Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering

  • Edward Hugh Owens added an answer:
    How do you perform modeling in simapro for a LCA analysis of water tanks?
    Any related papers to assist me in modeling.
    Edward Hugh Owens · Heriot-Watt University

    This paper may help you as it is application of Simapro7 to a water treatment works. 

    Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, 2014,p55-68
    ISSN: 1792-9040 (print), 1792-9660 (online)

  • Sobhi Nasir added an answer:
    How can humans prevent a Tsunami?

    Tsunami occurs usually after major earthquakes or large landslides within the ocean. Waves will take some time to reach the coasts. Maybe it could be possible for if there was a human-made anti-Tsunami with a force or wave propagation in the opposite direction which could absorb the force of the opposite wave (destructive wave interferences).

    Sobhi Nasir · Sultan Qaboos University

    Thanks Steven for the valuable information

  • S. Abd.El.Aleem added an answer:
    What is the effect of water cement ratio on fresh density of concrete?

    Fresh concrete density and water cement ratio

    S. Abd.El.Aleem · Fayoum University

    Thank you so much for this interesting comment.

  • Khandker S. Ishtiaq added an answer:
    How do i optimize hydro-dam operating parameters using Laplace transform?

    This a new project am working on really don't know how to go about it. Require step by step guidance since the system is dependent on head, flow rate and turbine efficiency.

    Khandker S. Ishtiaq · Florida International University

    I am not very clear about your question, my apologies. Is the dam already built or  you designing the operation system? If you are designing the operating system, you can use MIKE 11 for such optimization.

  • Marcelo Pitanga added an answer:
    Which constitutive model is most appropriate for analysis of the interface between concrete and wall on masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames?
    I am using DIANA and the program has some constitutive models like friction and crush-shear-crack. The last one has a lot of input to feed the model. I have read many papers about it but I am not sure yet. Could someone help me which model to choose and how do I get the input parameters to provide the DIANA?
    Marcelo Pitanga · Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE)

    thanks Basheer for answered my question. yes, Indeed at  DIANA user´s manual has an example there. but i want to model the especific interface between concrete and masonry on infilled frames. I´m trying the mohr-colomb friction model. It´s dificult to find on Literature the inelastic properties about this interface. I looked the Lourenço work and I´m not satisfected. I will try your work on ABAQUS.

  • Ying Li added an answer:
    How can we find the natural frequencies of truss? Which theories are generally used by published results?

    Dear all,

    I want to initiate dynamic analysis of truss structure to optimize its weight. Kindly get problem definition as attachment.

    I considered 10 bar trust of size optimization problem to check & compare results of my program with dynamic constraint.

    Considered Area=[35.944 15.530 35.285 15.385 0.648 4.583 23.610 23.599 13.135 12.357];% in cm2 % % Democratic PSO 2014, A. Kaveh & A. Zolghadr

    E=6.89e10 N/m2
    ρ=2770 kg/m3
    Added mass at each node = 454 Kg
    Constraints w1≥7 w2≥15 w3≥20

    I have coded this problem in MATLAB by using all three theories of dynamic constraint, yet I am not getting exact natural frequencies but getting nearer answer. kindly note all other answers are same except natural frequencies.

    For more detail kindly see attachment

    Ying Li · Princeton University

    Ansys software can do it easily.

  • Maria Giovanna Masciotta added an answer:
    How much can the estimation of the statistical measures of nodal response processes help a damage investigation procedure?

    Dealing with a series of nodal response processes for damage identification purposes, I wonder if the estimation of statistical measures (i.e. RMS) may be useful to detect and localize the damage and/or help to reduce somehow the noise present in the data. 

    Maria Giovanna Masciotta · University of Minho

    Presently I'm dealing with the data coming from an experimental campaign carried out on a masonry arch replica (1.50 m of span) subjected to statically increasing loading. The dynamic response was measured by both accelerometers and strain gauges. The sensors were evenly distributed along the edges and the middle line (11 points per line). Ambient and random impact excitations were used as inputs. The structure had a nonlinear behavior when damaging. 

    I understand the importance of each specific case, but I wonder if the estimation of the statistical measures mentioned above can help the damage investigation procedure regardless of the type of structure. 

  • Jacques Berthellemy added an answer:
    How to find the natural frequencies of truss?

    I want to initiate dynamic analysis of truss structure to optimize its weight. Initial reading explore that it need natural frequencies. But I could not found how to get it. Could you please suggest or if possible share related materials?

    Jacques Berthellemy · Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement durable, des Transports et du Logement

    I suggest you to use Code_Aster, THE free finite element software. It is very efficient for this problem.

    You can download it there :

  • Tình Phú Phạm added an answer:
    What is the best open-source FEM software for geotechnical/geomechanical applications?
    I am looking for software that could be used in academic research, e.g. development constitutive laws and analysis of large 3D BVP specific for geoengineering.
    Tình Phú Phạm · Hanoi Architectural University

    pls try Code-Aster

  • Ashika Pramlal added an answer:
    How to bring innovations into UG course students projects?

    UG civil engineering course students are required to undertake a project work which involves field work, survey, industrial interaction, design, use of smart materials, solid waste management etc

    Ashika Pramlal · University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Give students an opportunity to work as team and build something to benefit their community

  • Ahmed Adam added an answer:
    How can I make a cyclical (harmonic) analysis in ansys for a beam in structural analysis?
    See above
    Ahmed Adam · Blue Nile University

    Hi you need to divide your load and apply like load step file, you can apply like displacement or load (same result) such as in this code below i divid displacement 5 load step

  • Amaechi J. Anyaegbunam added an answer:
    Can anyone explain to me the governing equations of motion for vibration of reinforced concrete beams?
    Can we use the Euler and Timoshenko theories for concrete structures?
    Amaechi J. Anyaegbunam · University of Nigeria

    The Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko vibration models can be applied to the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam. However, a RC beam has a continuously varying EI depending on (1) the reinforcement percentage 100As/bd (2) on whether the section is uncracked or cracked, (3) and the neutral axis depth. The neutral axis depth depends on the bending moment acting on a section, and a section becomes cracked when the extreme concrete tensile strain exceeds the tensile strength of concrete. Thus, the treatment of cracks in RC beams is very different from the treatment of cracks in homogeneous materials like steel and plastic and nearly homogeneous materials like timber. In beams of the homogeneous materials cracks are usually modelled by rotational springs but that is not the way for handling cracks in RC beams. Even though a RC beam has cracked in the tension zone the steel bars still provide continuity. Thus you need to compute the EI = EcI at each concrete section based on elastic behaviour of RC sections using modular ratio theory accounting for all the characteristics I mentioned previously.
    You need to develop a formula for the limiting B.M. below which a RC beam remains uncracked. The formulas I will present will apply to singly reinforced RC beam of width b and height h and effective depth d..
    UNCRACKED SECTION: The neutral axis depth is given by x = (h+2αrd)/[2(1 + αr)] where r = As/bh, α = Es/Ec. Section is uncracked if M < Mlim where
    Mlim = fctlim[αAs(d-x)(d-x/3)/(h-x) +bh(h-x)/3] and fctlim = limiting tensile strength of concrete. The rigidity of the uncracked section is EcI = (Ecb/3)[x3 + (h-x)3] +EsAs(d-x)2

    CRACKED SECTION: The section is considered cracked if M> Mlim
      x = d[ -αρ + (α2ρ2+ 2αρ)1/2] where ρ = As/bd
    EcI = Ecbx3/3 + EsAs(d-x)2
    The maximum concrete compressive stress in the cracked section is fcc = 2M/[bx(d-x/3)]
    The section is considered linearly elastic if fcc ≤ 2fcu/3. If fcc > 2fcu/3 the concrete stress-strain relation becomes nonlinear (approximately parabolic) and another expression for EcI need to be developed. All undefined symbols have their usual meanings

  • Arash Sadr added an answer:
    I want to add a pulse in a non-pulse like ground motion. What should I do?

    Generating pulse

    Arash Sadr · Mohaghegh Ardabili University

    Tax a lot. It really help me. if you found any article relating to this subject  please inform me.

  • Haider Al-Ani added an answer:
    Anyone know how I can model a cracking of concrete to reinforce concrete modelling?

    I want to model between reinforcing bar and concrete in ANSYS workbench.

  • Thomas Böhm added an answer:
    Is it possible to use ROC-curves in order to compare two NDT methods and get reliable results?

    In this sense ROC stands for "Relative Operating Characteristic". The question is focused on experiences using this tool for evaluation of reliability and probability between two non-destructive methods.


    Thomas Böhm · German Aerospace Center (DLR)

    As already said, one should be clear of once own objectives in using ROC. But as long as you have hypothetical memberships and real memberships to classes ROC will be good for comparing and visualising the results.

  • Alexandros Xafopoulos added an answer:
    Where is the border between information and knowledge? How could move towards knowledge?

    It should be noted that information is not equal to knowledge, and knowledge is the product of intellectual thinking, debate, and creativity. the very study does not facilitate knowledge acquiring by itself, although it facilitates information acquiring.

    So how could we move towards knowledge?

    Alexandros Xafopoulos · Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

    +Dear @Hossein & all,

    Firstly, as regards the border between information & knowledge, I quote from

    "At a data level there is a single bit of information, isolated from context and basically without meaning... That data becomes information when meaning is given to it so that a human can more easily understand it. The information becomes knowledge when context is considered... Wisdom is exhibited when that knowledge is applied to my situation..."

    Moreover, there is a depicted model on the above URL named 'the wisdom pyramid', also called 'the DIKW pyramid' (, which shows the transition from data to information then to knowledge & finally to wisdom.

    Finally, as far as the way to move toward knowledge is concerned, on there is a graph showing the previous transition adding intelligence between knowledge & wisdom & arguing that the transition to the higher stage is achieved by additional learning & experience. Taking this into account, it could be concluded that the quality, quantity & intimacy of the experience facilitates the transition.

    Kind regards.

  • Divya P.V. added an answer:
    Will the isotropic consolidation of heterogenous sample lead to pure volumetric compression or will it cause volumetric deformation as well?

    If cylindrical sample is heterogeneous in terms of strength or voids along the depth, will it undergo pure volumetric compression or volumetric compression + volumetric deformation (shearing)

    Divya P.V. · Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

    Since the sample is heterogeneous, it can undergo both volumetric compression as well as shearing

  • Mahmud Abubakar added an answer:
    Is square column stronger than rectangular one?
    Recently I have tested some columns of square and rectangular cross sections, made with the same grade of materials keeping the same height to thickness ratio but varying cross sectional dimension. The dimensions of the square column are 150 mm x 150 mm x 1500 mm and those of the rectangular column are 150 mm x 230 mm x 1500 mm. I have found that square columns posses greater strength (P/A) than rectangular ones. I have gone through the literature to understand this effect but I could hardly find any literature that gives a proper explanation. What could be the reason or mechanism behind this effect?
    Mahmud Abubakar · Federal University of Technology Minna

    Is because the stiffness in square column is same along both axes while in rectangular column, the stiffness is not the same 

  • Narjes Jafariesfad added an answer:
    Can I get information from anyone on the different characteristics of oil well cement?
    With and without additives, and the methods used to test them, and the results gotten?
    Narjes Jafariesfad · Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    There is a quite complete overview on different methods used to characterize oil well cement properties in “Nelson, E. B. and D. Guillot (2006). Well Cementing, Schlumberger, Appendix B’’. In addition, for standard API procedure for some methods, take a look at “API Recommended Paractice (RP) 10 B’’.

  • How to implement the alignment technique for reducing construction duration in a project?
    Alignment is one of the techniques proposed by construction industry institute for reducing construction duration, so exactly how to implement the technique in all the phases of a project starting from the feasibility study to the project completion.
  • Fawaz Almutairi added an answer:
    Can anyone help with modeling reinforced concrete with abaqus?
    I need to model a reinforced concrete connection in which there are some plates, reinforcement bars, and concrete. I just would like to know how to model concrete with embedded reinforcement bars and a steel plate on it.
    Fawaz Almutairi · Swansea University

    can any one send to me how I can model concrete filled tube in abaqus

    my email is:

  • Denziel Singh Ghasung asked a question:
    "Remote sensing and GIS based Planning and analysis of settlement in Mountain"?

    i am a civil engineering student and I am interested to study mountain engineering! Can anybody please help me out with some references journals and texts.

  • Catalin Teodoriu added an answer:
    Are there conventional methods for comparing Artificial Lift Systems for Selection decision?
    I want to know the different methods of comparing artificial lift systems in order to aid the best decision for selecting the most suitable and appropriate lift system for maximum productivity and profitability.
    Catalin Teodoriu · Technische Universität Clausthal

    There are several merhods to compare artificial lift systems. You may start with simple decision trees toward to artificial network. If you search online you may find this Thesis "Decision Matrix Screening Tool to Identify the Best Artificial Lift Method for Liquid-loaded Gas Wells" by Soponsakulkaew, Nitsupon who was one of my Students. Have fun with  decisions matrics....

  • Krithika Krithika added an answer:
    What are the applications of an up-flow biofilm reactor (packed bed bioreactor) and a down-flow biofilm reactor?
    How do we decide the liquid flow configuration in case of packed bed bioreactors for waste water treatment? Which mode - up-flow or down-flow is better for biofilm development ?
    Krithika Krithika · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    For biofilm reactor upflow mode  is more efficient than downflow mode  reactor

    because it s energy saving and it retains more biomass concentration

  • Raman Venkadesh added an answer:
    How does the compression strain and tension strain change with the number of cycles in cyclic loading?

    When measuring the strain in compression and tension of a RC beam, whether the compression strain changes inversly with the increasing the number of cycles and whether the tensile strain changes proportionally with the increase of number of cycles.

    Raman Venkadesh · Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l’Aménagement et des Réseaux

    Hi seshadri

    I am not that much specialist in bending load cases. But for my opinion, during the 4 point bend loading, the strain growth rate is positive. If the length of piece increases that is called tensile positive strain. if the length decreases that is called comprssive positive strain. So during 4 point bending, the compressive strain is inversly proportional. because the length of the piece is gradually rising up.  please check this out.

    with regards


  • R. C. Mittal added an answer:
    What is the best practical book in finite element?
    There are many books available. Most books are written for teaching graduate courses and mostly emphasize on theory. Do you know any book which provides explanation about practical aspects of modelling and implementation?
    R. C. Mittal · Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

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