• M. J. Alvarado added an answer:
    How can I get total ozone column data over Bihar, India?

    I want to use to TOC data to study how meteorological parameters affect the concentration of tropospheric ozone in Bihar. 

    M. J. Alvarado · Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

    You can use the NASA Giovanni website to view gridded total ozone column from OMI: see

    And you can subset and download the raw data using Mirador: see

    The page also has links to tools to read the data files. Good luck!

  • Helmut Brandl added an answer:
    Where can I find global database for dust chemical composition?

    I am looking for a global dataset the describe the chemical composition of the desert dust in terms of soil mass or volume fraction or as an absolute mass 

    Thank you very much 

    Helmut Brandl · University of Zurich

    Perhaps this (recent!) reference is of help for you: Philip et al. (2014) Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment. Environmental Science & Technology 48:13060-13068

  • Aníbal Gusso added an answer:
    How to calculate "Air temperature" from "land surface temperature"?
    Air temperature from LST (day and night).
    Aníbal Gusso · Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    Hi Miss Sally,

    In situ measurements for several regions, when temperature is above zero, we can observe that this difference is usually 3oC at night. I mean surface temperature is 3oC below air temperature at the meteorological station (1,5m). However, during the day, surface temperature is higher than air temperature but it depends highgly on latent and sensible heat fluxes. Specially due to surface coverage, i.e. vegetation structure, soil moisture etc.


  • Paola Villegas-Delgado added an answer:
    Where can I find high resolution climate simulations for South America?

    Could some colleagues please suggest a place where I can find high resolution
    climate simulations for South America?

    I'm looking for something with a resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 or better, covering
    southern South America.

    I'm collaborating on a project to update the wind hazard map of Argentina using
    climate simulations. I'd appreciate any tips regarding high resolution climate simulations to complete the project.



    Augusto Sanabria, MSc. Ph.D
    Profesor Visitante
    Facultad de Ingenieria (
    Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE) Resistencia, Argentina

    Paola Villegas-Delgado · Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

    I recomend to read: Pliscoff, P., Luebert, F., Hilger, H. H., & Guisan, A. (2014). Effects of alternative sets of climatic predictors on species distribution models and associated estimates of extinction risk: A test with plants in an arid environment. Ecological Modelling, 288, 166–177.

  • Alex Clay Cushley added an answer:
    Which satellites are used to estimate the wind speed at the ground level?

    Satellites to measure sea surface wind speed can take different data, But for the monitoring of land surface wind speeds.

    Alex Clay Cushley · Royal Military College of Canada

    Some satellites:

    -International Space Station-Rapid Scatterometer, or ISS-RapidScat (
    -RadarSat I (old data) & II
    -Windy (old)

    Altimetry and scatterometry can give  wind speed or other measurements(sea level, sea level anomalies, bathymetry)  from which models can infer wind speed and wave height. For precise estimates, accurate orbit determination of the satellite position and geoid are required. So long as the scale of the roughness is less than the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) and shorter than the radar wavelength then the wind speed may be determined. For a smooth surface, at nadir reflection is strong (facet). As the surface roughens, reflectance becomes more Lambertian which results in an inverse relationship between wind speed and backscatter. See Fresnel reflectance in Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing by Charles Elachi (ISBN 0471475696)

  • Minal Gune added an answer:
    How do you calculate evapotranspiration from rain and ground water data?

    I am estimating groundwater recharge through the chloride mass balance method, particularly seasonal variation of chloride in rain, river and groundwater compartments.

    For estimation I collected discharge and annual rainfall data.

    From these data, is it possible to calculate  evapotranspiration?

    If yes, then please guide me how to calculate.

    Minal Gune · Manipal University

    Thank you sir for your valuable guideline

  • Richard Lasker added an answer:
    How effectively can vertisols be managed in an area with an excessive rate of evapo-transpiration?

    Suggest some examples across the globe.

    Referring to a low rainfall, water stress and higher salinity regime

    Richard Lasker · Brabant Research, Inc.

    Naturally organic matter is critical. However, in saline/sodic soils, acquiring and developing organic matter is very difficult. High heat, salt saturation and water evaporation mineralize organic matter fiber and break down the materials quickly....sometimes within weeks.

    Here is what CSU says:

    Working with saline tolerant crops comes first. It is the #1 option. This might help:

  • G. Caniaux added an answer:
    Where can I access Pacific and Atlantic surface temperature temporal series?
    Temporal series analysis
    G. Caniaux · Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

    Dear Marcello,

    For the equatorial Atlantic basin, I recommend to use the freely accessible dataset at the following adress (Brasilian site):

    We recently published a paper with Jacques Servain (the father of the data set) dedicated to the SST time series trend derived from this product. The series begins in 1964 and so covers a nice 30 year period. (see Servain, J., G. Caniaux, Y.K. Kouadio, M.J. McPhaden, and M. Araujo, 2014: Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic: a role for ocean dynamics? Clim. Dyn., TACE Special Issue, doi 10.1007/s00382-014-2168-7.).

    We analyzed the SST series covering the whole tropical Atlantic basin. In this paper you can also get some  ideas for analyzing the data series. I recently further investigated the trend of the series. If you wish, I can provide you some further details on this anaysis (my email:


  • Guoyu Ren added an answer:
    Does anyone know some native experimental methods for predicting drought?

    Due to low rainfall, people in central Iran have some amazing ways.
    These methods have been developed over several thousand years and may have a higher accuracy than the current academic methods.

    For example, in some days of September and October, they put cotton on their roofs in order to check weight change due to wetting. They use this method to determine whether the current year is going to be dry or wet.

    Guoyu Ren · China Meteorological Administration

    There should be weather and climatic proverbs in India, in addition to China, northern Africa and Iran, I guess.

  • Rosalba Bonaccorsi added an answer:
    Has anyone used a temperature gun to measure maize canopy temperature?

    The canopy temperature of maize growing under Agroforestry trees differs from maize growing in open fields. To deduct the micro climate effect of tree on maize, I have measured light interception by tree temperature canopy, air temperature and other factors. However, would I also want to measure the shade effect on maize performance. Any idea on how?

    Hello Alain,

    I agree with Matthew on using multiple tools for measuring the local temperature and multiple measurements levels.  Furthermore data loggers provide you data for long term  monitoring of your sites.  I have been using weather station temperature sensors but they are costly and not always they can be easy to deploy.  So I have been using miniature sensor T and rH (relative humidity) data loggers called I-buttons. They are very small (1.6cm diameter), can be placed everywhere, are easy to be used (programmed and downloaded) and can last up to 5 years, or more.  Their cost is limited  (~100USD, or less) so you can get many of them for multiple measurements).

    They would be perfect for the application you have in mind. Off course, as for everything else, you would need to verify periodically the values they yield by using calibrated thermometers.

    I hope this helps! Lemme know if you need more info.



  • Craig Dremann added an answer:
    Has anyone added the daily atmospheric dust to computer monsoon models?
    My studies of the interplay between the monsoon moisture and the daily location of the atmospheric dust, indicates that the dust controls the floods and droughts in the region from India to Arabia. Anyone adding the daily atmospheric dust locations to monsoon computer climate models?
    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    To view the battle, where the cyclone HUDHUD lost against the Dust Cloud, go to the Colorado State web page at and watch the foot of the Dust Cloud squash the cyclone like stepping on an egg.

  • Matthew Garcia added an answer:
    MT-CLIM - Mountain Climate Simulator - estimating daily solar radiation - can anyone help?

    I have my base temperature and rainfall handy, downloaded MT-CLIM from site, only to find that the initializing file is not available to run set up. I want to estimate daily incident solar radiation along the altitude gradient. Anyone who has used this successfully in the past? Any input on this particular program's set-up process? Alternatively I am looking for something that can work on windows.

    Matthew Garcia · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    I am not sure why the NASA page makes it so complicated, but if you go to the *actual* project page for MT-CLIM at you can download a zip package (for use on Unix- and DOS-based systems) that contains an example/test (I just confirmed this on my own). To estimates the desired parameters along a gradient, you'll need to run the program repeatedly using the same base location and your specified sites on the transect. 

    One publication in 1989 that is not listed on their own project page is available from the US Forest Service at (pdf) and may be of additional help to you.


  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    How can I fill the missing climatological data?
    I have just worked on the dissertation thesis: "Bioclimatic characteristics of of Focsani city." I get climate data (temperature, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness and wind speed to calculate the bioclimatic indexes) for the period 2000-2012, but I am missing some values of all climatic parameters. For example, I am missing data on temperature and atmospheric pressure in a few months (in 2005 and 2006 - January and February) but data about wind speed.
    Could you offer me more details about the your method work to fill the missing climatological data?
  • Leif Rasmussen added an answer:
    Are Pseudomonas bacteria living on tropical trees creating monsoon rain clouds?

    I have been observing that when monsoon moisture moves over certain tropical forests located in SE Asia or India, rain clouds with very long streaks form.  Has anyone studied if this is caused by Pseudomonas bacteria that live on particular species of tropical trees, and if so which tree species produce the most rain clouds?  Attached is a satellite image from August 2014 showing these particular clouds forming over the forests along the SW coast of India.

    Here are some considerations that may have relevance:

  • Stavros Dafis added an answer:
    Does anyone have a 3D wind profile climatological database for any part of the UK?
    I would be thankful if someone could provide me any data (especially in NETCDF).
    Stavros Dafis · University of Ioannina

    Thank you but I was interested in UK's data.

  • Andrew Kruczkiewicz added an answer:
    How does the El-Nino/ENSO affect the Indian Monsoon?

    El-Nino/ENSO changes the atmospheric condition over the pacific region. But how does that change affect the Indian Monsoon. 

    Andrew Kruczkiewicz · Columbia University

    Dear Deepak, It seems that previous responders have pointed out some valuable information and resources, but I think that it is important to add that the International Research Institute for Climate and Society has recently added new resource for ENSO events. Most notably, there are revamped sections allowing for easier access to products that are useful to monitor El Nino and La Nina events.

    There is also a new section on the history of the El Nino - Southern Oscillation which explains the works of Walker, as well as other contributions of Cane, Zebiak, Ropelewski, Halpert, Wyrtki and Bjerknes.

    Best regards, 


  • How precipitation affect surface temperature and energy balance on surface? Does anyone know a paper which talks about this topic or similar?

    I need a paper related to the effect of precipitation on the surface temperature and the energy balance on surface

    Pavel Feliksovich. Demchenko · Russian Academy of Sciences

    The answer of Guoyu Ren is perfect for direct precipitation influence in warm period. In cold seasons snow produce the effective warming of soil. This is the reason of permafrost in Tibet region - small precipitation.  

  • Jully Ouma added an answer:
    Does anybody have experience with cdo installation to UBUNTU 14.04?
    I would like to use cdo in UBUNTU 14.04. I built and installed the required libraries (zlib-1.2.8, hdf5-1.8.12,grib_api-1.9.18, jasper-1.900.1, netcdf-, cdo-1.6.4rc4) by the following suggestion:
    When I tested cdo by a grib file using cdo sinfo test.grb operator, I got the following message: cdo is not installed. I reviewed the ubuntu software center and I installed cdo.
    So now the cdo 1.6.2+dfsg.1-1 version is installed. I tested it again with the above mentioned operator and the following error message was written:
    Error (gribapiGetGrid): unsupported grid type: lcc
    I do not understand what the problem is? Could someone please tell me what I should to do?
    Jully Ouma · University of Nairobi

    Open terminal and run the command

    sudo apt-get install cdo

  • Isabelle Gouirand added an answer:
    What is the amount of rain defining a rainy day in the Caribbean?
    I want to determine the the number of rainy day per month for the local station in the Caribbean region.
    Isabelle Gouirand · University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados

    Hi Adrian, thanks for your answer and the link provided. Isabelle

  • Guoyu Ren added an answer:
    What set of climate is considered as normal?
    Is it regionally dependent or does it depend on the comfort level of a public at a particular place?
    Guoyu Ren · China Meteorological Administration

    The 30-year normal is recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The latest 30-yr period is 1981-2010. Averages of climatic variables over the period are regarded as normal climate, and any departures from the normal are regarded as anomalies.

  • José Maria Brabo Alves added an answer:
    How can I detect desertification by remote sensing?
    Which image product is best suited for this purpose and how can I download that product?
    José Maria Brabo Alves · Ceará State University

    Today, there are many studies as user remote datas in detection desertification problems (NDVI, climatological indexes, that user precipiation and temperature air in surface, evapotranspiration, etc). Is important knew the environment conditions to associated the climate variability of the indexes.

  • Stefano Casadei added an answer:
    Why Mean flow found more sensitive than the 7-day minimum flow while doing sensitivity analysis?

    I am doing sensitivity analysis on streamflow variables. I changed the precipitation while unchanging watershed temperature. From the analysis it was found that 7-day minimum  flow is less sensitive than the mean flow ( in most of the watershed), however got reverse results for other watersheds( 2 out of 8). 

    Stefano Casadei · Università degli Studi di Perugia

    I am agree with Pooneh and Kenneth, the annual Q7 min is a low flow index. In permanent rivers it could be not influenced by rainfall. Hydrogeological characteristics of the basin regulate the Q7 min value.

    Manciola P., Casadei S. "7-Day 10-Yr low flow relationships for ungauged sites in Central Italy". Proceedings of  the Irrigation & Drainage Sessions at Water Forum '92, American Society of Civil Engineering -ASCE-, Baltimora, August 2-6, 1992 (pp. 250-256). Very old !!! But significant.

  • Tomeu Rigo added an answer:
    Are the LI index and the KI index relevant for diagnosing the stability of the atmosphere in West Sahel?
    I want to use the LI and KI index for analyzing the stability of the atmosphere in West Sahel for a thunderstorm case study.
    Tomeu Rigo · Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya

    Those indexes were developed for an specific area. However, you could try to adapt both to your area analysing a time series and searching for the best thresholds.

    You can find more information in:

  • Ujjwal Saha added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest how to calibrate well SDSM, a statistical downscaling tool?
    In order to detect changes and effects from climate time series data and to project key climate variables for impact studies, we are facing difficulty in calibrating SDSM using regional scale atmospheric predictors of NCEP. Difficulty is very low R^2 value against selected predictors. Any expert in SDSM can help?
    Ujjwal Saha · Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur

    You will always get low R^2 value on daily scale as no model is able to match rainfall occurrence exactly on daily basis. Rather SDSM is able to reproduce the statistics of rainfall very well. My question is to you how you are calculating the R^2 value ? Check other papers what R^2 value they have got.

  • Nainan Varghese added an answer:
    How is the Mpemba effect caused?
    The Mpemba effect, named after Erasto Mpemba, is the observation that, in some circumstances, warmer water can freeze faster than colder water. Although there is evidence of the effect, there is no agreement on exactly what the effect is and under what circumstances it occurs. There have been reports of similar phenomena since ancient times, although with insufficient detail for the claims to be replicated. A number of possible explanations for the effect have been proposed. Further investigations will need to decide on a precise definition of "freezing" and control a vast number of starting parameters in order to confirm or explain the effect (wikipedia).

    Kindly see a small paper at


  • Krzysztof Bartoszek added an answer:
    Can anyone help with interpreting a few synoptic weather charts?
    I would like to know how the air parcel moves during this period and some highlights on factors causing movement.

About Climatology

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.

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