• Amira H. Mohammed added an answer:
    Autism and Mental Retardation in patients is hard to differentiate between one and the other. Does amyloid plaque formation occur in both cases?

    Amyloid plaque formation has been implicated in Autism Spectrum Disord. But in a few papers i have found that it is very hard to diagnose if a patient is autistic or suffering from mental retardation. Because in both cases, symptoms seem to overlap one another. I was unable to find any paper linking amyloid plaque formation and Mental Retardation. Hence my question arose.

    Amira H. Mohammed · Misr University for Science & Technology

    from my experience, not all autistic children have mental retardation. it is depend on IQ level.

  • Ahmad Rayan added an answer:
    Can depressive symptoms differ between people?

    Signs and symptoms of depression in mothers of children with autism are frequently reported. However, based on extensive clinical observations and self reported data, I constantly observed that these mothers report specific depressive symptoms more than others. I did not observe this phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Is there any evidence supports this??? or it is a merely chance?  

    Ahmad Rayan · Zarqa University

    Interestingly, in Arab cultures women hide their feeling of inadequacy, or being unable to do their duties as a wife or a mother. They would want to look good in the eyes of their husbands and the community, because they feel shame when their husband or the community believe that the spouse should look for another wife! it is well-known that Arab men are permitted to marry more than one wife!

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    Does deafness increase the disability of autism?
    Severe disorders of language and speech are often present in infantile autism and congenital deafness. I think autism is a variant peripheral hearing disorder, but no one else takes this theory seriously and it is taken as axiomatic that autism is due to a primary brain disorder. There is definite clinical comorbidity between autism and deafness, consistent with the otogenic theory, but also with other explanations. However, there is a simple test for elucidating this link. A deaf-autistic child should have a dramatically increased linguistic handicap over a deaf or an autistic child. In fact the two handicaps are likely to combine multiplicatively rather than additively, as in deaf-blind children whose resultant overall handicap is greater than the sum of those of blindness and deafness. My impression is that there is no extra handicap in deaf-autism over autism, consistent with these being variants of a similar underlying peripheral disorder. If this is wrong, there should be plenty in the existing literature to refute this theory, so please give examples.
    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    Here is a study that confirms (at least based on the abstract below) the main premise of my question, that deafness does not increase the communication disability of autism, since deafness and autism are two sides of the same coin:

    Audiometric Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Subclinical
    Hearing Loss Impact Communication?
    Carly Demopoulos and Jeffrey David Lewine
    Rates of hearing impairment in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are higher than those reported in the general population. Although ASD is not caused by hearing impairment, it may exacerbate symptomatology. Participants with ASD (N 5 60) and typically developing peers (N 5 16) aged 5–18 years underwent a comprehensive audiological screening (pure tone audiometry, uncomfortable loudness level, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response) and assessment of communication abilities (expressive/receptive language, articulation, phonological awareness, and vocal affect recognition). Incidence of abnormal findings on at least one measure of audiological functioning was higher for the ASD group (55%) than controls (14.9%) or the general population estimate (6%). The presence of sound sensitivity was also considerably higher for the ASD group (37%) compared with controls (0%) or general population estimates (8–15%). When participants with ASD were dichotomized into groups with and without evidence of clinical audiological abnormality, no significant differences were identified on measures of communication; however, results of correlational analyses indicated that variability in hearing thresholds at middle range frequencies (2000 Hz) was significantly related to performance on all measures of speech articulation and language after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings suggest that dichotomized classification of clinical audiology may not be sufficient to understand the role of subclinical hearing loss in ASD symptomatology and that treatment studies for mild/subclinical hearing loss in this population may be worthwhile. Autism Res 2015, 00: 000–000.

  • Ahmad Rayan added an answer:
    Can nutrition therapy treat autism symptoms?

    Parents of children with ASD are frequently asking me about Nutrition Therapy for their children. I need some evidences about the topic. Do you agree using Nutrition Therapy for autism? is there any evidence about it?

    Ahmad Rayan · Zarqa University

    Thank you so much,

    Kind regards...

  • Flavio Guillen added an answer:
    Can oxygen therapy treat autism symptoms?

    Parents of children with ASD are frequently asking me about oxygen therapy for their children. I need some evidences about the topic. Do you agree using Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for autism? is there any evidence about it?

    Flavio Guillen · Hospital Regional Reynosa

    Ahmad there are some authors who reported improvement with this type of treatment, however their response is limited, and other authors do not find improvement in the symptoms of autism.

  • Frank R. Rusch added an answer:
    Has anyone used the success case research design for evaluating an educational framework?

    Researching the feasibility of using the SCERTS assessment model as a standard in English schools to build MDC.  Looking at consistency, sustainability, and professional development as well as the learner with autism and parents perceptions of the model.  Looking at the success case design by Robert Birkenhoff. Please let me know if you have heard of this used in education. Thank you. Melinda

    Frank R. Rusch · University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
    1. You need to narrow your question.
  • Sohoo Mujeeb ur Rehman added an answer:
    Is anyone familiar with Autism and Epilepsy, effectiveness of CBT?

    How effective is CBT for autistic characteristics in epilepsy if the ability to self-reflect is impaired?

    Sohoo Mujeeb ur Rehman · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University

    With Kind Regards,

    Thanks to everyone working in the field of Neurosciences, Neurogenesis and reserve for the welfare of mankind.

    Autism and  Epilepsy- Differences >  Brain - Anatomy- Histology- Physiology, Pathology, Molecular- Genetics. Nutrition / Many causes.

    Kind Regards, 

    Mujeeb ur Rehman Sohoo,


  • Carl Alexander Sorensen added an answer:
    Is the special type of questionnaire for children with autism spectrum disorder?

    Thank you for all the answers.

    best wishes

    Agnieszka Osmólska-Bogucka.

    Carl Alexander Sorensen · University of South Carolina

    If you are asking the children questions, it is important to tailor the format, wording, content, etc... to the functional level of the child(ren). Allison Randell at the University of South Carolina is currently running an intervention with tailored survey measures. I'm not sure if she's ready to share them yet, but you could always look her up and ask! She is on RG and is listed as one of my collaborators if that helps.

  • Anita Bailey added an answer:
    How do the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders differ between DSM-4 and DSM-5?

    what are the differences between DSM-4 and DSM-5 regarding diagnosis of ASD?

    Anita Bailey · Bournemouth University

    Hi all, I am a new on here and have a particular interest in autism, the links that have been given in answer to Ahmad's question are helpful to me too, nice and simple. Thankyou

  • Bujar Hoxha added an answer:
    What is your experience with omega in ADHD and autistic children?

    omega in ADHD and autistic children

    Bujar Hoxha · South East European University

     I guess that You know much more for ASD, Doctor. If I knew I would really help my child.



  • Ahmad Rayan added an answer:
    Is there any reference about the global prevalence of autism spectrum disorders?

    What is the global prevalence of autism spectrum disorders? Is there any statistics about ASD in developing and developed countries?

    Ahmad Rayan · Zarqa University

    Thank you Dear Nordahl-Hansen

  • Clair Bright added an answer:
    Gender Identity and autism?

    I'm doing a systematic lit rev on GID in ASD. I've found only a few case studies so far. Do you know of any research in this area? 

    Thank you

    Clair Bright · Norfolk and Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust

    The gender realignment clinic at the Tavistock in London would be a good place to link into.  Several people with Autism  that I have known through the service I work for have refered these young people to the tavistock clinic

  • Anu Murugaiyan added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend a conceptual frame to use for assessing parent views on the Gluten-free Casein free diet among children with autism?

    I am doing a research on parents view on the Gluten free-casein free (GFCF) diet among children with autism. What conceptual frame can I use? Any idea? I am looking into interviewing parents on their views on this diet. 

    Dear Brenda,

    Thank you for your suggestion, will look into it,

    Dear Vishnu,

    I looked up this model Parent Development Theory" (PDT) by Mowder. , and  I am thinking of modifying it. Thank you for the suggestion.

    Dear Carl,

    I am  looking into parents view and attitude towards the diet. Also going to add in the prob;ems that they are facing as well. 

  • A. M. Smith added an answer:
    What is the nutritional recommendation for the child with autism and /or Down syndrome in early developmental stages?

    There are different types of chronic care implemented for the child with autism and Down syndrome, but what is the nutritional component of care in early developmental stages for these individuals.

    A. M. Smith · Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

    It would be important to look at each child as an individual. If their is sensory issues especially tactile defensiveness they would be fussy eaters and already have limited diet. They might also have food sensitivity problems.  It would therefore not be correct to send parents home with a restricted diet of none of foods that child eats.  Therefore take detail diet and family history and work from there. Address mouth or tactile defensiveness together with team of Occupational therapist and Speech therapist and help in widening the food choices. Move then to limiting foods as and if indicated.  It is very difficult to just follow a gluten free, lactose free etc. diet. Make sure that child intake is near target for micronutrients.

  • Flip Schrameijer added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend a review article about generalization skills in autism?

    Effective procedures to promote tacts and mands in social contexts.

    Flip Schrameijer · www.architecture-for-autism.org

    Thanks for the question and the suggestions so far. I must admit finding shortcomings in generalization a central autistic flaw about which I even have written, not knowing one single source in the literature. It's part and parcel of daily practice and self-evident, and yet...
    I've always subsumed it under lack of central coherence / overemphasis on detail / context blindness. If one doesn't form templates which are abstracted from the concrete at hand, one is forced to - over and over again - build bottom up from external stimuli. Now that you ask the question I realize there must be more to it than that. So I'll follow the responses here with great interest.     

  • Ahmad Rayan added an answer:
    Based on DSM-5 criteria, what are the "Severity Levels" of ASD?

    What are the "Severity Levels" of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    (ASD)? How to differentiate between these levels?

    Ahmad Rayan · Zarqa University

    Thank you so much dear Prof. Marc J. Tassé for your valuable help. I will read these interesting resources, and hope to find the best solution.

  • Michael Lombardo added an answer:
    What are the best articles pertaining to the positive correlation between abnormally high testosterone levels and Autism?

    The brain that suffers from autistic spectrum disorders has been said to be the "extreme male brain". There is evidence that shows more autism in males than in females. I wish to further investigate the subject.

    Michael Lombardo · University of Cyprus

    This paper is probably what you're looking for. 




  • Caroline Papreck added an answer:
    Is there data linking Minecraft and autism?

    There is a phenomenon in the autism community, players learning together in safe space playing Minecraft on the Autcraft server, which is closed to the public. I have to date found no research discussing this topic. 

    Caroline Papreck · San Diego State University

    I know there have been some posters at conferences. Isn't it a cool topic? I remember when Second Life was very popular among teens and adults for the same purpose. I've attached one poster that I know of.

    The department of informatics at UC Irvine just published a digital ethnography of the Autcraft server, which is really interesting. I've attached it here as "autcraft" (doi: 10.1145/2675133.2675216)

    I also attached this review article that might be helpful to see what has previously been covered (even though minecraft is not one of the programs mentioned). -attached here as CBI social emotional review (doi:10.3109/17518423.2011.651655)

    You may also want to look at the literature on MMORPGs (Massively  multiplayer online role-playing games) and autism.

  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What is the mechanism behind Valproic acid induced autism model in animals?

    Hi to all,

                 How prenatal administration of Valproic acid on 12.5th day of of gestational period will cause the autism in offspring. What is the mechanism behind and how it cause the ASD in animals.

     Thanks in advance for your valuable information..

    Anthony G Gordon · Independent Researcher

    There is no cause of autism that is not also a cause of peripheral deafness.  Hence it is likely that in any successful animal model of autism, the inner ears will be found to be defective.

  • Ahmad Rayan added an answer:
    Can cued speech improve language skills of children with autism?

    Cued speech uses 8 hand shape to show all phonemes of speech sound. It is so beneficial for language delays.

    Ahmad Rayan · Zarqa University

    Yes, but not always. It depends on the severity of Autism, and cognitive and developmental dysfunctions for each special child.

  • Flip Schrameijer added an answer:
    Where are the philosophers and sociologists of science in the many controversies and social developments around autism?

    There's a lot going on in the so called 'autism world' which could benefit from research and analysis by sociologists and philosophers of science:

    There's been a radical change in the public image of autism, say from 'Rain man' (1988) to 'Big bang theory' (now).

    Since the mid-nineties until now there's been a remarkable emancipation from no voice to many of which quite a few argue autism is not a disease, but a variation within normalcy of people with remarkable qualities.

    The leading (medical and psychological) scientific paradigm of autism as an incurable developmental disease seems to be challenged more everyday by rival views claiming different (partly) curable etiologies.

    Have these (and other) interrelated developments been the subject of study from the above mentioned disciplines? If so, why do they practically seem invisible?

    Flip Schrameijer · www.architecture-for-autism.org

    Thanks Barry and Lawrence, just ordered Roy Grinkers book.

  • Stefania Squadrone added an answer:
    a positive association between the severity of autism and the body burden of toxic metals has been proposed. What is the state of the art?

    Several studies reported metal disturbances in autistic patients, maybe due to metallothioneins unbalance or dysfunction.

    The unbalance in metal levels were observed in blood, hair, nails of autistic patients. Chelation treatment has also been suggested to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury.

    But is the severity of autism related to metals body burden?A re there evidence of this?

    Stefania Squadrone · The Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piedmont, Liguria and the Aosta Valley

    DearJoshua,  i really thank you


  • Morgane Aubineau added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest any articles on autism and dyslexia?

    For a research paper

    Morgane Aubineau · University of Toulouse II - Le Mirail

    Dr Peter Vermeulen wrote some very interesting books about autistic spectrum disorders. 

    I agree with Meryl: Dr Attwood is a excellent reference for Asperger syndrome. 

  • Jeroen Dewinter added an answer:
    Any tips on research about recidivism in persons with autism and a pedophilic sexual interest?

    I have been trying to find research on risks for recidivism in pedophilic behaviors such as consumption of child pornography or child sex abuse in persons with an autism spectrum disorder (or if there are any) and pedophilia. I'd greatly appreciate any tips.

    Jeroen Dewinter · Tilburg University

    to my knowledge, there is only limited systematic research on this topic. Sevlever and colleagues (2013) wrote a review from a forensic perspective. We wrote one on sexuality and ASD (2014) in general. You could also have a look at a study by Sutton et al. (2012) on the identification of ASD in adolescents accused of sex offenses. I think that different researchers are working on this studies relating to this. 

  • Caren Cajares added an answer:
    Does anyone have any info on autism related to the chromosome deletion 17 q 12?

    I am researching AAT for anxiety reduction in adults with developmental disabilities. I am also interested in any information anyone may have on autism linked to the micro deletion 17q12?

    Thank you professor.  We recently found out our 13 year old has this micro deletion.  Since this discovery she was also diagnosed with PKD, uterine didelphys and other known issues related to 17Q12

  • Lorraine Bonner added an answer:
    Can the pre-conception maternal microbiome can exert an epigenetic influence on the fetal brain leading to autism spectrum disorder?

    Evidence for the impact of intestinal flora on metabolic processes is increasing. The balance of intestinal flora may be altered following antibiotic use, perhaps for prolonged periods. Antibiotic use is increasing, and by some accounts, rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders is also increasing. Perhaps factors secreted by intestinal bacteria can influence fetal brain development. One way to look at this might be to prospectively culture the stool of a cohort of women planning to get pregnant, and correlating biome parameters with occurrence of ASD. Another might be to mine the data of large health care organizations looking for pre-conception maternal antibiotic use and correlate with ASD in offspring. Is anyone looking at these possibilities?

    Lorraine Bonner · Summit Medical Center, Oakland, CA and Alameda Hospital, Alameda CA

    I think this question is right on point. I think that in biological systems reciprocity evolves in parallel with diversity, whether the system is large, like a forest or coral reef, or smaller, like a person’s body.
    In biological systems this reciprocity would be called health, in social systems, trust. I think that a great many of our biological and social problems can be traced to a loss of diversity and resulting gaps in systems of reciprocity. The use of probiotics, fecal transplants, and fermented foods represent early, exploratory steps to reestablishing diversity.

  • Winja Marie Lutz added an answer:
    Can family violence cause or encourage autism in children?
    I would like to know if there is any research published about the factor of family violence, especially towards mother, as a factor that can cause autism to the child. I mean if the child observes such kind of violence scenes in home, is it possible these scenes to encourage the presentation of ASD?
    Winja Marie Lutz · University of Leipzig


  • Cecilia Breinbauer added an answer:
    Are there any books that outline teaching empathy to adults with autism?

    I am working with post-secondary students of low-average intelligence and with autism. I am interested in using book clubs to build empathy skills and other social skills. I need book suggestions or any research of this kind. 

    Cecilia Breinbauer · University of Washington Seattle

    In my experience, autistic adults are very diverse in regards to empathy skills, the same way that non-autistic adults are. Furthermore, I have seen more empathy and emotional sensitivity to the pain of others in autistic adults compared to non-autistic autistic, but this is not obvious because of the difficulties they have communicating empathy, which doesn't mean they don't have empathy. Therefore, I would explore levels of empathy in an autistic adult the same way I would explore in any adult, helping overcome communication difficulties to express empathy. Here is a link to one of many new studies rethinking autism and earlier assumptions regarding "lack of empathy skills": http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518049/

  • Philomena Jepkemboi Tanui added an answer:
    What type of Tiegerman Language Method (TLM) is used for autistic children?

    I want to design a TLM for autistic children. Kindly guide me about different parameters we should consider when designing TLM for autistic children.

    Philomena Jepkemboi Tanui · University of Arkansas

    Design TLC to appeal to the imagination of the child and optimize learning experience. Explore techniques as bridging, pictures and play.

  • Satheesh Gangadharan added an answer:
    Is there any one with interest / expertise in stress / stress management in people with Autism?

    I am authoring a chapter on stress and autism in a booked aimed at psychiatrist on stress. If there is any one with interest and expertise in this area, I would like to invite to join me in this?


    Satheesh Gangadharan · Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust

    Thanks Hawa.

    How do I get in touch with you? Please contact me on my email: satminiuk@gmail.com

About Autism

A topic to foster discussion of autism research among investigators. This topic is not intended for those seeking clinical advice. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are marked by significant social, communication, and behavioral problems. It is estimated that 1 in 110 children (correction: now 1 in 88) in the US have an ASD. Although several genes have been implicated in ASDs, a systems biology approach will be required to adequately understand the molecular underpinnings of these conditions.

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