• Bharath K N added an answer:
    Which Biopolymer (PLA, Natural rubber Latex, Epoxidised Soya oil etc) is rarely used with Natural fiber?

    Biopolymer selection for compounding with Natural Fiber.

    Mfg method for that biopolymer to mix with natural fiber.

    Bharath K N · GM Institute of Technology, Davangere

    Hi Yashwant,

    Select polymer based on your application of the composites. 

  • Wang Xiwen added an answer:
    Except for the TEM, what else can be done to confirm the Nano scale of cellulose fibers?

    extraction cellulose nanofiber with chemomechanical method

    Wang Xiwen · South China University of Technology

    AFM piority

  • Fengfu Li added an answer:
    How can I reduce activity of glutaraldehyde?
    I tired to decrease its temperature and concentration before adding to the protein solution to slow down the activity. What more can I do? Could you please help me?
    Fengfu Li · Ottawa Hospital Research Institute

    I agree to the previous  suggestion that low the pH, it should work.

  • Saadi Bin Qasim added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest me an adoptable procedure(s) to synthesize PLA nanoparticles of size around 75-100nm?

    I had gone through certain procedures. Some used rare stabilizers like plant extracts (which are not easily accessible), copolymers or the synthetic procedures are vague like they did not mentioned how they synthesized PLA precursor.

    Saadi Bin Qasim · The University of Sheffield

    Use Chiotsan , its biodegradable and use sodium tipolyphosphate to make nano particles, parameters can be easily controlled

  • Gustavo Cabrera added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of a Biopolymer material which has film-forming ability and anti-microbial activity as well?

    Hello researchers,

    I'm a grad student in food packaging lab and my professor gave me a mission(!) to find a biopolymer material from by-products which has both of film-forming and anti-microbial ability.

    I know that many great researchers have developed different kinds of biodegradable films made by agricultural by-products such as apple puree, apple peel, banana peel, etc. But as I know, most of them are incorporated with additional anti-microbial agents to provide anti-microbial ability and to be used as a food packaging material.   

    So I've been struggling with finding a by-product(biomass) which satisfies the two requirements.

    If you have any ideas for this, please help! I would greatly appreciate them.

    It would be much better if the material is from marine source.

    Gustavo Cabrera · Center for Research, Develpment and Innovation (CIDI), Grupo Hijuelas

    Dear Lee,

    I think chitosan is one of your options as Basaran said. You can read a couple of papers dealing with this matter:

    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(8), 3298-3307, 2009.

    You can also download or request from this page on Research Gate more papers :

    Good luck!!


  • Farwa Sarwat added an answer:
    Is methanol a suitable solvent for the purification of biopolymers for biomedical applications?
    I need a methanol-free purified polymer for controlled release.
    Farwa Sarwat · University of Karachi

    very informative and interesting

  • Khaled Elbanna added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest a simple and easiest procedure for the extraction of PHA?

    Im working in PHA biopolymer from microbial culture. can any one suggest the cheap and simplest procedure for the extraction of biopolymer

    Khaled Elbanna · Fayoum University

    at the large scal production , after fermentation period , in the same fermenter, Just make sterilization at 110 oC for 15 min , then centrifuge the sample and wash it three times with acetone 

  • Raghavan Princy added an answer:
    How can polyhydroxyalkanoate production be quantified?

    Other than extraction of PHA from bacterial cells are there any other methods to quantitatively analyse PHA

    Raghavan Princy · Madurai Kamaraj University

    Thank you all for your valuable and supportive information shared !

  • Ana Hortelão added an answer:
    Which are the biopolymers used for the topical drug delivery system?

    I want to know the list of novel biopolymers allowed to use for the topical drug delivery.

    If you're looking for some form of nanocarrier for topical application you need to take into account its toxicity, so maybe think about water soluble polymers that are also biocompatible rather than thinking just about polymers with quick degradation rate.

  • Karla Kaminski added an answer:
    Does anyone know impact of several agropolymers in crops ?

    I need some information about polymers (sugar polymers) and applications in crops.

    I read a lot of paper, but not enough about impact on roots of crops or Arabidopsis of this type of molecules (Polymers- Polysaccharide ..)
    Can you help me please ?

    Thanks !

    Karla Kaminski · Hochschule Rhein-Waal

    Impact on roots is highly related to exact dosage especially for superabsorbent polymers. Overdosage resulted in reduced root growth of roots, exact dosage induced root growth.

  • Nivedita Patra added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a spectrophotometry based method for the estimation of biopolymer PHB (Poly hydroxy butyrate)?

    PHB is generally estimated using GC

    Nivedita Patra · National Institute of Technology Rourkela

    Thank you!

  • Ximena Barrios added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me why my solvent casting method doesn't work any more?

    I am trying to produce films from poly lactic acid with solvent casting method in Petri dishes.

    My protocol was measured between 1 to 7 grams of PLA (it depends on the thickness that I want to obtain) and dissolve it in 30 mL of DCM. Then I wait the solvent evaporate at room temperature until the solution reaches 20 mL and put it in a Petri dish covered with Teflon, and finally wait the solvent evaporation at room temperature, too.

    This method worked perfectly a couple of months ago, but now I just obtained films as you can see in these pictures.

    So, I would like to know if anyone can figure out a possible solution, or maybe tell me a better protocol to follow.

    Ximena Barrios · University of Chile

    Thanks to all of you!

    My first idea was that could be changed some environment condition, so I changed and controlled the temperature and rate evaporation, but there weren't the problem. And I was very careful to do the correct protocol, of course. I probed different ratios of solvent a PLA and a petri dish small, too. And, sadly,  I got the same results.

    Now and for all your comment, I think that my PLA is degraded. It was stored in bad condition before I will use it, so maybe that is the reason. I am trying to get a new stock of PLA and corroborate this idea. I will tell you my results.

    Thank you again! 

  • Firdos Jahan added an answer:
    As I am preparing calcium chloride cross linked chitosan pva blend ,to characterize thermal properties is dsc is better than tga? Should I go for dsc?

    I am working on crosslinking biopolymers.

    Firdos Jahan · Gulbarga University

    thnq for ur valuable suggestion

  • Hazim J. Haroosh added an answer:
    Can two different molecular weights of the same polymer be used for electrospinning?

    For synthesis of nanofibers by electrospinning can a single polymer with higher and lower molecular weights be used instead of a single higher molecular weight? Does the blending influence the fibre diameter? Will the blend have any effect on degradation of the nanofibre membrane?

    Hazim J. Haroosh · Curtin University Australia

    Certainly, you can utilize polymers with different molecular weight. That will effect on solution viscosity, solution concentration and fibre diameter.

  • Amipara Manilal D added an answer:
    Where to purchase a moisture content analyzer for solid materials?
    Can anyone suggest a good company for purchasing a moisture content analyzer? The sample amount available for measurement will be few mg and it is polymer film (synthetic as well as biopolymer). Temperature range up to 200C.
    Amipara Manilal D · Balaji Institute of Engineering & technology, Junagadh

    You can take convenient stock of polymer weigh it, put into Microwave oven for drying it sufficiently. Weigh again. Difference of weight is moisture content.

    Alternately, professional dielectric dryers are available, which shows indication of total drying status. you can use dryer in place of Microwave oven. (Both are working on same principle but in a microwave oven you have to judge dryness your own  

  • Siddharth Bhasney asked a question:
    Can we make a ternary blend of thermoplastics, biopolymers and natural polymers?

    Is this possible?

  • Hossein Shaki added an answer:
    Can someone suggest any protocol to functionalize biopolymer/surfactant aggregates?
    I work with carboxymethyl cellulose and CTAB to form aggregates, and the next step is functionalizin., Does someone have experience in the amidation process of carboxyl groups? Which is the best reagent for it? Which is the best and easiest procedure?
    Hossein Shaki · Tarbiat Modares University

    You can apply different methods: First, Carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), this reagent used to link carboxyl group to amine group. This is a non-aqueous reaction.

    Second, N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), NHS ester crosslinking reagents couple principally with the alfa-amines at the N-terminals.

    Third, NHS esters also may be formed in situ to react immediately with target molecules in aqueous reaction media. Using the water-soluble carbodiimide EDC.

  • Prathap Reddy added an answer:
    How do I convert ug/ml biopolymer to a uM solution?

    I purchased poly dA-dT.poly dA-dT 10 unit packs from sigma and the concentration was found spectrophotometrically. I got a weight of this product in ug/ ml but I would like to prepare a uM solution of this one. So can anybody suggest to me how to do this? Or does anyone know what is the exact molecular weight of this biopolymer?

    Prathap Reddy · Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

    I have one query, in calculation do we have to take E value 6600 or 13200.

    I have done in this way

    Formula C = (OD 260/Extinction coefficient) x Dilution factor
    OD 260 = 0.034
    DF=10 uL aliquet DNA diluted with 990 uL water
    Extinction coefficient = 13200 M-1 cm-1 

    C = (0.034/ 13200) x 100
    = 0.00025833 M
    = 258.33 uM

  • Amrita Rath added an answer:
    Anyone can tell me the use frequencies of the mentioned biopolymers?

    I want to know the use frequencies (in final application, not during the test )of different bio-based products like edible film, scaffold, micro-capsules for drug delivery.

    Amrita Rath · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    I think my question is not clear....

    By use frequency I mean for e.g  heart valves have use frequency of 1.2 Hz, contact lens-16 Hz, air bag opening-10k Hz. Like that what is it for edible films or scaffold.

  • Kodandaraman Viswanathan added an answer:
    Can MALDI mass spectrometry detect an RNA duplex?
    MALDI mass spec is an excellent technique used to determine the mass of short biopolymers, such as single-stranded RNAs, but can the same technique be used to detect a non-covalently linked RNA duplex? That is to say, two fully complementary RNA strands are held together by hydrogen bonding alone. My prediction is that MALDI will be able to detect both strands separately, but not the duplex as one entire unit since they're not covalently linked. Any insight into this question will be most helpful.
    Kodandaraman Viswanathan · USV Limited

    Sure, Change the Concentrations (RNA duplex first/ Then if it does not work Change the Matrix/ if That does not work Change the pH, Solvent etc.

    One of those combinations will allow you to get to the MALDI PEAKS with isotopic distribution corroborating the presence of the duplex/ or singlet

  • Ivi Martins de Carvalho added an answer:
    How to present a correct TGA result?

    We are trying to present the TGA results for a biopolymer, is there any current standard for that?

    Some examples we found:
    Onset - DTG Peak-mass loss (from onset to peak?)
    DTG Peak - mass loss (cumulative of stage referred to peak)


    Thank you all for the answers, but my question is about how to best describe it (REPORT THE FINDINGS),  once you have already plotted (represented) TGA and DTG curves.

    As in: how to refer to a stage in the text or in a table, to help the reader to understand your point of view.

    Ivi Martins de Carvalho · University of Campinas

    Thank you all!  I am going to follow the report method  of the ASTM E2550 − 11, which suggests:

    14.1.7 The onset temperature and mass change of all reactions observed.
    NOTE 18—If replicates were performed, the report should include the
    number of tests, the mean values and the standard deviations of the onset
    temperature and mass change

  • Shanker Lal Shrivastava added an answer:
    How can we measure or calculate the molecular weight of the maltodextrines with different dextrose equivalents?
    I have DE 5-7 and DE18-20 maltodextrines and do not have the specifications.
    Shanker Lal Shrivastava · IIT Kharagpur

    Join the link:

  • Sebastian Seiffert added an answer:
    How do you crosslink PEG DA hydrogel with degradable linkers?

    I want to degrade PEG DA through enzymes. How do I crosslink PEG DA with degradable linkers? Is this a tricky procedure?

    Sebastian Seiffert · Freie Universität Berlin

    Dear Karthik,

    In addition to Hubbell's and Lutolf's great work on enzyme-cleavable gels, recommended in the previous reply, there's been an approach to forming pH-degradable hydrogels by Haag and co-workers.  Here's the reference:
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52(51), 13538–13543.

    Greetings from Berlin,
    Sebastian Seiffert

  • Titus Sobisch added an answer:
    In your opinion, what is the reason for chitosan nanoparticle aggregation?
    I have prepared chitosan nanoparticles with diameter of 40-80 nanometers as confirmed by AFM. In the second step, we prepared bionanocomposite films based on protein and chitosan nanoparticles. But in the higher particle loading, agglomeration of particles in film is observed. What is the main cause of this phenomenon? Thank you in advance for your collaboration.
    Titus Sobisch · LUM GmbH

    Maybe electrostatic attraction or depletion flocculation

  • Hossein Shaki added an answer:
    How can you measure the molecular weight of a synthetic polymer?
    In our laboratory we synthesized a new polymer by adding some molecules as branches on the base polymer chain. The molecular weight of the base polymer chain and molecules which were added are known.
    Hossein Shaki · Tarbiat Modares University
    Dear Shashank
    Thank you for your kind help.
    It would be my pleasure if you send me your papers.
    My email address is:
  • Taufiq Ahmad added an answer:
    Can anyone please tell me the correct binding energy of c=o and c-o components in an XPS peak?
    When I reported the binding energy of c=o and c-o 288.6 and 286.6 respectively to a journal, the reviewers told that binding energy of these components are high. I got these values from previously reported articles. Can anyone please guide me in this regard? My educational background is biology and I am new to XPS analysis. I will be really grateful for your responses.
    Taufiq Ahmad · Hanyang University
    Dear all... Thank You You very Much for Your valuable Information. Dear Dr Peter Dubruel we would contact you in case we have further doubts...
  • Stéphane Costeux added an answer:
    How can I decrease the temperature of gelatin solution?
    I need to decrease the temperature of homogeneous gelatin solution nearly 0 before adding cross-linker. But I have trouble. Because at low temperatures gelatin becomes solid and I can't add cross-linker. Could you please help me to cope with this problem?

About Biopolymers

Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.

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