Cancer Animal Models

Cancer Animal Models

  • Ibrahim Ethem Gecim added an answer:
    What is the best animal model for studying colon cancer? Is Zebra fish a good model for studying colon cancer?

    Can we use zebrafish as an animal model for studying colon cancer? 

    Ibrahim Ethem Gecim

    I studied in vivo colon cell lines in Balb-C mice . They grow very well and good for surgical models

  • Mahitab Elsayed added an answer:
    Any advice on a liver metastasis experiment where mice were injected with pancreatic cancer cells but after three weeks no tumor was found?

    but after three weeks no tumor was found in the liver either in large number of cancer cell , anyone know what could be the problem?

    Mahitab Elsayed

    Mia Paca-2 cells

  • Amirali Bukhari added an answer:
    Why are HO15.19 rat1a cells not forming tumors in female nude mice, 22 days after injection?

    Hello everyone,

    our problem is non formation of tumors in xenograft expt. We are using female nude mice.

    We injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing Myc as follows:

    1. First female nude mouse: we injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing WT Myc : 2 million cells+matrigel into one flank and 3 million cells in PBS into another flank.

    2. Second female mouse: we injected HO15.19 (rat1 a) cells expressing mutant Myc : 1 million cells in matrigel into one flank and 5 million cells in PBS on another flank.

    It has been 22 days and we still see no trace of tumors. Can anyone help troubleshoot the problem. I am a novice in the field and had not done tumorigenesis studies before?

    Amirali Bukhari

    As Robert mentioned, the viability of your cell suspension is the MOST important factor in tumor formation in NUDE/SCID mice. In addition to the suggestions provided by Robert, you should also use a larger gauge needle. Possibly 22G or 24G so as to ensure minimum damage to the cells when being passed through the needle.

    Many a times, it also happens that if the time interval between cell harvesting and injection extends, the cells tend to settle down. It is very important to bring the pellet back in a homogeneous mixture using a pipette before taking them up in a syringe.

    Also, you could check with your animal house facility on the quality of immunocompromised mice that you are being provided with. If the quality is fine and that is not the factor that is causing problems with tumor formation, then you could also try using NOD/SCID mouse instead of NUDE mouse for tumor formations. I hope this will help. Good luck!

  • Denise Priolli added an answer:
    Does anybody has any experience with 786-O(RCC) induced xenograft nude mice models?
    Any suggestions about the optimum cell no. for inoculation as I had inoculated 786-O (5 *10 ^ 6 cells/animal, Subcutaneously in flank region) in CD1 nude mice. After one week I observed tumorous swellings up to 100 mm3 at the site of inoculation and then it disappeared after the 2nd week. What could be the reason?
    Denise Priolli

    The routine for renal adenocarcinoma/786 is the fast growth followed by disappearance of tumor due to NK response in nude mice. In a pilot that I conducted with three animals  I had successonly in one animal, but after re-inoculation of 4X10E6 cells. The literature reports that the xenograft works in BALB/c nu beige or SCID but I have no experience with these strains.

  • Prasanta Kumar Ray added an answer:
    How can I induce breast cancer in mouse?

    I want to study the effects of herbal drugs on breast cancer in animal models.

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    Try DMBA, it surey works in Sprague Dawley Ratsl

  • Majid Asadi-Samani added an answer:
    How can I induce prostate cancer in mouse?

    I want to study the effects of natural drugs on prostate cancer in animal models.

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    Thanks a lot all.

  • Prakash Srinivasan Timiri Shanmugam added an answer:
    Anyone familiar with prostate epithelial primary cell culture?

    I dissected the TRAMP mice prostate (castrated mice and intact mice), and I chopped the tissue to grow the primary cell line. I got a cell colony, but when I added trypsin, those colonies didn't grow. Can anyone help me, what percent trypsin do I have to use, and what is the growth media? Any other information?

    Prakash Srinivasan Timiri Shanmugam

    Dear Dr. Jacques,

    please can you send that full article to my e-mail id:

  • Kyle Potts added an answer:
    What is the best way for cancer cells infusion in bladder site in nude mice models?

    Someone with experience in nude mice models, can advise the best way to instill in bladder cancer cells??
    I'll perform an experiment for test the ability of several cancer cells to attach and growth like a tumoral mass in bladder. I've never try to infuse the cells directly in bladder site; ther are many ways or only one?

    Thanks a lot  :)

    Kyle Potts

    Hi Katia,

    We have had varying success with different cell lines and mouse strains for establishing orthotopic bladder tumors. There are also a mouse and rat immunocompetent models of bladder cancer that we actually use more frequently. We have had the most success a HCl then NaOH wash of the bladder before instilling the cells. You then need to let the cells sit in dwell for an hour while the mouse is anesthetized. We and others have also used Poly-L-Lysine treatment or a trypsin treatment of the bladder. Regardless of the method it is a pretty difficult procedure to get consistent tumor take. You also need some method to monitor the tumors like luciferase. Or for the rats we use an ultrathin cystoscope. What cell lines would you like to test? Feel free to contact me and I can send more information and pictures of our procedure setup.

  • Yusuf Dölen added an answer:
    Has anyone noticed CD3 expression in non-leukocytic populations in B16.F10 melanoma tissue infiltrates?

    When I characterize by FACS tumor infiltrates in mice transplanted s.c. with B16.F10 melanoma, I always find a population of CD3+CD45- cells. I wonder what other non-leukocytic populations could express CD3. Has anyone noticed the same?

    Yusuf Dölen

    I just rechecked my old FCS files but 45- cells are only more autofluorescent in my samples. CD3 is considered to be a conserved molecule for T cells and other possibilities should better be discarded first. If you wish I can have a look at one of your fcs files and make further suggestions.

  • Miguel A F Sanjuán added an answer:
    Why do ordinary differential equation (ODE) models of cancer suggest different behaviors for cancer cells?

    For validation part of my study, I need a comparison between my model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and ODE models of this area. But, I’m really confused because ordinary differential equation (ODE) models of cancer have suggested different behaviors for tumor and immune cell populations. For example, the below behaviors are reported by the survey of Eftimie et al. (2011) [1]:

    • Tumor size decreases exponentially through interactions with the immune cells.
    • Tumor size decreases at first. Then, the decay of immune cells leads to an exponentially increase in it again.
    • Tumor size decays in an oscillatory manner.
    • Tumor size grows in an oscillatory manner.

    I don’t understand the reason of the difference! And, I don’t know which behavior is right. Could anyone possibly help me, please?


    [1] Eftimie, Raluca, Jonathan L. Bramson, and David JD Earn. "Interactions between the immune system and cancer: a brief review of non-spatial mathematical models." Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 73.1 (2011): 2-32.

    Miguel A F Sanjuán

    I agree with Joseph Malinzi. It might depend on the chosen parameters to obtain a different behavior of course, and certainly you can use a logistic or Gompertz growth term in your model equation, but as Dr. Malinzi says, this has nothing to do with the interaction with the T cells.

  • Anaka Desmond asked a question:
    Any guidance on the best way to induce benign prostate hyperplasia in rats and the company that can supply the reagents involved ?

    Any guidance on the best way to induce benign prostate hyperplasia in rats and the company that can supply the reagents involved ?

  • Mariam-Eleni Oraiopoulou added an answer:
    Is there anyone interested in a GBM orthotopic animal model collaborator request?

    Hi Everyone,

    I am looking for a collaborator to do GBM orthotopic animal model work please. I am a senior post-doctoral researcher in The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. I have several patient-derived GBM cell lines which are luciferase positive and would like to find an established group who are interested in collaborating for nanoparticle-mediated delivery mechanisms, the final part of my project please? I look forward to hearing from you. Kindest Regards, Amanda

    Mariam-Eleni Oraiopoulou

    Hello, my name is Mariam-Eleni Oraiopoulou and I am first year PhD candidate in NeuroOncology in the University of Crete, Greece. More info here:

    The aim of our project focuses on creating Avatars of GB patients for monitoring the disease progress. We are still in the pilot experiments phase, trying to standardize our protocols. We are using mice which are orthotopically transplanted with patient-derived GB cells. In the meanwhile, we are trying to establish our own GB cell line with permanent expression of fluorophores.

    I am writing in case we can be of any help to your research and why not share our views and expertise since we follow a similar research path. Please, if interested, send us more information regarding your project.

    Thank you in advance.

    -Marilena Oraiopoulou-

  • Carol A Gray added an answer:
    Is there a well-established research protocol to induce prostate cancer in dogs and are there good biomarkers?

    I am part of a multidisciplinary research group at the University of Saskatchewan Canada, who are studying prostate cancer. I am wondering if there is well established research protocol to induce prostate carcinoma in dogs. We need dogs with prostate carcinoma to use for imaging studies.

    Anybody who has a protocol or can help do this and would like to establish collaboration?

    Thanks very much

    Ahmad Al-Dissi                                                                            

    Carol A Gray

    Agree with the answers above; ethically, most researchers now think that companion animals (cats and dogs) must benefit from any cancer research that involves using them, so naturally occurring cases are the only option.

  • Negin Malekian added an answer:
    Could anybody recommend me any good data about population of tumor cells and immune cells during carcinogenesis?

    I’m looking for the number of “tumor cells” and “effector cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)” at different time steps of “ductal carcinoma in situ”. I need these data to validate my model. I were wondering if anybody could help me to find this data or suggest me another method to validate my model of tumor-immune interaction.

    Negin Malekian

    Thanks every one,

    Unfortunately, I found out obtaining such data is infeasible because I asked one expert and he said that even in mice, obtaining such data is infeasible. He pointed out that even when using a “really good” mouse DIC model, the pace of local cellular events at different close by DCIS sites will be different. “From several tissue level DCIS measurement perspectives, the mouse model is reproducible. Yet from other measurement perspectives, there is considerable heterogeneity.” So, I want to relax my question and evaluate my model qualitatively rather than quantitatively
    Now, my question is:

    “Is there any information about the behavior of “tumor cells” and “effector cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)?”. I mean which behavior tumor cells would show through interactions with the immune cells (i.e., an exponentially decrease, an exponentially increase, an oscillatory decrease, an oscillatory increase, or some thing else).

  • Misty Wakler added an answer:
    What irradiation dose can be applied to selectively deplete/reduce BM dells but not peripheral immune cells in mice?

    I would like to reduce the numbers of BM cells through irradiation and reconstitute with new BM cells, or not. The goal would be to study whether peripheral immune cell precursors are able to regenerate the hematopoetic system without BM-precursors.

    Misty Wakler

    Regeneration by plasticity or transdifferentiation.  Cell-cell fusion.  BM stromal cell:  progression checkpoints influenced by fetal liver and adult bone marrow stromal cell macroenvironment.

  • Rozita Nasiri added an answer:
    Are DMBA-induced tumors folate positive or negative receptors?

    subcutaneous injection of 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to the mice 

    Rozita Nasiri

    Dear Dr. Llya Tsyrlov 

    I am very appreciated and thankful of you for the great comment about DMBA-induced tumors. I would be more thankful of you if you send me any related references for FRα expression on DMBA-induced tumors or any simple method to detect its expression on the DMBA-induced tumors. 

    Best regards
    Rozita Nasiri

  • Rozita Nasiri asked a question:
    Which type of cells establish cervical cancer or folate positive receptor cancer in normal balb/c mice?

    I am going to use normal balb/c mice to establish folate positive receptors cancerous mice. As 90% of cervical cancer are folate positive receptors, I was thinking that it consider as a good model. Any other suggestion would be appreciated. 

  • Guozhong Qin added an answer:
    How can I induce immune suppression in normal laboratory balb/c mice using drugs or other simple methods?

    Does anybody know that how I can induce immune suppression in balb/c mice using drugs or any other simple method? Needless to say I cannot use nude or SCID mice in our conventional animal lab. On the other hand, I want to establish cancerous mice using human cancer injection after I get immunosuppressive balb/c mice. Thanks in advance.

    Guozhong Qin

    Dear Rozita,

    You can try B cell, T cell and NK cell depletion using anti-B cell, anti-T cell and anti-NK cell antibodies.

  • Gudrun Lang added an answer:
    What is the protocol for wax infiltration of mouse kidney?

    we use an automatic infiltrator in our lab which can be programmed to change alcohols at set times and can let the tissue sit in wax for a set time. does anyone know the optimum times for alcohol washes and wax incubation?

    i've done liver samples before, for which i've used 1 hour each in 100%-30% alcohols, 1 hr each in citrosolv (twice), and half an hour each in wax (twice).

    i want to know if there is a different timing system for kidneys.


    Gudrun Lang

    As long as Ganesh works with an infiltration-instrument, the times with 1-2 hours will be sufficient.

  • Geraldo A Passos added an answer:
    How can I choose mice mammary tumors for microarray?
    I want to isolate mice tumors from both MMTV-PyMT control mice and MMTV-PyMT mice with a special gene knock-out. The question is how to choose the tumors for microarray? Should the tumors be age matching or size matching or histological matching? For one sample, should be just one tumor or merging like 3 biggest tumors per mice? Or should merge different mice in one sample?
    Geraldo A Passos

    For further reading about transcriptome analysis (microarrays and RNA-Seq) I suggest a recent publication from our group:

    Assis AF et al (2014) Chapter 1: What is the transcriptome and how it is evaluated ? In Transcriptomics in Health and Disease. Passos GA (Editor). Springer International. 374 pp.

  • Anusha Mishra added an answer:
    Can we use female rat instead of male for lung cancer studies?

    Single intra peritoneal dose of benzo(a)pyrene will be used to induce lung cancer. 

    Anusha Mishra

    There are so many differences that researchers are starting to discover about gender differences that excluding either sex would probably present a big confound. As already mentioned by the above replies, it is best to include both sexes in doing experiments. This will ensure that the effects observed are true for both sexes (especially for clinically transferable research such as cancer) and if a pattern of difference between the sexes emerge, you might discover something important and ground-breaking. Imagine if a protocol that induces lung cancer in males doesn't do so in females, that would be a very interesting thing to study in itself!

  • Zul Gerel added an answer:
    Which lung and liver cancer cell lines do you find grow best in nude mice?

    We have synthesized liposomes for siRNA delivery and aims to examine in vitro and in vivo. Which lung and liver cancer cell lines do you find grow best in nude mice?

    Zul Gerel

    THX All!

  • Rohitash Jamwal added an answer:
    Is the ORAC test reliable or with any biological relevance to measure antioxidants capacities in plasma of mice ?

    Rodent model of colon cancer. Is the ORAC test reliable or with any biological relevance to measure antioxidants capacities in plasma of mice ?

    Rohitash Jamwal

    If you want to get rid of the proteins, use protein filters and concentrate your sample. Lyophilise the residual water which will contain the hydrophilic compounds which are free and not protein bound. Use this to get an estimate of the anti-oxidant capacity. After all protein bound analytes are rarely active.

  • Rozita Nasiri added an answer:
    Does anybody know about cell line injections in immunocompetent balb/c mice?

    I am developing two different cancer models in immunocompetent balb/c mice by subcutaneusly injection of Hela and SK-BR-3 cell lines. Appreciate any suggestions.Is there any option to generate tumor in an immunocompetent balb/c mice?. Can we make them immonodeficient? If there is no possibility to use immunocompetent balb/c mice then which type of mice is suggested?  

    Rozita Nasiri

    Thanks a lot for this great comment. 

  • Prijovic Mirko Zeljko added an answer:
    Why did balb/c mice lost their hair one month after subcutaneusly injection of Hela cancer cell?

    The immunocompetent balb/c mice were injected by Hela cell lines. They lost their hair one month after injection, but there is no cancer bumping yet. 

    Prijovic Mirko Zeljko

    Stress itself may cause hair loss at mice. Contamination with hair follicle mites is another reason. May not be related to cells injected.

  • Hem Chandra Jha added an answer:
    Any advice on the quantification of mice tumors?

    How to measure tumor size in corel pictures. Suppose I have mice pictures with tumors and these tumors are separated from body part. The problem in the quantification of tumor size as by visual and corel measurement not looks correct. Someone have an idea how to quantify these tumors? Thanks in advance.

    Hem Chandra Jha

    Thank you Saleh and Lakshman Ji...

  • Khalid El BAIRI added an answer:
    Why do we prefer male rats instead of female for cancer studies?

    Ca we use female rats for chemical induced lung cancer.?

    Khalid El BAIRI

    It depends on the type of cancer 

  • Victoria E. Palau added an answer:
    Is there any alternative for propylene glycol (Propanediol) in Ehlrich Ascites carcinoma models?

    Dear all..

    Kindly suggest the alternate for Propylene glycol which is commonly used as a vehicle control in the experiments (Genotoxicity and  antitumor studies) pertaining to EAC models..and also explain why propylene glycol is the most preferred vehicle control for comparison studies done using chemotherapeutic agents.

    I have attached an article for better understanding..

    Thank you

    Victoria E. Palau

    Not really, it depends on your agent and its solubility properties (polarity). This will determine which dissolution vehicle you will use (ethanol,  acetone, DMSO, etc.) It is important to prepare a stock solution so you can keep the concentration of the dissolution vehicle below toxic levels.

  • Mohd.Ahmar Rauf added an answer:
    How can I Induce breast cancer in model mice animals?

    I have been working on development of delivery system for breast cancer and had to check my formulations for the same

    Mohd.Ahmar Rauf

    Thanks Robert clarke sir ,lucia mam 

  • Anuj Singh added an answer:
    Which colorectal cancer forms faster tumors in athymic mice? Caco-2 or HT-29?

    I want to grow tumors using either Caco-2 or HT-29 in male balb/c mice. Which of these cell lines would be recommended in terms of ease of maintenance of the cell line in culture as well as time taken to grow tumors in vivo? Also which of the two cell lines is considered more aggressive?

    Anuj Singh


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