Cancer Animal Models

Cancer Animal Models

  • Ravi Thakur added an answer:
    Has anybody worked with xenograft model of rabbit for tumor using cell line?

    I am working on xenograft model of rabbit for tumor induction and I have certain issues in setting my protocol. Can anyone plz help me in this regard. I am working with MCF-7 cell line..

    Ravi Thakur · Central Drug Research Institute


    Xenograft means that you must be injecting the MCF7 cells (as you mentioned) in Rabbit. Well for that you may require immuno-compromised rabbits. To my knowledge immuno-compromised rabbits are not easy to make and easy to rare. 

    Alternatively a syngenic model is possible. Where  a rabbit cancer cells are injected into a rabbit. As cells belongs to same species there are lesser chances of immune clearance. I searched online and came across no rabbit breast cancer cells, you can try searching if one is available. 

    In this case you can think of a third option, inducing a tumor using carcinogens. MNU, DMBA, B[a]P are some carcinogens used to induce tumors in rodents like mice or rats. You can try one in rabbit. 

    I don't know what kind of experiments you are planing. But in general. it is always better to use a mice or a rat model for cancer studies. Immunocompromised mice are available commercially, you can inject MCF7 to get tumors.

    Alternatively 4T1 mouse mammary epithelial cells are also available with ATCC. They form tumors even in normal Balb/c mice. This model works well if one does't have access to immuno-compromised mice.

    Though, there are limitations with both xenograft and syngenic models. Xenograft works well to study in-vivo effects on human cancer cells and syngenic works well if one want to study  tumor (mouse) biology in physiological conditions. You can chose one according to your problem.

    All the best.

  • Mandana Ghisari added an answer:
    What is the best In Vitro assay? Alamar Blue, Presto Blue, XTT or MTT?
    The Assay for in vitro activity..
    Mandana Ghisari · Aarhus University

    For short time exposures, like 4 hours, whcih cell cytotoxicity assay is best, LDH or MTT?

  • Dong-Sheng Yu added an answer:
    How do you determine the appropriateness of tumor model for preclinical studies? How predictive are they?

    I am trying to understand how to best translate preclinical data to the clinical environment, particularly in oncology. 

    Dong-Sheng Yu · Shandong Qilu hospital ,Qingdao,China of Shandong University

    I think tumor model   for preclinical studies should be used in larger animals like rabbits or dogs or pigs better than mices.Because these larger  animals are easy to

    examined by CT\MRI .And the images are better.

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the right cell line to develop orthotopic Glioblastoma ?

    I am going to develop orthotopic Glioblastoma mouse model. Can anyone tell me right cell line at right cell concentration and right injection volume. ? How much time it will take to develop the tumor in brain?


    Anuj Singh · Syngene International Ltd.

    Dear Ali & Amirali,

    Please can you tell me the coordinates ( x, y and z from bregma ) to inject the cells for orthotopic GBM Model development using U87 cell line.

  • Andy Goebel asked a question:
    Is anybody working with EO771 cells and willing to send me a cryo?

    We are working with human breast cancer cell lines in vivo and also would like to inject murine breast cancer cells into our C57Bl6 mice as they have an intact immune system. In the literature its described, that EO771 cells would be the appropriate cell line but we dont have it in our lab. Is anybody, who works with these cells, able to send us a cryo? Many thanks in advance.

  • Annamari Zainana added an answer:
    Does fasting diminish the side effects of chemotherapy (oxaliplatin) in C57BL/6N mice?


    I'm wondering whether anyone knows - either based on their own experience, assessment, or acquired information - if fasting has any beneficial effects on chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    I'm setting up a mouse model that comprises chemotherapy by oxaliplatin, and this question has cropped up within the model validation process. I'd greatly appreciate any answers!

    Annamari Zainana · Charles River Laboratories International, Inc

    Hi Maurizio!

    Thank you so much for your answer and the links; i hadn't seen it yet, but i'll now read it through immediately! Thanks alot!


  • Jinbiao Chen added an answer:
    Has anyone used a cumate-inducible gene expression in vivo in nude or scid mice injected with tumor cells transfected with a cumate switch vector?
    I need to know if you can induce gene expression by injecting it into the mouse. There are plenty of examples of using the system in cell culture but I wasn't able to find anything about using it in animals. Thank you.
    Jinbiao Chen · Centenary Institute


    Any further information on the use of this system in vivo? Thanks, JB

  • Albert Li added an answer:
    What is the total cell number of a C57 mice Popliteal lymph node ?

    Hi , I need to know the total cell number of a C57 mice popliteal lymph node.

    Albert Li · Harvard Medical School

    Hi Yuan,

    The answer depends on several parameters:

    1) Age of the mouse

    2) Cell type of interest (lymphocytes, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc.) 

    3) steady state or non-steady state. The latter can have great variation as the lymph nodes swell in the context of inflammation, especially if you sensitize or challenge subcutaneously as antigen, and antigen-bearing APCs, will flow to the nearest draining lymph node: the popliteal. 

    From my experience, the inguinal and popliteal C57BL/6 mice from Jackson have about 1.5-3 million lymphocytes (B, T, and NK cells) per lymph node at steady state. 

  • Hadi Bayat added an answer:
    Does anyone have a suggestion on a CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockout genes in human cells?

    I'm looking for a good selectable, lentiviral system to knock out genes in human cells. But so far too few people could share their experience on the available systems that convinced me of the best one. 

    Hadi Bayat · Medical Nano-Technology & Tissue Engineering Research Center

    Dear Rita

    kindly see Dr. Joung's report. (2014) "Dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided FokI nucleases for highly specific genome editing".

    Good luck,

  • Mathe Domokos added an answer:
    Does anyone know a good lymph node metastasis model in mice?

    I want to try a nanoparticle in lymph node metastasis in mice.

    Mathe Domokos · CROmed Research and Services

    Dear Iker, besides the above answers I think you migh consider using highly metastatic cell lines to be inoculated orthotopically. One such type of cancer cells is breast cancer, you can take look even in ATCC there are a number of highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines you can just inject into the mammary fat pad of Nu/Nu or SCID mice. Second easy type is melanoma cells. If you drop me a message I will share some researcher connections who could send such cells. Nowadays you can even buy genetically engineered mice that will develop metastatic breast cancer in their life span.

  • Salwa Suliman added an answer:
    Do human fibroblasts get transformed on S.C injection into mice?

    I have injected human fibroblasts into mice. On harvesting the tumors, will I have a combination of mouse and human fibroblasts or human fibroblasts transformed into mouse like. How can they be differentiated?

    Salwa Suliman · University of Bergen

    You might find this info useful:
    We tried injecting normal human fibs in immunodeficient mice subcutaneously co-cultured with dysplastic epithelial cells and no tumours were formed, however co-cultured with fibs derived from oral carcinoma generated tumours from the dysplastic cells.
    I agree with Petra, we used human Vimentin antibody (DAKO) (1:1000) and it worked well to identify the injected human fibs.
    Good luck!

  • Zeynep Nesli Erdem added an answer:
    What are the appropriate control groups when using a stably transfected cancer cell to induce tumours in mice which will receive different treatments?

    We would like to establish tumour-bearing mice models by using a cancer cell that have been stably transfected with a plasmid. Several different groups will be established which will receive different treatments. So far, we have a control group that will not be injected with any cancer cells (normal control) and we have a control tumour group which will not receive any treatment. What we want to know, is whether we have to include control groups where the mice have been injected with the non-transfected cell line (i.e. does not contain the plasmid)? If it is needed, is it oky to just include one such group (i.e. a control tumour group not containing any plasmid and not receiving any treaments)? Or do we have to include such groups for each of the different treatments as well (i.e. a separate control tumour group without plasmid receiving treatment A, and also receiving treatment B, and also receiving treatment C and so on..)? The problem is, if this is really needed, the study gets really big, and the cost involved with that large amount of mice is too much. I hope I'm explaining this clearly. Any help or advice will be greatly appreciated!

    Zeynep Nesli Erdem · Medical University of Vienna

    I'm sure you're quite excited, just recently experienced it myself.

    We already planned our mice experiment and here's how it looks like:

    • mice injected with control cell line (i.p)
    1. without treatment
    2. with drug A treatment
    3. with drug B treatment
    4. with combined A+B treatment
    • mice injected with transfected cells (overexpressing gene Y, (or knockdown cells, in that case you'd also need scrambled cells as stated above)) with groups as above..
    1. without treatment
    2. with drug A treatment
    3. with drug B treatment
    4. with combined A+B treatment

    For each group you calculate n mice => in total n*4 for control cells, plus n*4 for the transfected cells (plus n*4 of the other transfected cells if you have other cell lines to be tested; and in our case n is 4)

    (Thanks to Walter Berger and Petra Heffeter who are both experienced in those experiments)

    Wish you good luck.

  • Leah Wuescher added an answer:
    Could I do repeated intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) in mice?

    We want to test the effect of a small-molecular compound on tumor development, and plan to run daily i.p. injection for 10 weeks in C57BL/6.  Would this seriously hurt the mice?  Thanks a lot.

    Leah Wuescher · University of Toledo

    Firstly, make sure your IACUC (regulatory body) has approved everything!  I do IP injections every 48h on platelet depleted mice and have had no issue, but I have not attempted daily injections.  What I try to do is alternate the side I am injecting on as to not continuously puncture the same area.  The skin can become thick with scar tissue making it harder to inject which is uncomfortable to the mice.  A point of caution, when injecting on the mouse's left side be mindful of the cecum, it is large and can be punctured fairly easily.  However, if you have proper restraining and injection techniques it should not be an issue.  Also, I use a 27G needle and I am injecting a volume of 100ul typically.  

  • Dipankar Ash added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest any adjvant to make better subcatuneous tumors by AGS in nude mice?

    AGS tumor can be induced in nude mice subcutenously and we have some problems without adjvant.

    Dipankar Ash · National Institute of Immunology

    You can mix matrigel and PBS containing cells in 1:1 ratio and inject 200 micro L. Please take care of the age of the mice. They should be around 35-42 days.

  • Maritza Kruger added an answer:
    How can one evaluate the anti-oxidant effects of plants in animal models?

    I want to check plant extract as potential source of anti-oxidants in animal models, please can someone recommend a protocol for this.

    Thanks for time given to read this question.

    Maritza Kruger · Stellenbosch University

    It is important to investigate not only antioxidants in the blood (to see what they do in circulation), but also different tissue types. There are various types of assays that you can do. For example the ORAC assay...You can also measure the antioxidant enzymes directly in different assays.

  • Sirin A Adham added an answer:
    Could someone please provide intormation on where to purchase the cell line MDA-MB-231BO?
    I have read that it a subclone of MDA-MB-231 that preferentially metastasizes to bone.
    Sirin A Adham · Sultan Qaboos University

    Dear Pete,

    Were you able to get the MDA-MB-231BO from Dr. Yoneda?

  • Ashok Kumar Pandurangan added an answer:
    How do you induce mammary tumors in wistar rats?

    Do we get results? If yes then in how many days does the tumor develops?

    Ashok Kumar Pandurangan · Putra University, Malaysia

    DMBA model is widely used model for breast cancer in female rats. 

  • Wei Deng added an answer:
    How can one calculate tumor growth inhibition?


    I am looking for a formula to calculate tumor growth inhibition (%) and found people calculated this parameter using different formulas. Does anybody know if there is a standard way to calculate TGI%?

    Thank you.

    Wei Deng · Salk Institute

    Thank you, Khalid.


  • A. Ramos added an answer:
    I am looking for developing consistent/reliable tumor model in mice with MCF7 cell line?

    I greatly appreciate your input

    A. Ramos · Spanish National Research Council

    REPETITION, but including the paper title:


    The reference below is a recent work related with your interest in tumor model in mice with cell line: "Sapodilla Plum (Achras sapota) Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cell Lines and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice".

    By: Mrinal Srivastava, Mahesh Hegde, Kishore K. Chiruvella, Jinsha Koroth, Souvari Bhattacharya, Bibha Choudhary & Sathees C. Raghavan. Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 6147 doi:10.1038/srep06147. 21 August 2014

    I hope, it is of interest for you.


  • Sandeep Rajput added an answer:
    Which cancer cell types express opiate receptors?

    Can anyone please tell me the cancer cell type which expresses opiate receptors (any sub-types). Please also let me know how the opiate growth factor receptor (OGF receptor) relates to the opiate receptor?

    Thanks and regards


    Sandeep Rajput · Washington University in St. Louis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 1990; 87(9): 3294–3298.
    PMCID: PMC53886
    Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines.
    R Maneckjee and J D Minna

    Opioid therapy and tumor

  • Hongsheng Ong added an answer:
    How can one generate a solid melanoma tumour mice model?

    I have injected 1 x 10^5 B16F10 cells (resuspended in 200uL of PBS) subcutaneously into the left flank of C57BL/6 mice. However, after one week, no tumour was observed. Should I just try injecting more cells next time? Or is there anything that I should pay attention to? 

    Any advice will be greatly appreciated. Thanks! 

    Hongsheng Ong · Monash University (Australia)

    Thanks guys. It is day12 and I finally saw some tumour growth.

  • Mosayeb Rostamian added an answer:
    Which TLR4 agonist is better for vaccinating BALB/c mice with?

    I want to vaccinate BALB/c mice with a TLR4 agonist, for example MPL-SE, MPL-TDM or MPL-A.

    I do not know which agonist is better. Actually, I do not know the differences of these MPLs.

    Some articles use MPL-SE (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensant, Belgium) and some use (Sigma Aldrich). It was easy to find MPL-TDM, but I could not find the way to buy MPL-SE.

    Any opinions? Thanks in advance.

    Mosayeb Rostamian · Pasteur Institute of Iran (IPI)

    Thank you Sandeep

    Acctually I want to finally test the whole product (Vaccine+ TLR4 Agaonist) on human cells, as you know i could not use LPS on human so is not better to use MPL which is aproved for human use, for all my experiments? If you agree with me the question is remained unanswered!

  • Vivek Mahajan added an answer:
    What is the advantage of administering drugs via mice jugular vein rather than tail vein ?
    Administrating drugs through tail vein is limited by specific volume. Therefore I was wondering if boules administration via jugular vein could help me in overcoming this issue.
    Vivek Mahajan · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Injecting via jugular vein may bypass liver (portal vein) that would otherwise be in direct route through tail vein. 

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me exact injection site to develop orthotopic lung cancer in nude mice?

    I am trying to develop orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. I want to inject the single cell suspension directly into lung parenchyma without surgery . After injection of cell into the lung parenchyma, how do I  confirm tumor formation by physical observation?

    Anuj Singh · Syngene International Ltd.

    thanks to all for your valuable tips

  • Karuppaiya Vimala added an answer:
    How do siRNA directly bind with the PEG Coated Nanoparticle?
    Surface modified nanoparticle used to carry for drug
    Karuppaiya Vimala · Bharathiar University

    Thank You for your valuable answer

  • Yiren Xiao added an answer:
    A549 lung metastasis model
    Has anybody done the tail vein injection of A549 for the lung metastasis? If so, what is the condition like and which animal do you use?
    Yiren Xiao · Chinese Academy of Sciences

    i had tried A549 via tail vein injection. i injected 1x10^6 cell for each mice after the cell were digested from the flask and wash once with pbs then resuspend in 100ul pbs.

  • Younes BOUALLEGUI added an answer:
    What drives to predict the signaling cascade in response of a particular stimuli?
    I just want to know how to predict the response of a cell that activated a signalling event. I wish to discover any fundamental or computational tool to predict the signalling events.
    If any exist, by giving the search phrase to the web to predict the possible mechanisms at dependent experimental conditions?
    Younes BOUALLEGUI · University of Carthage

    Best regards to thomas, realy he didn't let anything to say, very good sayed, i absolutely agree with him.

  • Denise Priolli added an answer:
    Does 5-fluorouracil work orally on nude mice xenograft model of colon cancer? and what is the dosage ?

    can i give 5-FU orally to nude mice 

    Denise Priolli · Universidade São Francisco

    Three oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapies have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or are in development for the treatment of cancer: capecitabine, UFT, and 5-FU/eniluracil. These are good to use in animal model.

  • Da Yong Lu added an answer:
    What is the difference in metastatic potential of B16-F10 and B16-F1 cell lines?

    Does anyone have experience regarding the difference in metastatic potential of B16-F10 and B16-F1 cells? How much longer would B16-F1 cells need to cause a substantial number of metastasis in the mouse lung when injected i.v.?

    I found quite different statements in literature. Some showing almost no metastasis, some showing a huge number of metastasis after 2 weeks.

    Thanks in advance!

    Da Yong Lu · Shanghai University

    It was reported by Prof Fidler and his colleagues about the beginning of 1980s. They injested B16 tumor cells into footpad of mice and collected pulmonary tissues to regrow tumor cells in vitro--call B16-F2. The B16-F2 tumor again injected into footpad normal mice and after amount of time, pulmonary tissues were culture and tumor cells was called B16-F3,----. Now many commercial B16-F10 have been serially transplanted in vivo or in vitro, their metastatic abilities are complemised by these transplantation.

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