Cancer Animal Models

Cancer Animal Models

  • Rozita Nasiri added an answer:
    Does anybody know about cell line injections in immunocompetent balb/c mice?

    I am developing two different cancer models in immunocompetent balb/c mice by subcutaneusly injection of Hela and SK-BR-3 cell lines. Appreciate any suggestions.Is there any option to generate tumor in an immunocompetent balb/c mice?. Can we make them immonodeficient? If there is no possibility to use immunocompetent balb/c mice then which type of mice is suggested?  

    Rozita Nasiri · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Thanks a lot for this great comment. 

  • Diğdem YÖYEN ERMİŞ added an answer:
    Why did balb/c mice lost their hair one month after subcutaneusly injection of Hela cancer cell?

    The immunocompetent balb/c mice were injected by Hela cell lines. They lost their hair one month after injection, but there is no cancer bumping yet. 

    Diğdem YÖYEN ERMİŞ · Hacettepe University

    I think there is a really strong immune respons. If you injected a lots of cells maybe they induced the immune reaction.

  • Hem Chandra Jha added an answer:
    Any advice on the quantification of mice tumors?

    How to measure tumor size in corel pictures. Suppose I have mice pictures with tumors and these tumors are separated from body part. The problem in the quantification of tumor size as by visual and corel measurement not looks correct. Someone have an idea how to quantify these tumors? Thanks in advance.

    Hem Chandra Jha · University of Pennsylvania

    Thank you Saleh and Lakshman Ji...

  • Khalid El BAIRI added an answer:
    Why do we prefer male rats instead of female for cancer studies?

    Ca we use female rats for chemical induced lung cancer.?

    Khalid El BAIRI · Université Mohammed Premier

    It depends on the type of cancer 

  • Victoria E. Palau added an answer:
    Is there any alternative for propylene glycol (Propanediol) in Ehlrich Ascites carcinoma models?

    Dear all..

    Kindly suggest the alternate for Propylene glycol which is commonly used as a vehicle control in the experiments (Genotoxicity and  antitumor studies) pertaining to EAC models..and also explain why propylene glycol is the most preferred vehicle control for comparison studies done using chemotherapeutic agents.

    I have attached an article for better understanding..

    Thank you

    Victoria E. Palau · East Tennessee State University

    Not really, it depends on your agent and its solubility properties (polarity). This will determine which dissolution vehicle you will use (ethanol,  acetone, DMSO, etc.) It is important to prepare a stock solution so you can keep the concentration of the dissolution vehicle below toxic levels.

  • Mohd.Ahmar Rauf added an answer:
    How can I Induce breast cancer in model mice animals?

    I have been working on development of delivery system for breast cancer and had to check my formulations for the same

    Mohd.Ahmar Rauf · Aligarh Muslim University

    Thanks Robert clarke sir ,lucia mam 

  • Jose Javier Miguel-Hidalgo added an answer:
    Can we use female rat instead of male for lung cancer studies?

    Single intra peritoneal dose of benzo(a)pyrene will be used to induce lung cancer. 

    Jose Javier Miguel-Hidalgo · University of Mississippi Medical Center

    Also remember that under  new NIH rules, in the USA the default is using both male and female animals in biomedical research, and strong justification is needed to exclude one of the sexes.

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    Which colorectal cancer forms faster tumors in athymic mice? Caco-2 or HT-29?

    I want to grow tumors using either Caco-2 or HT-29 in male balb/c mice. Which of these cell lines would be recommended in terms of ease of maintenance of the cell line in culture as well as time taken to grow tumors in vivo? Also which of the two cell lines is considered more aggressive?

    Anuj Singh · Syngene International Ltd.


  • Kristopher R Bosse added an answer:
    Has anyone used an IPTG inducible shRNA system in vivo (mammary fat pad tumors)?

    My pilot experiment showed no reduction in the target protein in the excised tumors.  I would love some feedback on dose and administration of the IPTG agent!  Thanks!

    Kristopher R Bosse · The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


    curious if you got an answer to this as I had the same question?

  • Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves added an answer:
    Is it possible to generate cell line from frozen tissue?

    I'm working with prostate cancer from dogs and is not a very common disease. I have some frozen tumor and I have seen few protocols to generate cell culture from frozen tissue. Is it really possible to generate cell line from frozen tissue?How do you establish a cell line from the frozen tissue sample?

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves · São Paulo State University

    Hi Elvira,

    I would like to generate culture with epithelial cells. Neoplastic epithelial cells. I had not thought about  alterations in cell morphology/metabolism. It 's a good point. Thank you so much for the advice. I will think about it and maybe I will wait for a fresh tissue.

  • Ichun Chen added an answer:
    Are there any murine models breast cancer recurrence ?

    Does anyone know or have a breast cancer murine model to study recurrence? I have checked the literature, but did not find relavant references. I am not sure whether it was because there's no good murine model for this or I did not use good keywords.

    Thanks for your kind help

    Ichun Chen · National Taiwan University Hospital

    Thanks for all of your recommendations. In addition to transgenic mice, I knew that 4T1 might be a good model for this issue. However, does any one have an estimated idea that how long does it take for 4T1 cells to develop recurrence after primary tumor resection? In addition, to what size should we resect it? Once it is visible? We are working on B6 mice basically, so 4T1 might be a good fit. However, it is growing really fast that our intervention might hardly have a chance to see the difference...

  • Dan Liang asked a question:
    Does anyone know of a cancer cell line which could grow in 129Sv/Ev mice?

    My project is focused on a specific genetic knockout mice which I bred into 129Sv/Ev. I did some nice tumor experiment in C57BL/6 and 129Sv/Ev mix background (F1 intercross). However the mice have been bred into 129 for like 9 generations, I found my previous tumor cell (b16 melanoma) not growing very well in these guys. They start off fine, but as time goes by, 2 weeks plus they are still really small. I gave them DC vaccines though, but based on my previous experiment, the tumors should still grow even if the mice receive vaccines.

  • Miriam Zimmermann added an answer:
    Any advice on intraperitoneal injection of matrigel?

    Our lab uses frequently uses matrigel for intraperitoneal injection of ovarian/endometrial tumour cells. However, there is no literature I can find that describes the use of matrigel with IP injections, and it is only recommended for orthotopic and subcutaneous injections.

    Intraperitoneal injection is more like a metastatic model and so it seems as though the formation of a matrigel plug is counter-intuitive.

    Should I stick to just using PBS? Or should it not really matter? 


    Thank you for all your answers so far! I would like to add that with gynecological cancers, direct spread to the peritoneal cavity is very common; metastasis via the blood stream not so much. That's why we inject tumour cells intraperitoneally.

    Miriam Zimmermann · ETH Zurich

    I agree with the comments above that ECMs such as matrigel help tumour formation and are generally used subcutaneously to privide a better environment for the cells at the site of injection.

    However, when we looked at metastasis, we generally injected the cells iv (intravenous), usually into the tail vein and without any matrigel as it can also clogg the vein. For injection we either used PBS or sometimes also the medium that cells were normally grown in but without any additives such as serum or antibiotics etc (for us usually DMEM). That way you can see to which site the cells spread. Something else to note is that tailvein injections usually need a bit of practise and are often not that easy. If you don't have anyone in the lab or institute that has done it, it would probably be good to practise on a mouse that you don't need anymore (e.g. from a different experiment). After all you want to make sure that you inject the amount of cells that you've counted and not sometimes half of that.
    I'm not sure ip injection (as you suggested it) would be an appropriate model for metastasis.
    I hope this helps and good luck

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    How do I decide which cancer mouse model to use?

    Dear all,

    We have developed some molecules against a carcinogenic Protein. Overexpression of this carcinogenic Protein is associated with diverse types of cancer. I want to develop mice models to test these new anticancer molecules?

    What would be the suitable model for this?

    Anuj Singh · Syngene International Ltd.

    Dear Pranjali,

    I would like to suggest that you first decide the carcinogenic Protein overexpression , whether it is related to solid or liquid tumor, decide the human cell lines. Perform a cytotoxic assay (in vitro) in a panel of related cell line. Choose the best effect. Mean while you can perform PK study of your molecule in normal mice and see it its bioavailability. Now if all tests are okay, see whether the xenograft of the best in vitro selected cell line is available or not. Depending on the types of tumor you can select either SCID or nude mice.

    In my experience SCID mice are best for liquid tumor and Nude mice are for solid tumor.

    In nude mice female are best because male mice will fight among themselves after grouping.

    Good Luck !


  • Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul Rahman added an answer:
    Can we develop breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in swiss albino mice?
    Due to lack of nude mice we are interested to develop breast cancer in normal mice. does any one have the idea?
  • Alastair D Lamb added an answer:
    How well do orthotopic xenografts of CAL51 grow in NOD/SCID mice?

    I want to measure tumor growth in NOD/SCID for CAL51 implanted in mammary fatpad. How long it takes for tumors to develop and reach 1000 mm3?

    Alastair D Lamb · University of Cambridge

    Hi Marcela.

    My experience is with prostate cancer xenografts in NSG mice (we find these much better for xenos and PDXs) and they generally run for between 6 weeks and 4 months depending on how aggressive the cell line. I don't know CAL51 but I understand that our breast cancer colleagues run fairly similar length experiments for MCF7 cells. Also, we would never grow to 1000mm3 as that would be much too big for most UK project licenses. We usually go for 100mm3 (so about 4x4x5mm)


  • Go J Yoshida added an answer:
    How can I establish GIST (human gastrointestinal stromal tumour) exograft model?

    I`m now doing some research about GIST(human gastrointestinal stromal tumour), and there is a big problem that I have failed to establish GIST exograft animal model. 1×107 GIST T1 cell line were given hypodermic injection on nude mouse, after 10 days, tumor was failed to growth. Some one who have successful established this exograft model could give me advice, thanks.

    Go J Yoshida · Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    You have to know the importance of where tumor cells are transplanted. GIST occurs from Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) with active mutation of c-KIT, the receptor of SCF. That is why the hypodermic injection is very artificial and difficult for GIST T1 cell line to form xenograft tumor tissue. Of course, so many kinds of tumor cell lines are able to form xenograft tumor under the skin of nude mice, but it has been widely accepted that the orthotopical transplantation is much better to reflect the tissue-dependent characteristics of each tumor.  Why not try to transplant G1 cells into the gastric or intestinal mucosa? 

  • Maninder Kour added an answer:
    How do you induce mammary tumors in wistar rats?

    Do we get results? If yes then in how many days does the tumor develops?

    Maninder Kour · Manipal University

    Thank u so much for the answers.

  • Yoann Pageaud added an answer:
    Do you know a good marker of endothelial cells in the mouse model tumor CT26 ?

    Hi everyone, 

    I'm looking for a specific marker of the endothelial cells in a murin mouse model for CT26 colorectal tumors.
    I already check some interesting antibodies : anti-CD31, anti-CD34, anti-CD105, anti-vWF.
    And  Isolectin B4 staining.
    So now I am looking for anything else that could be as specific as these marker, or more.
    And what is your opinion about anti-SMA and anti-vWF ? any other markers to suggest ? 
    Which marker could be the most relevant for this type of tumor (Murin Colorectal CT26 Tumor) ?
    Please for antibodies precise the compagnies names you suggest for providers.
    Thank you all for your help ! 

    Yoann Pageaud · Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging

    Thanks a lot Ricardo. I'll look for CDH5, CD144 and avB3.
    I keep your article it will be helpful.
    Best regards,


  • Mengyu Wang added an answer:
    How can I establish good 4T1 tumors in-vivo?

    I'm growing 4T1 cells in mice. I'm implanting two contralateral tumors per mouse. I'm having a hard time getting the tumors to grow symmetrically. I understand they won't all be perfect, but I'm getting a lot of shapes that are difficult to caliper, or I'll have tumors with small satellite tumors right next to them.  With 2 tumors on 1 mouse, its hard to get enough mice to enroll in study.

    I'm implanting 1 x 10^5 cells in 100 uL volumes. I draw the cells up into the syringe in an 18 g needle, and I implant the cells using a 25 g needle. I slowly inject the tumors on the flank and slowly remove the syringe. The cells are being implanted using serum free media. 

    Should I use a smaller gauge (27g) needle to implant? Should I move my implant site up to the shoulder? Should I switch to PBS instead of media?

    Mengyu Wang · University of Oslo


    You can inject 4T1 cells from 5x103 to 1x105 in the up or low fat pad with volume 30ul to 50ul in Balb/c mice.  Then you can have lung metastasis and larger spleen ( 3-4 time weight (g) than normal mouse''s spleen.

  • Go J Yoshida added an answer:
    Can we use combination of NMU and DMBA to induce mammary tumors in rats to get better incidence?


    Go J Yoshida · Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    Given that both N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) belong to mutagen chemicals and contribute to the initiation, some kinds of promotion to selectively expand the clone with mutation are considered to be required. Why not use TPA? 

  • Joe Graymer added an answer:
    How can I distinguish if the tumor treatment is effective when the result is somehow ambiguous?

    When I do tumor immune treatment, some mice tumors  (say 4 to 6) of the experimental group were smaller than the controls but not so obvious, the other two tumors were the same size or even bigger than the controls , how to analyze the result? Is this mean the treatment is noneffective ? Or should I change the does of the antigen and immunization time line and do the experiment again?

    Joe Graymer · NYAS

    Thanks Adil Abu shana. I don't catch the meaning of your kind comment. I'm certified as Clinical Oncologist and in Family and Community Medicine, I have also a Private University (UCM) Diploma in Pharmaceutical Industry Medicine, I'm in forced retirement, receiving a pension.

    For fun, I obtained a Real State Agent Diploma (API), but never made use of it.        + Salut

  • Karen E Murray added an answer:
    What murine cell lines could be used to induce transferrin over-expressed tumors in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice animal model?

    We wish to evaluate the efficacy of our anti-cancer nanoformulation in a transferrin over-expressed tumor animal model. What murine cell lines can be used to induce the same in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. Kindly advice. Thanks

    Karen E Murray · University of Dundee

    I have worked with 4T1 cells and injected orthotopically. All tumours grew well and were metastatic.

  • Rozita Nasiri added an answer:
    What is the right injection amount for SkBr3 cells in white ICR mice?

    Is one time injection of cells enough to establish cancer in mice? is 1* 10^7 cells enough or not ? How detect cancer after injection and how determine that is our interested cancer which established in mice? 

    Rozita Nasiri · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Thanks a lot

  • Prem Subramaniam added an answer:
    Do anti-cancer drug stimulate xenograft growth?

    I used HT29 cells to generate xenograft, and treat the mice with tubulin inhibitor. Due to the solubility issue, I used 5% Tween 80 to formulate the compound. Very wired, the compound stimulated the tumor growth. When I don't use any formulation component, just PBS, of course the drug solubility is not good in this case, the drug actually inhibited tumor growth. Does anybody have a clue what is the reason for the opposite result?

    Prem Subramaniam · Columbia University

    It is attached:

  • Farzad Khanipour added an answer:
    Is there any Iranian fellow willing to collaborate with us on the animal studies of our nanodrug delivery system?

    We have been working on an anticancer drug delivery system based on PLGA-b-PEG copolymer nanoparticles, and now are looking for colleagues who are expert in cancer animal models and related in vivo experiments. Our preferential tumor model is MCF7 breast cancer. Please contact me for further detailed information. Thank you. 

    Farzad Khanipour · Tarbiat Modares University

    Dear Hamed,

    I appreciate your interest on this project. Actually, at this stage our plan is to start the tumor efficacy studies of our delivery system on mouse breast cancer tumor models MCF7, MDA-MB-435 or MDA-MB-231. However, for Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies we would need to have breast cancer models of SD rats. I think we could build up a good collaboration at these stages of animal studies, if you are seriously interested and ready for a firm commitment.

  • Colt Egelston added an answer:
    Does anyone have a protocol for T cell isolation from a spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer, MMTV-PyMT ?

    I have tried using Mitlenyi's Gentlemacs with type III collagenase at 37C for about 45 minutes-60 minutes and I am fairly sure I am over-digesting the T cells. After processing to single cell suspensions, cells have poor viability and Thy1.2 isolation does not really enrich the T cells. Additionally, surface markers like CD62L and CD3 are being shed it appears.

    Colt Egelston · City of Hope National Medical Center

    Thanks everyone. We currently think that Liberase treatment for 30 minutes is the gentlest and most effective option.

  • Matteo Bocci added an answer:
    Does anybody have an idea how to analyze tumors and metastasis in MMTV mouse models?

    We are trying to see change in MMTV mouse with our gene knockout. Can anybody suggest how to proceed with it. I mean what would be the strategy to observe the changes in terms of number/size of tumor formation, metastasis.

    thanks in advance

    Matteo Bocci · Lund University

    Dear Raise,

    The best solution would be to take mice at different time point for the metastatic study, while it will be enough to anesthetize and measure with a caliper the dimension of the 10 mammary tumors. The MMTV-model should have palpable tumors by the 8th week of age. Form that time on it will take extra 7 weeks to reach a full blown adenocarcinoma. As for the metastases, you should be able to observe micrometastases already at 12 weeks, while macrometastases should be present by 16 weeks, or at least this is what we see in our lab.
    For our KO studies we have tumor measurement once a week for at least 4 weeks and we either study the growth from an initial indolent stage to a carcinoma (8-12 weeks) or the progression to an adenocarcinoma with metastatic phenotype (11-15 weeks).
    Given our ethical permit, we are not allowed to keep mice alive for more than 18 weeks, but already at 16 weeks the tumor burden is so big that sometimes mice cannot walk any longer as the tumors impede their movements.

    Good luck,

  • Pedro Veliça added an answer:
    How mutated are the spontaneous breast cancers that develop In the MMTV-PyMT mouse strain?

    In this model, carcinogenesis is induced in breast tissue by inducing the Polyoma Middle T antigen with the MMTV promoter resulting in tumors that develop over the course of 15-20 weeks that mimic the different stages of human breast cancer.

    Does anyone have any idea of how mutated these tumors become during their development and if so, how does that compare to human breast cancer?

    Pedro Veliça · Karolinska Institutet

    Hi Matteo,

    I've found some data showing how CD4 T cells play a pro-tumor role (at least in the FVB background) but I was curious about CD8 T cells. Interesting about the ER, PR HER2 dynamics - wondering how much of that is due to deregulated gene expression/epigenetics or accumulation of mutations.

    Greetings from the East Coast of Sweden.


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