Cancer Animal Models

Cancer Animal Models

  • Akhir Pebriansyah added an answer:
    Dear Colleagues, What topic is the challenge In the field of immune-reproductive in poultry. But I want to know that which field is better nowadays?

    Dear Colleagues.
    I will be happy if you would mind participating in this topic.

    Akhir Pebriansyah · Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

    Some experiments conducted in USA 2012 reported that Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proven successful in control strategies, for example, in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity, they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection, so a systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare.....

    I will give you the following link, you might click on it and read on it to be better understanable....

    thank you..... regards

  • Sandeep Rajput added an answer:
    Which cancer cell types express opiate receptors?

    Can anyone please tell me the cancer cell type which expresses opiate receptors (any sub-types). Please also let me know how the opiate growth factor receptor (OGF receptor) relates to the opiate receptor?

    Thanks and regards


    Sandeep Rajput · Washington University in St. Louis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 1990; 87(9): 3294–3298.
    PMCID: PMC53886
    Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines.
    R Maneckjee and J D Minna

    Opioid therapy and tumor

  • Khalid Masoodi added an answer:
    How can one calculate tumor growth inhibition?


    I am looking for a formula to calculate tumor growth inhibition (%) and found people calculated this parameter using different formulas. Does anybody know if there is a standard way to calculate TGI%?

    Thank you.

    Khalid Masoodi · University of Pittsburgh

    hi Deng,

    usually we use the formula as

    tumor volume= lengthX breadth^2X 0.52.

    This is the modified formula for ellipsoid that we use to calculate tumor volume in xenograft implants in mice. you can see my paper that was published last year in Endocrinology.

    hope this helps.


    Khalid Masoodi

  • Lucia Speroni added an answer:
    How do you induce mammary tumors in wistar rats?

    Do we get results? If yes then in how many days does the tumor develops?

    Lucia Speroni · Tufts University

    A single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg BW of NMU at 50 days of age will induce mammary tumors in Wistar-Furth rats.

  • Hongsheng Ong added an answer:
    How can one generate a solid melanoma tumour mice model?

    I have injected 1 x 10^5 B16F10 cells (resuspended in 200uL of PBS) subcutaneously into the left flank of C57BL/6 mice. However, after one week, no tumour was observed. Should I just try injecting more cells next time? Or is there anything that I should pay attention to? 

    Any advice will be greatly appreciated. Thanks! 

    Hongsheng Ong · Monash University (Australia)

    Thanks guys. It is day12 and I finally saw some tumour growth.

  • Mosayeb Rostamian added an answer:
    Which TLR4 agonist is better for vaccinating BALB/c mice with?

    I want to vaccinate BALB/c mice with a TLR4 agonist, for example MPL-SE, MPL-TDM or MPL-A.

    I do not know which agonist is better. Actually, I do not know the differences of these MPLs.

    Some articles use MPL-SE (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensant, Belgium) and some use (Sigma Aldrich). It was easy to find MPL-TDM, but I could not find the way to buy MPL-SE.

    Any opinions? Thanks in advance.

    Mosayeb Rostamian · Pasteur Institute of Iran (IPI)

    Thank you Sandeep

    Acctually I want to finally test the whole product (Vaccine+ TLR4 Agaonist) on human cells, as you know i could not use LPS on human so is not better to use MPL which is aproved for human use, for all my experiments? If you agree with me the question is remained unanswered!

  • Dmitry Malin added an answer:
    Does anyone know a good lymph node metastasis model in mice?

    I want to try a nanoparticle in lymph node metastasis in mice.

    Dmitry Malin · University of Wisconsin, Madison

    MDA-MB-231 cells tagged with mCherry.

    Enhanced metastasis suppression by targeting TRAIL receptor 2 in a murine model of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Malin D, Chen F, Schiller C, Koblinski J, Cryns VL.

    Clin Cancer Res. 2011

  • Vivek Mahajan added an answer:
    What is the advantage of administering drugs via mice jugular vein rather than tail vein ?
    Administrating drugs through tail vein is limited by specific volume. Therefore I was wondering if boules administration via jugular vein could help me in overcoming this issue.
    Vivek Mahajan · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Injecting via jugular vein may bypass liver (portal vein) that would otherwise be in direct route through tail vein. 

  • Pradeep Dumpala added an answer:
    I am looking for developing consistent/reliable tumor model in mice with MCF7 cell line?

    I greatly appreciate your input

    Pradeep Dumpala · The Rogosin Institute

    Thank you Polina, Nagarajan, and Vidya Ganapathy. Great advises. I will try to get my hands on and let you know how it went.

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me exact injection site to develop orthotopic lung cancer in nude mice?

    I am trying to develop orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. I want to inject the single cell suspension directly into lung parenchyma without surgery . After injection of cell into the lung parenchyma, how do I  confirm tumor formation by physical observation?

    Anuj Singh · Syngene International Ltd.

    thanks to all for your valuable tips

  • Jose Gros added an answer:
    What are the various in-vivo models available for the pre-clinical screening of anti cancer (lung cancer) drugs?
    What are the various in-vivo models for the pre-clinical screeninig of anti cancer drugs(screening of anti lung cancer activity).
    Jose Gros · Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica

    The ESMO booklet: 'Clinical Pharmacology of Anti-Cancer Agents', describes the overall steps and available tools for this. It can be accessed at Thanks. Salut +

  • Karuppaiya Vimala added an answer:
    How do siRNA directly bind with the PEG Coated Nanoparticle?
    Surface modified nanoparticle used to carry for drug
    Karuppaiya Vimala · Bharathiar University

    Thank You for your valuable answer

  • Yiren Xiao added an answer:
    A549 lung metastasis model
    Has anybody done the tail vein injection of A549 for the lung metastasis? If so, what is the condition like and which animal do you use?
    Yiren Xiao · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    i had tried A549 via tail vein injection. i injected 1x10^6 cell for each mice after the cell were digested from the flask and wash once with pbs then resuspend in 100ul pbs.

  • Younes BOUALLEGUI added an answer:
    What drives to predict the signaling cascade in response of a particular stimuli?
    I just want to know how to predict the response of a cell that activated a signalling event. I wish to discover any fundamental or computational tool to predict the signalling events.
    If any exist, by giving the search phrase to the web to predict the possible mechanisms at dependent experimental conditions?
    Younes BOUALLEGUI · University of Carthage

    Best regards to thomas, realy he didn't let anything to say, very good sayed, i absolutely agree with him.

  • Denise Priolli added an answer:
    Does 5-fluorouracil work orally on nude mice xenograft model of colon cancer? and what is the dosage ?

    can i give 5-FU orally to nude mice 

    Denise Priolli · Universidade São Francisco

    Three oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapies have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or are in development for the treatment of cancer: capecitabine, UFT, and 5-FU/eniluracil. These are good to use in animal model.

  • Da Yong Lu added an answer:
    What is the difference in metastatic potential of B16-F10 and B16-F1 cell lines?

    Does anyone have experience regarding the difference in metastatic potential of B16-F10 and B16-F1 cells? How much longer would B16-F1 cells need to cause a substantial number of metastasis in the mouse lung when injected i.v.?

    I found quite different statements in literature. Some showing almost no metastasis, some showing a huge number of metastasis after 2 weeks.

    Thanks in advance!

    Da Yong Lu · Shanghai University

    It was reported by Prof Fidler and his colleagues about the beginning of 1980s. They injested B16 tumor cells into footpad of mice and collected pulmonary tissues to regrow tumor cells in vitro--call B16-F2. The B16-F2 tumor again injected into footpad normal mice and after amount of time, pulmonary tissues were culture and tumor cells was called B16-F3,----. Now many commercial B16-F10 have been serially transplanted in vivo or in vitro, their metastatic abilities are complemised by these transplantation.

  • Rajendra Pangeni added an answer:
    Are there any organisms that don't get cancer?

    Are there any multicellular life forms that don't get cancer or where cancer is very rare?

    What can we learn from these cases?

    Rajendra Pangeni · University of Wolverhampton

    Really a good question Derek, I am not sure about the organisms that do not get cancer, but I wonder if some invertebrates especially worms which can easily regenerate may not get a cancer. Also, I think, cancer may be more specific to higher vertebrates. 

  • Blake M Warner added an answer:
    Why are female hamsters not used as experimental models for oral carcinogenics?

    Male golden hamster is a well established model for the induction DMBA induced experimental oral carcinogenics. What about female?

    Blake M Warner · University of Pittsburgh

    I have have been told anecdotally, but not read in an peer-reviewed article, that female Syrian hamsters are more difficult to house as a group in on cage (3/cage) and often may fight. Syrian hamster web forums describe circumstances where they house two females together, but that they "play fight." In my experience, male syrian hamsters are REALLY easy to house 3/cage. They are easy to train, they do not bite (each other or the handlers), and respond well to light anesthesia. One other consideration, using male hamsters, eliminates the effects of cycling menstrual hormones, which may confound your results. There are reported sex-dependent metabolism and detoxification effects in rodents, although I do not know if this is well-established in hamsters. 

    That being said, this may be an angle to sell when designing your studies. Using both males and females, separately, to evaluate novel treatments, etc. 

  • Hamed Karimian added an answer:
    Can anyone assist with benign and malignant tumor animal models?

    Hello everyone,

    I would like to create two animal models: benign vs. malignant tumor (with same tissue origin) by chemical compounds. Any input and protocol would be appreciated. 

    Hamed Karimian · University of Malaya

    look for (DMBA)

  • Jenny Woof added an answer:
    How different are the functions of IgG2a and IgG2c?

    there is hardly any info on effector functions for this isotype present in some mouse strains.

    Jenny Woof · University of Dundee

    I think you are confusing the names of the IgG subclasses in mice and rats. In mice, the subclasses are IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. Rats have four subclasses known as IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c. There is no direct correspondence between the subclasses in the two species.

  • Mark Jason Sinnamon added an answer:
    Does anyone know of or use a metastatic colorectal cancer model?

    I currently use the APCmin mouse model. However, this model only develops benign polyps in the intestinal tract. I am interested in continuing my studies in a colorectal cancer mouse model which develops metastatic tumours. I know previous papers bred APC with SMAD3 mice. However, this will take time to inbreed through 12 generations and unfortunately do not have time to do that.

    Thank you,

    Mark Jason Sinnamon · Massachusetts General Hospital


    Another option is to obtain the cre-lox AKP mice created by Tyler Jacks' group.  I believe they are available through jackson lab at this point.  These mice have apc 9truncation), p53 (truncation) and kras (oncogenic lox-stop-lox) inducible upon adenocre exposure.  Alternatively, there is are AB and ABP mice with oncogenic BRAF under lox-stop-lox control.  Ken Hung developed a protocol to induce colonic tumors using these mice that do occasionally spontaneously metastasize to liver and lung.  I generated a handful of tumor cell cultures from these mice (in mixed c57bl/6 background) that are capable of colonizing the liver upon splenic implantation.

  • Hien Thi My Nguyen added an answer:
    Is anyone using TOV21G cells to induce tumorigenesis in balb/c nude mice using xenograft model?


    I'm conducting xenograft model using balb/c nude mice. I am using TOV21G cells to induce tumorigenesis. Would you please suggest how many cell numbers I should use? Which mouse condition? Which brand?

    I want to see the tumor growth.

    Thank you. 

    Hien Thi My Nguyen · Chung-Ang University

    Hi, thank you for your advice!

  • Safia Ezzine added an answer:
    Problem with 4T1 Tumor Model Development- Can anyone help?
    We have been trying to develop 4T1 breast tumor model in balb/c mice. We use 10^6 cells/100 uL/mice by injecting in the nape region subcutaneously. The cells grow vigorously upto 28 days post injection forming a large 3-4 cm long mass with a distinct 3 dimensional morphology growth under the skin (upon excision the mass weighed approximately 7 grams!!) . By this time period, there develops a break in the skin and a black scar like tissue formation occurs. The tumor then slowly starts regressing after day 28.

    Is it normal for such a large tumor mass to ultimately regress? Has anyone experienced the formation of a black scar tissue once the tumor develops? Is this black scar like tissue leading to tumor regression and if so, how can it be avoided?
  • Pieter R Roelfsema added an answer:
    How can we make a better effort at public outreach about the necessity of animal (especially NHP) models for understanding the brain?

    I thought the opinion article written by Pieter Roelfsema and Stefan Treue did a great job of explaining the complex issues involved in NHP research, as well as some of the research breakthroughs that have come as a result of NHP research, with positive consequences for brain understanding and human health. The article ends by encouraging researchers to engage in more public outreach to ensure continuing support. But the question of how this could be accomplished is not addressed.

    Pieter R Roelfsema · Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience

    Dear Andre,

    Thanks for pointing this out. There is indeed an increasing awareness among neuroscientists that it is beneficial to become more open about the benefits of our research. We should inform the public about our research to gain support and to combat misinformation.

    A useful resource - presumably known to all of us - is, and there are other comparable websites. You can also work together with organizations such as "Speaking of research", and talk to the press when you uncover something new and exciting. I can recommend the paper on this topic by Holder (2014).

    All the best,

    Pieter Roelfsema

    Holdert, T (2014) Standing up for science: The antivivisection movement and how to stand up to it. EMBO Rep. Jun;15(6):625-30

  • Rangarajan Narasimhan added an answer:
    How to induce neuroblastoma?
    How can we induce neuroblastoma in rats
    Rangarajan Narasimhan · Sri Sankara Arts and Science College

    I am working with glioma. i have induced glioma by injecting c6 cell lines in the rat's brain

  • Santosh Kumar Yadav added an answer:
    Do you have any useful tips on how to weigh a laboratory rat?

    This may be a simple question, however, I face this problem every day. As you aware, there is a need to analyze the weight of the animal during study period. While weighing in an electronic scale, the rats are moving and the number in the digital screen keeps on changing. I used to record a number (which I observed frequently) from the screen as weight. 

    I don't have an idea on how to deal with this practical problem. Please share with me any useful tips to weigh a laboratory rat with accuracy.

    Thanking you in advance for your answer.

    Santosh Kumar Yadav · Central Drug Research Institute

    Thomas J R Beveridge have detailed the method which is in regular practice. Observe the readings for 2-3 sec and record the value which appears more times during up and downs.

  • Hien Thi My Nguyen added an answer:
    Reverse effect between in vivo and in vitro. What is the possible reason?

    Hi all,

    I constructed stable cell lines with my interested gene. It has inhibition effect on cell growth in vitro. However, when I use these stable cells for in vivo study, both SC and IP model, I got the reverse result on tumor growth compared to my in viro result. My gene enhaced tumor growth in vivo. I'm confused. Which can be reason for my result? Please suggest me some hypothesis. Or you can share me some tips when working with animal.

    Thank you so much.

    Hien Thi My Nguyen · Chung-Ang University

    Dear all guys,

    Thank you so much for your suggestions. I'll discuss it with my supervisor. I've never tried 3D culture before, so I have no idea on it. I performed tumor growth in vivo with and without matrigel. I realized that without Matrigel, my gene enhanced tumor growth  about 80% of tumor numbers while it only enhanced tumor growth about 50% number of tumors with matrigel. In details, when I used matrigel to conduct SC model, tumors were palpable after 2 weeks of injection but most tumors disappeared 1 week later and then appeared and grew again. I used TOV-21G cells, 5*10^6-10^7 cells/injection, cells prepared in PBS, balbc nude mice.

    My supervisor wants me to perform cancer animal model again to confirm if my gene really enhanced tumor growth in vivo before we find answer for this reverse effect. I'm a newbie to this kind of experiment, I hope someone can suggest me a protocol or some tips for animal model.   


  • Krishnaa Mahbubani added an answer:
    What is the best In Vitro assay? Alamar Blue, Presto Blue, XTT or MTT?
    The Assay for in vitro activity..
    Krishnaa Mahbubani · University of Cambridge

    I have tried a variety of assays in an attempt to find a consistent and not overly time consuming method to get consistent data. What I have found with Alamar Blue, is while it is cheap and extremely easy to use (owing to it's low toxicity), it does need to be optimised specific to your cell line. If you cells are suspension lines, this makes it additionally a bit more complicated to optimise the time line. 

    I have a preference for MTT/MTS assay. They are not particularly time consuming and can be run in 96-well plates and in larger or smaller volumes dependant on sample size and repeatability options.  This can often be coupled with an LDH assay to give you a secondary set of tests for confirmation. 

    To overcome some of the challenges with inconsistencies as well as in terms of having one or two highly metabolic cells in a well over proliferating cells, I normalise my data using a bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) to measure protein content within the cells being tested. 

    Like everyone has stated already, it is a very good rule to use two or three different assay methods for cytotoxicity. 

    Good  luck!

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