• Adriana Michalak asked a question:
    How the bright light stimulation influence on attention?

    Could you tell me what should I expect after one hour the bright light stimulation
    ( > 500 lux or < 500 lux) via goggles, before performing the task, for example d2 test of attention? I would like to know something about impact on alpha and delta band.

    Additionally, is it possible that bright light stimulation will have got influence on P300 response?

  • aa Lixiang asked a question:
    Has anyone who detected enos(nos3) in huvec by western blot ? I need some useful suggestions?

    I detect the protein expression of enos(nos3) in huvec and cannot get results with enos.The expression of  other proteins are strong enough to detect .The only one cannot be detect is enos . 

    I extracted the total protein of HUVEC. Also, the final concentration of total protein is about 5mg/ml. 

    So ,I need anyone who detected enos in huvec by western blot to help me .

    Thank you for your attention .

  • Richard Traub added an answer:
    What is the difference between daydreaming and mind wandering from cognitive psychology and neuroscience point of view?

    Is there any? Could you send me refs? Thanks

    Richard Traub · Understanding Piano Technique

    McVay and Kane's papers may be useful to you:

    Also try the following searches on PubMed Central:

    A daunting number of open-source research articles and reviews here!

    The following has several chapters (by various authors) of broader relevance:

    Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition
    Attention, Memory, and Executive Control

    Editors: Aleksandra Gruszka, Gerald Matthews, Blazej Szymura

  • Ian Wickramasekera added an answer:
    Is it more or less difficult to form flashbulb memories during divided attention?

    From previous circumstance, I have experienced divided attention during the processing of an impactful flashbulb memory shifting my focus from myself immediately to another person for concern of emotional well-being. Because flashbulb memories are said to form part of automatic processing, is it possible that during divided attention, automatic processing still occurs and is this either more or less impactful to the processing of flashbulb memories.

    A reflection of Attentional factors during the processing of an impactful Flashbulb Memory

    Ian Wickramasekera · University of the Rockies

    One obvious prediction stemming from Broadbent's filter model of attention (1958) is a definite "Yes it is more difficult."  Broadbent's theory of selective attention was that we had a limited capacity to process information with attentional resources.  Therefor, divided attention  during the episode of flashbulb memory might indicate impoverished elements to form a flashbulb memory might be present. 

    An example might be driving a truck in heavy demanding traffic while hearing news on the radio that a major celebrity has died.  You might be too worried about getting into an accident and visually scanning the road while navigating through tricky traffic to get the flashbulb of the memory to encode much of the total situation other than an image of the radio dial and feeling of sadness.  This is at least a prediction model that you could base a hypothesis from if you do the experiment.

    Broadbent, D. (1958). Perception and Communication. London: Pergamon Press.

  • Amy Jones asked a question:
    What effect does divided attention (during initial processing) have on flashbulb memory?

    I am interested in attentional factors during the processing of an impactful flashbulb memory

  • Amy Jones added an answer:
    What are the possible attentional factors and its influence on the processing of an impactful flashbulb memory?

    For my second year project, I am interested in attentional factors during the processing of an impactful flashbulb memory. Theses factors include the influence of emotion or emotional bias and divided or shifted attention or attentional bias and the positive or negative influence of these during the processing of flashbulb memories, either improving or decreasing accuracy of the memory.

    Any researchers within this area or information to inform my discussion would be greatly appreciated.

    Amy Jones · Greenwich University

    Thank you for the response. This is definitely helpful to my project

  • Alfredo Spagna added an answer:
    Does anybody know about the script for the Lateralized Attention Network Test (Greene and collaborators)?

    or a similar task: I am with several students of the University of Nice Sopia Antipolis  investigating interhemispheric interaction in relation to the influence of hormones (for attention, visual perception, language...).

    I use usually E-Prime (1, 2 and Professional) and sometimes with SuperLab.

    Alfredo Spagna · City University of New York - Queens College


    Contact Dariusz Asanowicz.

    IMHO, he is the only one that have found reliable results on the lateralization of the attentional networks. 

    Here his paper:



  • Guido Peeters added an answer:
    Are there any good theories that link the self-as-subject concept with higher cognitive functions such as attention?

    Most theories about the 'self' evolves around the self-as-object and self-as-subject ideas. Self-as-object basically mean a representation of contents such as our body, values, identity, etc in which we can actually look at and conceptualize.

    I am interested in finding a connection between the self-as-subject (the locus in which consciousness projects from) and how it may be connected higher cognitive functions such as attention.

    Guido Peeters · KU Leuven

    My first impression after reading Jonathan's questions was that we were not on the same wavelength.  On closer examination, however,  Jonathan may have a point and the wavelength argument need at least some explanation if it would be more than a mere fobbing off with a bromide.  Anyway, when using the term "regression" I did not have in mind a regression along a physical-neurological dimension as Jonathan seem to have. As Graeme has pointed out,  I referred to an observation about self-reference many philosophers have made and formulated in various ways. Knowing something about a particular realm implies that the knowing subject takes a perspective from outside that realm. Hence a subject directing attention to the self is split up into a self as object (of knowledge), and a (knowing) self-as-subject that cannot be reduced to the self-as-object. This operation can be repeated: turning attention to the self-as-subject, the initial self-as-subject becomes a higher-order self-as-object that is the object of a higher-order self-as-subject's knowledge. Turning attention to that higher-order self-as-subject results in a next split into still higher order selves "as object" and "as subject", and so forth.  A popular metaphor is the painter who wants to paint a scene showing himself painting that scene on a canvas. To complete the painting he has to repeat that scene on the canvas depicted in his painting, and again on the canvas depicted on the depicted canvas, and so forth for all eternity, unless he decides to step out of the scene, leaves the painting behind and goes for a hearty drink.                                                                                                                               

    In his comment, Jonathan localizes the self in the physical world. That's where it appears, soon after the self-as-subject has started reflecting on the self as an object. It is feasible that we ultimately will  achieve understanding of the neural processes through which our consciousness is established. But the "I" who achieves the understanding is taking the perspective of the self-as-subject that cannot be fully reduced to the object of the achieved understanding. Here we enter again the interminable dead end described above. However, even if we ignore that dead end and, staying on Jonathan's wavelength, continue the physical exploration of consciousness, we may anticipate another dead end beyond neurons, molecules, atoms, particles, elementary forces. 11-dimensional oscillations of strings....    The question whether this new regress is really "infinite" may be debatable. But it may end when the next step falls beyond the capacities of our understanding and physical  measuring tools—as a woodworm may never achieve understanding of our discussion going on by internet.  Time for another drink.

  • Brandon Thomas added an answer:
    Can anyone give me examples of real-world tasks where 'habitual motor responses' or 'response inhibition' play a role?
    I am looking for examples of real-world tasks (e.g. jobs, situations, etc.) where habitual motor responses are a factor, for good or for bad.

    For example, a situation where a simple motor task or response is performed many times in rapid succession, until it becomes 'automatic', and then when there is eventually a need to withhold from performing this task/response it is difficult to do so.

    Any help would be much appreciated.
    Brandon Thomas · University of Cincinnati

    It is oftentimes difficult to write your new age when it is not long after your birthday. This generally applies to writing dates that change on longer timescales (months, years, etc.). Your body wants to write the old one for awhile!

  • Paresh Chandra Ghosh added an answer:
    Does anybody knows a posture analysis software?

    I am looking for posture analysis software. Kindly suggest me some posture analysis software which are freely available for use.

    Thank you in advance for your attention to this matter!

    Dear Dr Patel

    You can use ERGOMASTER from a canadian firm is costely. Ergomaster also can be used for RULA&REBA also. PCG,CLI

  • Damian G Kelty-Stephen added an answer:
    To what extent is attention (either conscious or unconscious) shaped and influenced by the embodied nature of our minds?
    What is the role of gut feelings, nervous system, or the body in attention? Is it connected with bodily loops between the brain and the non-neural body? What does phenomenology say about it?
    Damian G Kelty-Stephen · Grinnell College

    Simon makes some great points. Pigeonholing is what we've done to our academic disciplines, but it is not a terribly modern way to treat cognitive functions/architectures.

    Jakub-- I think that attention actually IS the wonderfully complex set of bodily movements and postures that we organisms take with respect to our environments. Simon may or may not agree, but I see this position as aligning with his delightful octopus-tentacle point.

    Best wishes,


  • Lee Barber added an answer:
    Does anyone recognize this 'transfer effect'?

    I came across an article detailing a so-called 'transfer effect' describing spontaneous memory recovery (attached). Whilst the premise is intriguing and works well with what I am currently researching I can't find any further reference to it (pre- or post- publication date).

    To the point of this question: I'm aware that the phrase "transfer effect" has been liberally used over the years, but I wonder if the effect Stone et al. describe is known within the memory literature by another name and neither I nor the authors are familiar with it (yet). It makes me think of 'the other side of the retrospective interference coin' -'retrospective assistance' perhaps? (if such a thing exists).

    Any thoughts would be enthusiastically welcomed!

    Lee Barber · University of Reading

    Thanks to all for taking the time to respond -have been up to my eyeballs in work, hence the late reply. It may take me some time to absorb and digest all of your comments, but I suspect I might have some follow-ups soon....

  • Leonard Goeirmanto added an answer:
    Is there book or paper that explains the relation between the attention and comprehend cognitive processes?

    I want a paper of book that explain how the cognitive process of attention and the comprehend cognitive process work together, what is common which other, how all that work...

    Leonard Goeirmanto · Universitas Mercu Buana

    these papers discussed about cognitive process relation with attention:

  • Leonard Goeirmanto added an answer:
    How do you measure Attention?

    I am doing research on Attention and its influences on emotional states.

    Leonard Goeirmanto · Universitas Mercu Buana

    these references discussed about attention measurement:

  • Pasquale dente. added an answer:
    Can anyone provide some research paper and study materials on international affective digitized sounds (IADS) and attention?

    I want to work on auditory emotional stimuli and attention and i have no research paper and articles for the reference. I am closely related to my research topic so help me to find some paper.

    Pasquale dente. · Jacobs University

    Please, pay attention to the fact that in 2007 IADS-2 has been introduced. 

    Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007a). International Affective Digitized Sounds (2nd Edition; IADS-2): Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual (Technical Report No. B-3). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention.


  • Edwin Dalmaijer added an answer:
    Is there a standard approach for cleaning and analysing pupil dilation data?

    I have an eye-tracker dataset that includes pupil size information. The data was recorded primarily for examining eye movements and fixations, but I am interested in looking into whether the pupil size data says anything interesting about cognitive effort during a peripheral detection task. However, I am relatively new to pupillometry and having read some of the literature around pupil dilation and cognitive effort/attention, I can't identify a standard approach to cleaning and analysing a pupil size dataset (e.g. how to smooth the data, deal with blinks or missing data, how to identify outlying datapoints etc.). Is there such a standard approach or method?

    Edwin Dalmaijer · University of Oxford

    Hi Jim,

    No worries, glad I could help! The static fixation might indeed be the safest bet. Let me know if you get stuck with the analysis, I'd be happy to help.


  • John Jupe added an answer:
    Can eye movements be used to determine if someone is paying attention to something?

    I believe some metrics related to the eye, such as pupil dilation, may give an indication of the extent to which something being looked at is being actively processed. However, I am interested in ways to determine whether someone is paying attention to (cognitively processing) what they are looking at in natural, real-world conditions, where changing light levels may make it difficult to use pupil dilation as a measure. I am therefore wondering if there are any tell-tale signs from eye movements that can reveal whether something is being actively processed and has some cognitive importance to the observer.

    For example, research on inattentional blindness shows that just because something in our environment is fixated does not mean it is perceived or processed. Also, research has been carried out about mind-wandering during reading which suggests eye movements may be qualitatively different during periods of mind-wandering compared with when what is being read is being processed. Are there any similar findings for natural situations such as just walking through an environment?

    John Jupe · Perceptual Awareness Centre

    With respect to Bruce's comment. There is a covert processing system! We can attend to what's going on in peripheral vision without looking at it for sure but also what occurs in peripheral vision as actually temporally in advance of or temporally prior-to what goes on in central vision. The holistic form of attention in peripheral vision 'posts' what is considered important to central vision so that it can attend to it. Decisions have even been made subconsciously. Not only that the lens is changing its shape to get ready for the required focal length of the subject of next point of attention before saccadic eye movement begins. So peripheral vision is spatially salient / cognisant (even on a monocular basis)? Too much to go into here but attached a list of presentations that you may find of interest. 

  • Cheryl Schantz added an answer:
    What items should be considered to see if participants are paying attention/reading instructions in surveys?

    What items do you guys put in surveys to ensure that your participants are paying attention to the items and carefully reading the instructions?

    Right now I'm using the "READER" set (where you ask participants to read instructions indicating all the following questions should be answered with the word "READER" regardless of the question). I'd say roughly 15-20% of the sample gets this wrong, but I don't want to discard them.

    Anyhow, any suggestions on a quick and easy way to check if participants are engaged in the study? Thanks.

    Cheryl Schantz · University of Phoenix

    Hello Josh,

    I do a lot of surveys. I think one of the best strategies is to ask the same type of question during the criteria phase, but target one word in the sentence that you can change. For example, Paying attention and reading the instructions carefully is critical, if you are paying attention please choose purple below. You can use many different words for purple. This seems to work because people think that once they read it, the same will always be, but it is not. I hope this helps.

  • Jordan Ross added an answer:
    How do you set up the set-shifting task in rats so that it is both odor and spatial?

    rats - setting up the attentional set shifting task - Basic info, tips

    Jordan Ross · The University of Tennessee Health Science Center

    The first of these papers is, more or less, the first account of set-shifting with odor in rodents and the other two are variations based off of the first paper.

    Hope this helps.

  • Deepika Kommanapalli added an answer:
    Color blindness for blue and yellow?
    I'm designing an experiment in which I'll use the Stroop task. I'm planning to use four colors: red, green, yellow and blue. For the sake of control, one of my reviewers asked me how I can control for color blindness. I found the Ishihara cards, which can reliably help me with red and green, but I can't find a test for blue and yellow. I'd appreciate your ideas on tests for controlling this.
    Deepika Kommanapalli · University of Bradford

    FM- 100 Hue test or Anomaloscopy or Colour Assessment and Diagnostic (CAD) test can be used to determine blue-yellow colour defects. 

  • Daya S Gupta added an answer:
    Do you believe there is an organ responsible for time experience?
    I do believe there is a connection between dopamine and time experience, however I do not think that it has anything to do with a physical structure in the brain. I believe that dopamine affects a person's ability to encode. The storage size metaphor (as suggested in Ornstein, 1942) states that a person's working memory and the amount of information put in is a better predictor of one's perception of time compared to any 'inner clock' mechanism (known). Also, studies have shown that depressed individuals (assuming low dopamine levels) encode more, suggesting a temporal 'stretching' which may be a factor in their depression. It may not be that they are encoding more, but that they cannot compress what they are encoding into smaller units because of their lack of dopamine. This may show a relationship between dopamine and encoding, which is the reason for dopamine's effect in temporal experience.
  • Has anyone developed/published a rodent analogue of dot-probe for attentional bias?

    The Dot-Probe task has been widely used in research on affective disorder and addiction in human subjects.  Briefly, the subject has to choose one of two buttons to indicate in which of two locations a dot appears, where the two locations are jointly preceded by presentation of drug/spider etc image on one side, and a neutral image on the other.  The latency to respond to the side contralateral to the clinically-relevant image is interpreted as a measure of attentional bias.

    I'm wondering if anyone has developed a task like this for rodents, to see whether presentation of a drug-conditioned CS+ in a spatial part of the animal's environment delays/distracts an operant response unrelated to the drug in another spatial location.

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist · Stockholm University

    Dear James,

    Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1995 Mar;63(2):116-32.
    Spatial working and reference memory in rats bred for autonomic sensitivity to cholinergic stimulation: acquisition, accuracy, speed, and effects of cholinergic drugs. Bushnell PJ, Levin ED, Overstreet DH.

    ....This study was conducted to determine whether the selected differences in cholinergic autonomic sensitivity would be expressed as differences in cognitive ability based on choice accuracy in appetitive tasks. The working and reference memory of rats of these two strains was thus assessed using operant delayed matching-to-position/visual discrimination (DMTP/VD) and the radial-arm maze. A Long-Evans (L-E) reference group was included in the DMTP/VD study.----

    J Exp Anal Behav. 2014 Nov;102(3):346-52. .
    Responding by exclusion in Wistar rats in a simultaneous visual discrimination task. Felipe de Souza M, Schmidt A.

    Selective cognitive deficits in adult rats after prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol. shiro WM et al. 2014

    The effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT, NA and DA systems on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm. ygula R, Papciak J, Popik P. ur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;24(7):1103-11

  • Juan Fernandez-Ruiz added an answer:
    Does anybody use PsychoPy 2.0 to build complex experiments (e.g. Attentional Network Test)?
    To see what ANT is: Fan et al., 2002 - Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks
    Juan Fernandez-Ruiz · Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

    Hi Alfredo, I was wondering if you were able to program the ANT using PsychoPy? I saw that you ended up using eprime in your Acta Psychologica paper. Regards,


  • Michael Filsecker added an answer:
    In neurophysiology/neurosciences metrics are available to assess engagement and attention: Any literature on the difference between these concepts?
    I am a researcher collecting neurophysiological data with subjects during learning tasks or problem solving
    Michael Filsecker · University of Duisburg-Essen

    Hi Patrick, no idea of publication day. The process has been quite long, but eventually no later than end of 2014.


  • Baris Demiral added an answer:
    What is the best neuroscience approach of attention?

    I found three major approaches of the neurological mechanism of attention:

    a)mirror neurons related with association areas and the develop of a specific task,  

    b) lateral intraparietal cortex on forced decision task 

    c) dorsal prefrontal cortex in taks related with working memory 

    Is there another important approach? Are these systems related? Is there a better paradigm to understand attention process on a neuroscientific poinf of view?  

    Baris Demiral · National Institutes of Health

    Hi Roberto, are you looking at the moments of increased peaks in the EDA, or use tonic changes?

    I am afraid that by using EDA you may not have a clear and direct relationship between attention and BOLD. But I think what you are trying to do is to have an implicit measure of attention by using EDA as dependent measure, is that right?  Then, you need to look at the literature about how EDA and BOLD are related first (even without considering attention related changes on EDA), then examine whether those brain areas should be active at the time of increased external attention in your paradigm. 

    One very important thing that you need to consider is that physiological responses have corresponding effects on BOLD, and many people think that these are noise.

  • Emotional Expectancy Bias - any thoughts?

    Hello everyone.

    I´m not sure if this concept has been coined already, but I am currently interested in researching the effects of emotion on attention. Specially the effects of our expectations with regards to basic affective and neutral incoming stimuli. And I need to get a feel for the basic tasks and paradigms that are used to measure emotional expectancy, but I can't seem to find anything in that scenario. If anyone knows of a review of any kind, or anything along the lines of expectancy biases that resembles this, I would greatly appreciate it. 

    Julian Hernández-Pumarejo · University of Granada

    Woah! I think posting this question here was the best thing i´v done so far. Thank you all. I think i am getting the hang of it. Hopefully i can respond in a published paper soon.

  • Andy Schieler added an answer:
    Does anybody of you know an attention task for infants?

    I am looking for a task which measures the infants' non-social (e.g., object-related) attention in 14-month old infants. I read about a 'Distractibility task' (for example used by St James-Roberts & Alston, 2006) but could not find any detailed procedure about the task so far.

    Andy Schieler · Universität Erfurt

    Thank you all for the helpful answers. I am looking more for the ability to sustain attention as a general level attentiveness. Unfortunately we do not have an eye-tracker to measure attentiveness...

  • Maarit Virta added an answer:
    Which recent evidence concerns attention training based on hypnosis techniques/self instruction in clients with ADHD?

    We are looking for evidence after 2003, including all sorts of therapeutic treatment techniques that are similar to hypnosis/mindfulness/meditation etc. applied on people with deficits in concentration/attention/learning disorders.
    I am also curious about a neurological mechanisms that might explain what helps us to focus our attention.

    Maarit Virta · University of Helsinki

    I have several years of clinical experience - with some succesfull and some not so succesfull cases.

    We have to papers published in Contemporary Hypnosis 2010 and 2014 where we found that hypnotherapy is effective in adults with ADHD and might even be in follow up better than CBT. Unfortunately our study group was very small and the therapy was short (10 participants, 10 sessions) so more studies are needed.

About Attention

Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.

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