• Aidan Farrow asked a question:
    How can I run GEOS-Chem for 1990 using GEOS-4 data and 2010 using GEOS-5 data so that the output is comparable?

    I am running a long time series simulation with GEOS-Chem starting in 1986 and running to the present day. How can I make the simulations directly comparable when some years are forced with GEOS-4, GEOS-5 and current GEOS data? It seems like there is a step change in the emissions input data between GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 (See attached image of global mean NOx from 1986-2010).

  • Peter Jakubowski added an answer:
    What are the most reliable ways of determining the paleoclimate during the Pennsylvanian (ex Upper Carboniferous) and Permian?

    We know that there were great paleoclimatic changes during the Pennsylvanian and Permian. the Pennsylvanian in Euramerica is characterized by great peat (coal) swamps, widespread changes in sea level occurred during the Pennsylvanian, continental glaciation during both periods, and great aridity particularly in the Permian.

    Peter Jakubowski

    Dear Paul,

    I have posted those texts within my profile, so you can reach them also here.


  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    What are people's opinions of research on anthrogenic Carbon Emissions and their contribution to Global Warming?
    Specifically how reliable is the science? It seems to me the empirical evidence is nowhere near what is required for cause & effect making this a statistical study of trends and potential causes.
  • Massimiliano Pasqui added an answer:
    Is there any recent regional climate model for Africa?

    There are a number of regional climate models for different regions. I am interested to downscale global climate models based on regional climate mode for dynamical downscaling. Any suggestion is appreciated.

    Massimiliano Pasqui · National Research Council

    I found a very effective Data Portal:

    IS-ENES climate4impact

    you need a full CORDEX ESGF Account, but then the Portal is quite simple to select and download Cordex Africa simulations. 

    All the best,


  • Molulaqhooa Maoyi added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to convert the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre Lat Lon to normal Lat and Lon that can be plotted on a map?

    The problem I am having is that the lat and lon values are out of range for normal map coordinates i.e -90:90 S/N   -180:180 W/S

    Example of JTWC Track Data :

    SH, 01, 1999121300, , BEST, 0, 124S, 1042E, 50, 0,

    Molulaqhooa Maoyi · University of Cape Town

    Thanks Guys, your comments helped a lot.

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Does anyone know a recent study addressing the spatialisation of temperature/precipitation/drought extreme events for the last 30 years?

    Hello, I have been searching for a study addressing climatic extreme events. However I could not find a study covering the last decades (especially from 1980 till now) at a global level. I do not mean I am looking for a a extreme event with a global impact, but the spatial distribution of different extreme events across time.


  • Frank Veroustraete added an answer:
    How can I detect desertification by remote sensing?
    Which image product is best suited for this purpose and how can I download that product?
    Frank Veroustraete · University of Antwerp

    Hi Behrooz,

    I made a study of desertification in the Xinjiang province (North- Western China) lately, using a  multi-temporal series of 50 years Corona and Landsat imagery. The LUCC is enormous over that time lapse in the Xinjiang province. It led to increased desertification in originally natural landscapes. In short, an originally natural landscape  with gallery forests along the Tarim river and its tributaries changed into a patchy landscape with irrigated agriculture plots on the one hand and sandy deserts on the other hand. This LUCC had a fundamntal impact on regional hydrology. The Tarim river in the 50 years mentioned retracted by more than 200 km from its original Gobi desert ending.  If you want to know more, then read the paper available on ResearchGate:

    I think that the Xinjiang province gives a fairly good example of what large scale desertification is all about e.g., humans changing natural landscapes - in equilibrium with regional hydrology - replaced by desert and irrigated cropland (mainly cotton for export to SoutWestern China sweatshops). In fact the original water resources in the new landscape has been focussed on irrigated agriculture and the original natural landscape  degraded into sandy desert. Another large scale example exists in Kazakhstan (Aral Sea), not that far Norrth from the Xinjiang province, with the difference that the Aral Sea has almost vanished into pure desert. Al fishing activities in the Aral Sea have stopped and people had to move or die.



  • Shahzad Sultan added an answer:
    What are the available methods for precipitation estimation in remote areas?

    The problem is that I have poor quality of TRMM product of 3B42 v7 of the studied rain storm, which is a rare event. (error value equal to the precipitation rate)

    I do have data of 3 'handmade' rain gauges spread over 850 square kilometers. No civil weather RADAR in the study area.

    Is it useful to interpolate GPCP data over the area? what about REF 2.0? anybody have an experiance with them?

    Shahzad Sultan · The Chinese University of Hong Kong

    Dear I have compared CMORPH, TRMM and REF2.0 and it is hard to say which is the best but still CMORPH and TRMM outperform but both of them slightly underestimated rainfall at mid-latitude between 25N to 35N but yet TRMM shows better agreement with in-situ data. I have also read somewhere that REF2.0 is good for tropical areas between 0 to 20N. the problems related to comparison between observed and TRMM has also been highlighted by Caniaux.

    I hope it answer your question

  • Ad Stoffelen added an answer:
    Can we calculate the monthly mean rainfall using TRMM data? If so, how?
    By using TRMM data would we be able to calculate the monthly mean rainfall and annual rainfall? If so, could you explain to me how?
    Ad Stoffelen · Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut

    Doing the computation is fine of course, but how to judge the credibility of it is another issue. The spatiotemporal representation is an issue as local rain gauges have a different daily rain PDF than a PDF obtained from daily sums from a few TRMM passes. So, the rain rate PDF may be correct over a typical TRMM pixel, but not validate well with a local rain gauge, e.g., in areas with orography. The daily temporal error due to non-uniform TRMM sampling, as compared to the uniform sampling by a rain  gauge will be substantial as well, e.g., daily afternoon rain could be missed by TRMM systematically. An attempt of error analysis is given in: Alemohammad et al., Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2527–2559, 2015

  • Mohammad Azmi added an answer:
    How can I calculate snow cover anomaly?

    I have a time series of daily snow cover area for certain years. How can i calculate daily,monthly and seasonal snow cover anomalies? I want to make histogram of snow cover anomalies vs number of occurrences.

    Mohammad Azmi · Monash University (Australia)

    No matter what is your meteor-climatological variable, you can calculate anomalies just by following steps:

    •A measure of distance, in standard units, between a data value and its mean.
    •Removes influences of location and spread from data.
    •Easier to discern normal vs. unusual values.
    •Calculated by subtracting the mean from each observation, then dividing by the standard deviation.
    •Have the following characteristics: mean=0 and standard deviation=1.

  • Mariza Costa-Cabral added an answer:
    How does the El Nino/La Nina events affect groundwater?

    what happens when groundwater and Climate index is anticorrelated?

    Mariza Costa-Cabral · Northwest Hydraulic Consultants

    Instead of trying to correlate the time series of groundwater storage with climate indices, use the time series of groundwater storage CHANGE.  Your original variable (storage) is an integral another time series (storage change).  If you use the original variable (storage) you have a highly auto-correlated series (which may violate the conditions for valid application of your methodology).  Additionally, why would you expect such an integral time series to co-vary with climate indices?  Or are you integrating the indices over time also?

  • Muhammad Ali added an answer:
    How to calculate "Air temperature" from "land surface temperature"?
    Air temperature from LST (day and night).
    Muhammad Ali · Forschungszentrum Jülich

    Hi Sally,

    Did you get any solution to your query? Any updates on the topic please??

  • Junzeng Xu added an answer:
    Does anyone know how to improve experimental treatments for System of Rice Intensification-SRI?
    System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is meant to produce more crop per drop of water and at reduced costs hence lower the farmers burden on production.
    Junzeng Xu · Hohai University

    We strongly recommended you talk it with professor Norman Uphoff in Cornell University.

  • Iman Rousta added an answer:
    If i have mean monthly temp value for 30 lat/long pixels for a region over about 20 years how do i go about calculating SST Climatology for my region?

    Can i take average of temperature at each lat/long values for each year for particular month and then calculate average of those  20 yrs values can this be considered as SST climatology for that region

    Iman Rousta · University of Tehran

    Dear Deepthi

    i have monthly sst anomali from 1950-2013 in excel format for latitude 0-90N and longitude 40W to 70E.

    I will be happy if i can help you.


  • Frederik Schenk added an answer:
    How can I calculate climatological significance of trends?

    Usually we use Mann-Kendall test for calculate statistical significance of analysed trends. I'm wonder, if exist same method to find out climatological significance.

    Frederik Schenk · KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    If somebody finds a formal/official definition of climatological significance it would be nice to get a link to that source.

  • Nafaa Shebani added an answer:
    How to measure rainfall rate in mm/hours, is there an easy and cheap method?
    Rainfall rate to be measured for rain attenuation calculation for hilly profiles?
    Nafaa Shebani · University of Zawia

    Good information

    Thanks for all

  • Iinnocent Muhire added an answer:
    Can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs for my temperature data?

    I have temperature data for 29 yrs, using first 20 yrs as baseline period I have calculated anomaly for the rest 9 years, can I use the same baseline value for the first 20 yrs?

    Iinnocent Muhire · University of Rwanda

    Yeah, it is quite better to continue with the same baseline to evaluate the changes taking place in those other  9 years.

  • Philippe Keckhut added an answer:
    Was the Sudden Stratospheric Warming event of December 2012 the main cause for March 2013 anomalous weather over the North Atlantic Ocean?
    An unprecedented negative anomaly in the sea level pressure field over the North Atlantic Ocean was found last March in the NCEP/NCAR operational data, some months before a major SSW was also found.

    Are these two events related ?
    Philippe Keckhut · Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin

    We found some connections between Major SSW occurences and temperature at surface in south of France (, and still this winter shows 16 days fluctuations in relation between ground and the stratospheric behavior (

    However, I agree with previous comments the challenge consists in understanding the causality; maybe quite complex.

  • Lucian Sfîcă added an answer:
    Where could I find daily data for Scandinavian Pattern and West Atlantic/East Russia indexes?

    From here I could get only monthly data:

    Lucian Sfîcă · Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza

    Thank you very much Laurent!

  • Anastasia Yanchilina added an answer:
    What is the most agreed on calendar date of the onset and end of the Heinrich 1 event and reference?

    I am looking for the most agreed on date (onset and end) of the Heinrich 1 event, have read many papers and many give different ages. 

    Anastasia Yanchilina · Lamont - Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University

    Thank you! It is very interesting.  My work is currently on the European side of things and it seems there is prior evidence that deglaciation of Europe may have started before that of North America (in the form of the Heinrich event).  

  • Ansar Khan added an answer:
    Where do I find research studies that apply (and critique) CPC's Seasonal Climate Forecasts in agriculture?

    For a literature review on advances in long-range forecasting for agriculture, I am looking for research studies that applied and critiqued seasonal climate forecasts from the US Climate Prediction Center (CPC). Can anyone help? Publications should ideally (but not necessarily) come from Agriculture? I appreciate your comments!

    Ansar Khan · Vidyasagar University


    You can find your solution from here-under link:

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    How can I get total ozone column data over Bihar, India?

    I want to use to TOC data to study how meteorological parameters affect the concentration of tropospheric ozone in Bihar. 

  • Sandra Schwegmann added an answer:
    Where can I download data "ice thickness" (observed or reanalysis)?

    I am working with models of intermediate complexity and want to compare the climatology of the results of "ice thickness" with some reanalysis or observed data.

    Sandra Schwegmann · Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (select Meereisdicke)

    Here you can find sea ice thickness data for the Arctic, out of CryoSat-2 elevation measurements.

  • Paul C. Lyons added an answer:
    Does anyone know if the Pennsylvanian fossil-plant Annularia asteris Bell extends either below or above the Duckmantian?
    In the Pennsylvanian of Atlantic Maritime Canada this species has a restricted range. I am wondering if this species is a good index fossil.
    Paul C. Lyons · United States Geological Survey (retired)

    Thank you Sysfrizal for your answer, which does  not  essentially answer the question.However, it is very instructive so I am voting you heads up on your response.

  • D. Singh added an answer:
    What value of Heidke Skill Score is practically good for categorical precipitation forecast? And what is the same for avalanche forecast?

    my values vary form .15 to .45 for different stations over Himalaya......

    D. Singh · SASE a skill score relative to random forecast. A valuev above .3 can be said relatively good score for sample of reasonable size for binary forecast. I am not aware that any one has reported HSS greater than .5 for reasonable sample size for binary forecasts when predicted event is rare like precipitation days vs no precipitation days in the Himalaya during winter. Climatological event probability can also be taken as reference for hss

  • Craig Dremann added an answer:
    Who know how to move the new founded error growth mechanism in climate models?

    Recently, I found a new error growth mechanism in climate models due to the incorrectly calculating the concentration of water vapor,carbon dioxide and heat etc under the pre-condition of uniform continuity condition for variables. I have developed an index to identify the non-uniform degree in the fields. But how to move this kind of error remain unknown. Any ideas are welcome to discuss here!


    Craig Dremann · The Reveg Edge

    I love all of your questions, and want to add a very important factor that I do not think has been included in many climate models so far, especially regarding predictions of monsoon flooding and droughts--atmospheric dust, especially the Pakistan-Arabia Dust Cloud.  Not including its effect can potentially cause a huge error in any climate model. 

  • Marcel Severijnen added an answer:
    How can one download a time series of a certain variable (say, Net Longwave Radiaition) from GLDAS repository ?

    I need to download meteorological forcing data from GLDAS ( However, I could not find any option to download a time series. While subsetting the 3-hourly data (Noah V2.7) for my study area for one year time period, I am getting some 2920 files, each file contains 3-hourly averaged data i.e., one value for each parameter. Having these many file makes it very difficult to prepare a time series.

    Is there any way to download a time series ?

    Marcel Severijnen · Province of Limburg - Netherlands

    Hi Deepak,

    There might be another way to access the desired data. Starting at the link you gave, switch to the Giovanni column and choose your file. Then, zoom in for the region you choose or fill in the coordinates of the area to be studied. Keep it a bit small, otherwise the server will take a lot of calculating time in the preprocessor. Make the choice for your parameter and select time series under "Select Visualisation". After processing you get a graph, but the data can be downloaded too. You can download the data as batch in HDF, CDF or ASC format. Even if you select one parameter, the files can be large still. 

About Climatology

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.

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