• What is the most accepted criterion to classify positive and negative Indian Ocean Dipole events?

    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is commonly depicted by Dipole Mode Index (DMI). Most of the published research work relay on DMI to define IOD. But there are many disagreements in classification of IOD events among these publications. 

    What are the most accepted criterion of IOD events? Is there any source that provides a list of recent IOD events?

    Sergey Victorovich Simonenko · Russian Academy of Sciences

    Please  use the combination "Sergey V. Simonenko Cosmic Geophysics" in to find my articles of 2014 AD, which consider these problems for the Earth as a whole subjected to the non-stationary cosmic gravitation of the Solaer System/  

  • Sajal Kumar Adhikary added an answer:
    What is the acceptable range for the relation (Range/Active lag distance) for a semivarigram?

    I am studying semivarigram for climatic data, and I would like to have a reference in order to analyse the available models and be able to choose the best one for my data.

    Sajal Kumar Adhikary · Victoria University Melbourne

    Just to add one more point................usually in most of the cases, half of the maximum inter-station distance is enough for active lag distance. In most of the variogram modelling packages such as GS+ use it by default, although you can use the full distance as well. But active lag distance equal to half of the maximum interstation distance is enough and it is mentioned in many materials such as GS+ manual. Alternatively, you can find it in "Practical Geostatistics" by Isobel Clark published in 1979.

    Use this technique and do perform your cross validation, hopefully, you will see the variogram models are perform well with satisfying all cross-validation criteria such as MSE, RMSE, ASE, RMSS. You can find all details of these statistics in ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst extension manual.

  • Martin B. Stolpe added an answer:
    What is the difference between ensemble of RCP?
    I need to use these data of RCP. But, I am not sure which one I should use. The link to data portal is
    Can anyone tell me the difference between these files?
    Martin B. Stolpe · ETH Zurich


    the ensemble names "r1i1p1", "r2i1p1", etc. indicate that the ensemble members differ only in their initial conditions (the model physics are the same for all five ensemble members, but the members were initialized from different initial conditions out of the control simulation). Hence, the differences between the ensemble members represent internal variability.

  • Haridas R. Patel added an answer:
    How does the El-Nino/ENSO affect the Indian Monsoon?

    El-Nino/ENSO changes the atmospheric condition over the pacific region. But how does that change affect the Indian Monsoon. 

    Haridas R. Patel · Anand Agricultural University

    Due to El Nino episode  in any region pressure and wind pattern are changed and these two parameters are very much important for Indian monsoon.

  • Ferdinando Salata added an answer:
    Can anyone advise me on ENVI-met V3.1 (beta) simulations?
    Can I appreciate a change in the PMV if I put a shallow pool (it is constructed by setting only the uppermost grids to "water") in an open area? Or should I use "water" only as a complete column to do this?
    Ferdinando Salata · Sapienza University of Rome

    You can download V4 Preview directly from here:

  • Jiankai Zhang added an answer:
    How can I get total ozone column data over Bihar, India?

    I want to use to TOC data to study how meteorological parameters affect the concentration of tropospheric ozone in Bihar. 

    Jiankai Zhang · Lanzhou University

    If you want to investigate long-term TOC changes, MSR (Multi Sensor Reanalysis) and NIWA assimilated ozone data might be okay.

  • Ji Qing Tan added an answer:
    Who know how to move the new founded error growth mechanism in climate models?

    Recently, I found a new error growth mechanism in climate models due to the incorrectly calculating the concentration of water vapor,carbon dioxide and heat etc under the pre-condition of uniform continuity condition for variables. I have developed an index to identify the non-uniform degree in the fields. But how to move this kind of error remain unknown. Any ideas are welcome to discuss here!


    Ji Qing Tan · Zhejiang University

    Thank Goel for your response.

    In my view, there had been three kinds of error growth mechanism already known to the scientific world.

    one is the error growth mechanism due to incomplete observation data. The error comes from initial data belong to this kind.

    the second is the error growth mechanism due to incorrect scheme of the control equation groups expressing the physical processes in the atmosphere.

    the third is the error growth mechanism due to the nonlinear item in the equation group ,which lead to "chao" phenomena in the numerical study, which is found by Lorenz.

    What I mentioned here is the fouth:

    This kind of error growth mechanism is caused by the strong pre-condition called uniform continuity for all the variables such as geopothential height fields, temperature fields, wind fields, .......etc.

    I have found out this kind of error growth mechanism is popular in our climate models which modellers ignore. I have developed an index which can identify this kind of errors. I also got a funding from China National Natrual Science Fondation. But recently, some leading scientists didn't know this,and refuse to give positive comments on my new discovery when I send a new application for fundings in China. I asked this questions in order to find some people to collaborate with me in order to  continue my study by the funding from your countries.

  • Yu-Kun Qian added an answer:
    Why do many researchers insist on using the Safir-Simpson hurricane scale to gauge the intensity of a tropical cyclone?

    The Safir-Simpson hurricane scale is a classification method to identify the intensity of a tropical cyclone by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Bob (Robert) Simpson, but this method proved to be useless due to its failures to identify the two thirds of the top 156 deadliest hurricanes from 1851 to 1996. I found the overgeneralization problem caused this.

    I developed a new classification method to deal with this problem, but many reviewers and editors told me that even though what you said is correct, we still insist on using SSHS, and your paper can't be published at least in the journals of USA due to common people accepting SSHS. I really don't know why this thing could happen in scientific world, any people know the true reason?

    Yu-Kun Qian · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Stronger TCs usually have stronger winds but do not always have stronger damage to human and vice versa.  Your method might be suitable for the impact of weather on human society, but not suitable for pure meteorology itself.  You may find some suitable journal for your paper such as Natural Hazards.

  • Craig Dremann added an answer:
    Are Pseudomonas bacteria living on tropical trees creating monsoon rain clouds?

    I have been observing that when monsoon moisture moves over certain tropical forests located in SE Asia or India, rain clouds with very long streaks form.  Has anyone studied if this is caused by Pseudomonas bacteria that live on particular species of tropical trees, and if so which tree species produce the most rain clouds?  Attached is a satellite image from August 2014 showing these particular clouds forming over the forests along the SW coast of India.

    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    Thanks for your reply.  An image like the one that I have posted above, could be a clue to narrow down the areas where the Pseudomonas hosts are most common?  I use to gather the cloud images.

  • Mohamed M Abdelkader added an answer:
    Where can I find global database for dust chemical composition?

    I am looking for a global dataset the describe the chemical composition of the desert dust in terms of soil mass or volume fraction or as an absolute mass 

    Thank you very much 

    Mohamed M Abdelkader · The Cyprus Institute

    Thank you very much Dr. Helmut and Dr. György

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer:
    Could anyone provide references for continentality indexes interpretation?
    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    Hi Jalal Shiri, Here are few references may be useful to you. regards

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer:
    Interlinkages between continentality and aridity indexes?
    Can anyone help with ideas to explain the interlinkage(s) between continentality indexes and aridity index?
    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    Hi my dear Jalal Shiri, Following links may be useful for you. Regards

  • Aníbal Gusso added an answer:
    How to calculate "Air temperature" from "land surface temperature"?
    Air temperature from LST (day and night).
    Aníbal Gusso · Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    Hi Miss Sally,

    In situ measurements for several regions, when temperature is above zero, we can observe that this difference is usually 3oC at night. I mean surface temperature is 3oC below air temperature at the meteorological station (1,5m). However, during the day, surface temperature is higher than air temperature but it depends highgly on latent and sensible heat fluxes. Specially due to surface coverage, i.e. vegetation structure, soil moisture etc.


  • Paola Villegas-Delgado added an answer:
    Where can I find high resolution climate simulations for South America?

    Could some colleagues please suggest a place where I can find high resolution
    climate simulations for South America?

    I'm looking for something with a resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 or better, covering
    southern South America.

    I'm collaborating on a project to update the wind hazard map of Argentina using
    climate simulations. I'd appreciate any tips regarding high resolution climate simulations to complete the project.



    Augusto Sanabria, MSc. Ph.D
    Profesor Visitante
    Facultad de Ingenieria (
    Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE) Resistencia, Argentina

    Paola Villegas-Delgado · Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

    I recomend to read: Pliscoff, P., Luebert, F., Hilger, H. H., & Guisan, A. (2014). Effects of alternative sets of climatic predictors on species distribution models and associated estimates of extinction risk: A test with plants in an arid environment. Ecological Modelling, 288, 166–177.

  • Alex Clay Cushley added an answer:
    Which satellites are used to estimate the wind speed at the ground level?

    Satellites to measure sea surface wind speed can take different data, But for the monitoring of land surface wind speeds.

    Alex Clay Cushley · Royal Military College of Canada

    Some satellites:

    -International Space Station-Rapid Scatterometer, or ISS-RapidScat (
    -RadarSat I (old data) & II
    -Windy (old)

    Altimetry and scatterometry can give  wind speed or other measurements(sea level, sea level anomalies, bathymetry)  from which models can infer wind speed and wave height. For precise estimates, accurate orbit determination of the satellite position and geoid are required. So long as the scale of the roughness is less than the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) and shorter than the radar wavelength then the wind speed may be determined. For a smooth surface, at nadir reflection is strong (facet). As the surface roughens, reflectance becomes more Lambertian which results in an inverse relationship between wind speed and backscatter. See Fresnel reflectance in Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing by Charles Elachi (ISBN 0471475696)

  • Minal Gune added an answer:
    How do you calculate evapotranspiration from rain and ground water data?

    I am estimating groundwater recharge through the chloride mass balance method, particularly seasonal variation of chloride in rain, river and groundwater compartments.

    For estimation I collected discharge and annual rainfall data.

    From these data, is it possible to calculate  evapotranspiration?

    If yes, then please guide me how to calculate.

    Minal Gune · Manipal University

    Thank you sir for your valuable guideline

  • Richard Lasker added an answer:
    How effectively can vertisols be managed in an area with an excessive rate of evapo-transpiration?

    Suggest some examples across the globe.

    Referring to a low rainfall, water stress and higher salinity regime

    Richard Lasker · Brabant Research, Inc.

    Naturally organic matter is critical. However, in saline/sodic soils, acquiring and developing organic matter is very difficult. High heat, salt saturation and water evaporation mineralize organic matter fiber and break down the materials quickly....sometimes within weeks.

    Here is what CSU says:

    Working with saline tolerant crops comes first. It is the #1 option. This might help:

  • G. Caniaux added an answer:
    Where can I access Pacific and Atlantic surface temperature temporal series?
    Temporal series analysis
    G. Caniaux · Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

    Dear Marcello,

    For the equatorial Atlantic basin, I recommend to use the freely accessible dataset at the following adress (Brasilian site):

    We recently published a paper with Jacques Servain (the father of the data set) dedicated to the SST time series trend derived from this product. The series begins in 1964 and so covers a nice 30 year period. (see Servain, J., G. Caniaux, Y.K. Kouadio, M.J. McPhaden, and M. Araujo, 2014: Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic: a role for ocean dynamics? Clim. Dyn., TACE Special Issue, doi 10.1007/s00382-014-2168-7.).

    We analyzed the SST series covering the whole tropical Atlantic basin. In this paper you can also get some  ideas for analyzing the data series. I recently further investigated the trend of the series. If you wish, I can provide you some further details on this anaysis (my email:


  • Guoyu Ren added an answer:
    Does anyone know some native experimental methods for predicting drought?

    Due to low rainfall, people in central Iran have some amazing ways.
    These methods have been developed over several thousand years and may have a higher accuracy than the current academic methods.

    For example, in some days of September and October, they put cotton on their roofs in order to check weight change due to wetting. They use this method to determine whether the current year is going to be dry or wet.

    Guoyu Ren · China Meteorological Administration

    There should be weather and climatic proverbs in India, in addition to China, northern Africa and Iran, I guess.

  • Rosalba Bonaccorsi added an answer:
    Has anyone used a temperature gun to measure maize canopy temperature?

    The canopy temperature of maize growing under Agroforestry trees differs from maize growing in open fields. To deduct the micro climate effect of tree on maize, I have measured light interception by tree temperature canopy, air temperature and other factors. However, would I also want to measure the shade effect on maize performance. Any idea on how?

    Hello Alain,

    I agree with Matthew on using multiple tools for measuring the local temperature and multiple measurements levels.  Furthermore data loggers provide you data for long term  monitoring of your sites.  I have been using weather station temperature sensors but they are costly and not always they can be easy to deploy.  So I have been using miniature sensor T and rH (relative humidity) data loggers called I-buttons. They are very small (1.6cm diameter), can be placed everywhere, are easy to be used (programmed and downloaded) and can last up to 5 years, or more.  Their cost is limited  (~100USD, or less) so you can get many of them for multiple measurements).

    They would be perfect for the application you have in mind. Off course, as for everything else, you would need to verify periodically the values they yield by using calibrated thermometers.

    I hope this helps! Lemme know if you need more info.



  • Craig Dremann added an answer:
    Has anyone added the daily atmospheric dust to computer monsoon models?
    My studies of the interplay between the monsoon moisture and the daily location of the atmospheric dust, indicates that the dust controls the floods and droughts in the region from India to Arabia. Anyone adding the daily atmospheric dust locations to monsoon computer climate models?
    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    To view the battle, where the cyclone HUDHUD lost against the Dust Cloud, go to the Colorado State web page at and watch the foot of the Dust Cloud squash the cyclone like stepping on an egg.

  • Matthew Garcia added an answer:
    MT-CLIM - Mountain Climate Simulator - estimating daily solar radiation - can anyone help?

    I have my base temperature and rainfall handy, downloaded MT-CLIM from site, only to find that the initializing file is not available to run set up. I want to estimate daily incident solar radiation along the altitude gradient. Anyone who has used this successfully in the past? Any input on this particular program's set-up process? Alternatively I am looking for something that can work on windows.

    Matthew Garcia · University of Wisconsin–Madison


    I am not sure why the NASA page makes it so complicated, but if you go to the *actual* project page for MT-CLIM at you can download a zip package (for use on Unix- and DOS-based systems) that contains an example/test (I just confirmed this on my own). To estimates the desired parameters along a gradient, you'll need to run the program repeatedly using the same base location and your specified sites on the transect. 

    One publication in 1989 that is not listed on their own project page is available from the US Forest Service at (pdf) and may be of additional help to you.


  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    How can I fill the missing climatological data?
    I have just worked on the dissertation thesis: "Bioclimatic characteristics of of Focsani city." I get climate data (temperature, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness and wind speed to calculate the bioclimatic indexes) for the period 2000-2012, but I am missing some values of all climatic parameters. For example, I am missing data on temperature and atmospheric pressure in a few months (in 2005 and 2006 - January and February) but data about wind speed.
    Could you offer me more details about the your method work to fill the missing climatological data?
  • Stavros Dafis added an answer:
    Does anyone have a 3D wind profile climatological database for any part of the UK?
    I would be thankful if someone could provide me any data (especially in NETCDF).
    Stavros Dafis · University of Ioannina

    Thank you but I was interested in UK's data.

  • How precipitation affect surface temperature and energy balance on surface? Does anyone know a paper which talks about this topic or similar?

    I need a paper related to the effect of precipitation on the surface temperature and the energy balance on surface

    Pavel Feliksovich. Demchenko · Russian Academy of Sciences

    The answer of Guoyu Ren is perfect for direct precipitation influence in warm period. In cold seasons snow produce the effective warming of soil. This is the reason of permafrost in Tibet region - small precipitation.  

  • Jully Ouma added an answer:
    Does anybody have experience with cdo installation to UBUNTU 14.04?
    I would like to use cdo in UBUNTU 14.04. I built and installed the required libraries (zlib-1.2.8, hdf5-1.8.12,grib_api-1.9.18, jasper-1.900.1, netcdf-, cdo-1.6.4rc4) by the following suggestion:
    When I tested cdo by a grib file using cdo sinfo test.grb operator, I got the following message: cdo is not installed. I reviewed the ubuntu software center and I installed cdo.
    So now the cdo 1.6.2+dfsg.1-1 version is installed. I tested it again with the above mentioned operator and the following error message was written:
    Error (gribapiGetGrid): unsupported grid type: lcc
    I do not understand what the problem is? Could someone please tell me what I should to do?
    Jully Ouma · University of Nairobi

    Open terminal and run the command

    sudo apt-get install cdo

  • Isabelle Gouirand added an answer:
    What is the amount of rain defining a rainy day in the Caribbean?
    I want to determine the the number of rainy day per month for the local station in the Caribbean region.
    Isabelle Gouirand · University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados

    Hi Adrian, thanks for your answer and the link provided. Isabelle

  • Guoyu Ren added an answer:
    What set of climate is considered as normal?
    Is it regionally dependent or does it depend on the comfort level of a public at a particular place?
    Guoyu Ren · China Meteorological Administration

    The 30-year normal is recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The latest 30-yr period is 1981-2010. Averages of climatic variables over the period are regarded as normal climate, and any departures from the normal are regarded as anomalies.

About Climatology

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.

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