answer:6What are the most reliable ways of determining the paleoclimate during the Pennsylvanian (ex Upper Carboniferous) and Permian?
We know that there were great paleoclimatic changes during the Pennsylvanian and Permian. the Pennsylvanian in Euramerica is characterized by great peat (coal) swamps, widespread changes in sea level occurred during the Pennsylvanian, continental glaciation during both periods, and great aridity particularly in the Permian.
I have posted those texts within my profile, so you can reach them also here.
- Kenneth M Towe added an answer:89What are people's opinions of research on anthrogenic Carbon Emissions and their contribution to Global Warming?Specifically how reliable is the science? It seems to me the empirical evidence is nowhere near what is required for cause & effect making this a statistical study of trends and potential causes.Following
- Molulaqhooa Maoyi added an answer:4Does anyone know how to convert the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre Lat Lon to normal Lat and Lon that can be plotted on a map?
The problem I am having is that the lat and lon values are out of range for normal map coordinates i.e -90:90 S/N -180:180 W/S
Example of JTWC Track Data :
SH, 01, 1999121300, , BEST, 0, 124S, 1042E, 50, 0,
Thanks Guys, your comments helped a lot.Following
- Frank Veroustraete added an answer:25How can I detect desertification by remote sensing?Which image product is best suited for this purpose and how can I download that product?
I made a study of desertification in the Xinjiang province (North- Western China) lately, using a multi-temporal series of 50 years Corona and Landsat imagery. The LUCC is enormous over that time lapse in the Xinjiang province. It led to increased desertification in originally natural landscapes. In short, an originally natural landscape with gallery forests along the Tarim river and its tributaries changed into a patchy landscape with irrigated agriculture plots on the one hand and sandy deserts on the other hand. This LUCC had a fundamntal impact on regional hydrology. The Tarim river in the 50 years mentioned retracted by more than 200 km from its original Gobi desert ending. If you want to know more, then read the paper available on ResearchGate:
I think that the Xinjiang province gives a fairly good example of what large scale desertification is all about e.g., humans changing natural landscapes - in equilibrium with regional hydrology - replaced by desert and irrigated cropland (mainly cotton for export to SoutWestern China sweatshops). In fact the original water resources in the new landscape has been focussed on irrigated agriculture and the original natural landscape degraded into sandy desert. Another large scale example exists in Kazakhstan (Aral Sea), not that far Norrth from the Xinjiang province, with the difference that the Aral Sea has almost vanished into pure desert. Al fishing activities in the Aral Sea have stopped and people had to move or die.
- Shahzad Sultan added an answer:3What are the available methods for precipitation estimation in remote areas?
The problem is that I have poor quality of TRMM product of 3B42 v7 of the studied rain storm, which is a rare event. (error value equal to the precipitation rate)
I do have data of 3 'handmade' rain gauges spread over 850 square kilometers. No civil weather RADAR in the study area.
Is it useful to interpolate GPCP data over the area? what about REF 2.0? anybody have an experiance with them?
Dear I have compared CMORPH, TRMM and REF2.0 and it is hard to say which is the best but still CMORPH and TRMM outperform but both of them slightly underestimated rainfall at mid-latitude between 25N to 35N but yet TRMM shows better agreement with in-situ data. I have also read somewhere that REF2.0 is good for tropical areas between 0 to 20N. the problems related to comparison between observed and TRMM has also been highlighted by Caniaux.
I hope it answer your questionFollowing
- Ad Stoffelen added an answer:7Can we calculate the monthly mean rainfall using TRMM data? If so, how?By using TRMM data would we be able to calculate the monthly mean rainfall and annual rainfall? If so, could you explain to me how?
Doing the computation is fine of course, but how to judge the credibility of it is another issue. The spatiotemporal representation is an issue as local rain gauges have a different daily rain PDF than a PDF obtained from daily sums from a few TRMM passes. So, the rain rate PDF may be correct over a typical TRMM pixel, but not validate well with a local rain gauge, e.g., in areas with orography. The daily temporal error due to non-uniform TRMM sampling, as compared to the uniform sampling by a rain gauge will be substantial as well, e.g., daily afternoon rain could be missed by TRMM systematically. An attempt of error analysis is given in: Alemohammad et al., Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2527–2559, 2015
- Mohammad Azmi added an answer:2How can I calculate snow cover anomaly?
I have a time series of daily snow cover area for certain years. How can i calculate daily,monthly and seasonal snow cover anomalies? I want to make histogram of snow cover anomalies vs number of occurrences.
No matter what is your meteor-climatological variable, you can calculate anomalies just by following steps:
•A measure of distance, in standard units, between a data value and its mean.
•Removes influences of location and spread from data.
•Easier to discern normal vs. unusual values.
•Calculated by subtracting the mean from each observation, then dividing by the standard deviation.
•Have the following characteristics: mean=0 and standard deviation=1.
- Mariza Costa-Cabral added an answer:4How does the El Nino/La Nina events affect groundwater?
what happens when groundwater and Climate index is anticorrelated?
Instead of trying to correlate the time series of groundwater storage with climate indices, use the time series of groundwater storage CHANGE. Your original variable (storage) is an integral another time series (storage change). If you use the original variable (storage) you have a highly auto-correlated series (which may violate the conditions for valid application of your methodology). Additionally, why would you expect such an integral time series to co-vary with climate indices? Or are you integrating the indices over time also?Following
- Muhammad Ali added an answer:16How to calculate "Air temperature" from "land surface temperature"?Air temperature from LST (day and night).
Did you get any solution to your query? Any updates on the topic please??Following
- Junzeng Xu added an answer:5Does anyone know how to improve experimental treatments for System of Rice Intensification-SRI?System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is meant to produce more crop per drop of water and at reduced costs hence lower the farmers burden on production.
We strongly recommended you talk it with professor Norman Uphoff in Cornell University.Following
- Iman Rousta added an answer:10If i have mean monthly temp value for 30 lat/long pixels for a region over about 20 years how do i go about calculating SST Climatology for my region?
Can i take average of temperature at each lat/long values for each year for particular month and then calculate average of those 20 yrs values can this be considered as SST climatology for that region
i have monthly sst anomali from 1950-2013 in excel format for latitude 0-90N and longitude 40W to 70E.
I will be happy if i can help you.
- Frederik Schenk added an answer:11How can I calculate climatological significance of trends?
Usually we use Mann-Kendall test for calculate statistical significance of analysed trends. I'm wonder, if exist same method to find out climatological significance.
If somebody finds a formal/official definition of climatological significance it would be nice to get a link to that source.Following
- Anbarah Belal added an answer:6How to measure rainfall rate in mm/hours, is there an easy and cheap method?Rainfall rate to be measured for rain attenuation calculation for hilly profiles?
Actualy, i have a question:
what is the equation i have to use for calculte the annual rainfall rate?Following
- Iinnocent Muhire added an answer:6Can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs for my temperature data?
I have temperature data for 29 yrs, using first 20 yrs as baseline period I have calculated anomaly for the rest 9 years, can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs?
Yeah, it is quite better to continue with the same baseline to evaluate the changes taking place in those other 9 years.Following
Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.