• Vadim Mikhailin added an answer:
    How do anthropologists describe xenocentrism and its relevance as a counter proposition to ethnocentrism and cultural relativism?

    Xenocentrism is not a well read cultural counter proposition to ethnocentrism in anthropology. If I am not wrong many believe it is cultural relativism which is a more suitable reply to  ethnocentrism. But why does every individual want to follow the west, its lifestyle or culture of consumption, broadly the whole system..........................

    Vadim Mikhailin

    Any thing connected to "ethno-" and "xeno-" is first of all to be suspect of the ways and means of its being constructed. It seems to me that local xenocentrisms aimed at imaginary "West" are to be approached primarilly through the analyses of peculiarities of the processes by which the  local elites have been constructing local "natural" identitiesa - like ethnic or etatist ones.

  • Thomas Babcock added an answer:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Isn't the obvious solution and the elephant-in-the-room 'BETTER HUMAN BEINGS'? Shouldn't the focus be on better human beings rather than better technology? Why is it that everyone wants to develop better technology rather than focus on better humanity? Because no one has the answers and no one wants to change themselves? In environmental degradation, is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    + 2 more attachments

    Thomas Babcock

    Bors, I am familiar with some of that research--interesting to note that in the New World it seems to be most prevalent in the Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost part of South America. It is also potentially associated with conditions such as ADHD, and that behavior that might no simply distract someone from what others may focus on, but may drive that person to explore what lies beyond the horizon. That is why I noted that external pressures from competition are not solely the driver to move to the ends of the Earth. But while progress in genetic research is moving so fast, understanding the implications of DNA polymorphisms is in its infancy.

    I am also fascinated by epigenetic research, and implication about how and why some genetic traits may be expressed or may lie dormant. Unlike DNA, which can be found in all nucleated cells, epigenetic changes are not global within the human organism, but rather are found in specific organs or cells that may be responsive to the changes in the DNA environment. 

    For me, having been alive when populations have tripled also means that warfare, while still prevalent, is fought on a smaller scale than WWI and WWII; that where casualties are high seems to be  in smaller, regional conflicts (sometimes genocidal), while larger armies have developed combat styles that limit casualties; and that advances in medical and agricultural technologies prolong life expectancy. So in a sense, the population growth is a sign of human progress, and insanity lies more in how we react or respond to the growth. Insanity may rest more in what drives societies to counter population growth with policies that may make economic systems no longer viable (how many active workers to support economic costs for retirees, for example).

  • Sepp Rothwangl added an answer:
    How do we explain the origin of private property in land?

    Demsetz bases his theory of private property formation on the anthropology of Canadian indigenes near Quebec during the fur trade.  He claims that soaring prices for furs stimulated the local indigenous peoples to form territories so they could more effectively husband their fur resources (mostly beaver populations).  My question is twofold:  (1) Did contact with the French devastate the indigenous populations as was the case further south, in both North and South American; and (2) did the privatization of the resource (in landed property) lead to local animal extinctions due to intense market pressure for furs?

    Sepp Rothwangl

    One such still vivid and practiced example of given land to humans is the white buffalo calf woman:
    or even the promised land given to Moses.

  • Michael G. Flaherty added an answer:
    What were the "typical" roles of Alaskan Native men, prior to contact?

    This question is actually on behalf of a friend from a different academic background.  She figured that since I was an anthropologist I might have a better knowledge of sources on the topic.

    More broadly, does anyone have any good sources for pre-contact gender roles from an anthropological perspective?

    Michael G. Flaherty

    Nanook of the North, by Robert Flaherty, is perhaps the first documentary film ever made. It concerns the lives of Inuit men, and you may find it helpful.

  • Catalin Lazar added an answer:
    Does anybody know rectangular pot-stands from Neolithic or other prehistoric periods?

    Does anybody know support-pots with a rectangular shape such as those from the attached picture dated in Neolithic or other prehistoric periods?
    In Romania, they are specific to Boian culture, final phases (ca. 5000-4500 BC).

    Thanks in advance.

    Catalin Lazar

    Dear Thomas,

    Thanks for the article.

    Best wishes,


  • Bhakti Niskama Shanta added an answer:
    What makes up the core of human identity?
    We work holistically and explore a topic of identity and need your thinking.
    Please write in order of importance, in your opinion, different components of identity (1 ..., 2 ..., 3 ... etc):

    Cultural identity
    National identity
    Identity identification with the profession (eg designer, cleaning, scientist, etc.)
    Gender, sex, sexual identity (female, male, LGBT, etc.)
    Religious identity
    Ethnic identity (territory, language, genetics)
    Identification with the conviction of identity (eg, a pacifist, warrior, etc.)
    ... something else?
    Bhakti Niskama Shanta

    Recently one of our paper entitled "Life and Consciousness - The Vedāntic View" has been published in the Journal Communicative & Integrative Biology. An interesting discussion on this paper can be found at:!topic/online_sadhu_sanga/Mcv2O-yhqLE

    From paper:
    "The scientific confirmation of the existence of consciousness in unicellular organisms and plants certainly establishes that the brain is not the source of consciousness. Several decades back, research in medical science has also proven that the brain is not the source of consciousness. In 1970, Robert White and his team successfully transferred the head of a rhesus monkey to the headless body of another monkey. The monkey survived for 8 days.68 Researchers are also attempting to perform the same scenario with human beings.69 It is reported that if a human head has been detached under controlled conditions, it must be reconnected to the circulatory flow of other person's body (which is conscious or living) within one hour.70 Therefore, brain-based analysis for understanding consciousness (neuronal analysis) does not have very bright prospects."

    Paper: Life and Consciousness - The Vedāntic View
    Journal: Communicative & Integrative Biology
    Publication date - 09 Oct 2015
    Author: Bhakti Niskama Shanta -

  • Thomas Headland added an answer:
    Who would like to cooperate with us in a large-scale cross-populational research project?

    Dear Colleague,
    We would like to invite you to our new, large-scale cross-cultural research project.
    Our previous research projects, conducted in 53 study sites, turned out to be a great success. One of our manuscripts (from a first project) was published in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, other from the new project is currently under review in the same journal, one will soon be submitted to the Journal of Marriage and Family, and three more papers are in the final stages of preparations. Thanks to our efficient team work we now collaborate with, e.g., David Buss.

    It is more or less psychological study, bu we would like to invite to coopaeration scientists from all fields of social or biological sciences.

    This time, we plan to conduct six studies.
    a) Sexual Morality Project
    b) Comparison of daily life touch between countries
    c) Creativity study
    d) Love study
    e) Mate study
    f) Facebook study

    Now, we have collaborators from +- 60 countries (see list below). New collaborators from                                   - O T H E R - countries are WELCOME!

    Algieria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Etiopia France Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Hong Kong Hugary India Iran Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Korea Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Macedonia Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mexico Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Pakistan Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Russia Salvador Slovakia Slovenia
    South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Uganda UK Ukraine Uruguay

    Thomas Headland

    I would be willing to cooperate with you in your cross-population research project. My wife, Janet Headland, and I have been compiling a detailed demographic database of a tribal population in the Philippines, while we lived with these people, the Casiguran Agta, for most of the past half-century. You can look at the database by searching on the Internet for "Agta Demographic Database." Or you can look at my book, authored with demographer John Early, titled *Population Dynamics of a Philippine Rain Forest People* (Univ Press of Florida, 1998). My email address is

    Thomas N. Headland, Ph.D.; Senior Anthropology Consultant, SIL International; WebPage:

  • Alice Spinnler added an answer:
    Does anybody know ethnographical / anthropological / historical literature on the WALSER ethnic group (in Switzerland, Italy...)?

    Of course I already have some literature, for example

    Zwischen Isolation und Sprachkontakt: Der romanische Wortschatz der Vorarlberger Walser:
    Alessio Boattini, Clio Griso & Davide Pettener. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Journal of Anthropological Sciences. Vol. 89 (2011), pp. 161-173. 
    Mathieu Petite. A new perspective on the Walser community.

    But I can not find an article with the results of the research.

    Alice Spinnler

    Dear Petr, have a look in the swiss metacatalog swissbib

    Best search is: type walser then limit to subject walser

    You can get the publications by interlibrary loan.

  • Jeanette Arnold added an answer:
    Any authors studying factors influencing university student’s vulnerability to exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse?

    1. What forms of abuse do students experience at Universities ?

    2. Examine the factors contributing to student vulnerabilities and abuse

    2. What is the sociological or anthropological justification given to the study?

    3. What is the practical justification concerning exploitation, sexual harassment and abuse?

    4. Explore the steps to recourse taken by students

    Jeanette Arnold

    Without even identifying verbal or physical abuse, what about the inherent violence of participating in academic programmes and workloads and lifestyles? The following is a reflection I crafted after a student colleague (Sonia) and I shared how difficult work-study-life balance can be. This is about the violence we tolerate chaffingly when we undertake academic study. I suppose that if I (or we as students) tolerate violence of this sort I have written about, then is it any wonder other sorts of violence and participation in it, is rife at universities, polytechnics, schools, kindergartens, families, societies?

  • Kebede Kassa added an answer:
    Is there a distinct African anthropological theory?

    The discipline of anthropology has taken much of its credit to the field data from Africa. That's, the row material for anthropological theories, and by extension, its evolutionary development, has been derived, in large measure, from African realities.

    The question, however, is "Has there been any noticeable African anthropological theory or tradition as apat the continent being the data mine of the discipline, at least in its formative years?"

    This question should in no anyway suggest that Africa/is was the only place where anthropological fieldwork was done given the fact Australia, Latin America and Asia have also been similar field schools.

    Kebede Kassa

    Kebede Kassa

    That's true and that is one aspect of looking at Africa. The other is more of social or historical. What about its contribution to world civilization? where does the so-called Western Civilization originate? There are issues such as this and the fact that we are far short of theories from an African perspective is both by design and by default. We can talk more on this next. Still come again.


  • José Manuel Rodríguez Arce added an answer:
    Does anyone know what methodology was employed by the anthropologist Donald E. Brown to derive the human universals he discusses in his famous book?

    Donald E. Brown's book, "Human Universals", explores and describes physical and behavioral characteristics that can be considered universal among all cultures, all people. I have not been able to get my hands on a copy of that work. Can someone who has read the book tell me if Brown employed a systematic cross-cultural analysis? Or did he employed a different methodology? If so, what was the procedure he used to determine which traits are ubiquitous in human societies? Are his findings robust and reliable? Or are they based on a somewhat haphazard survey of regionally isolated studies?

    José Manuel Rodríguez Arce

    Dear Peter,

    I hope you are doing fine! I want to thank you for taking the time to comment on my question. I did not know about Darwin's early contribution to this interesting debate. Certainly, I have heard many times among some of my colleagues (who are only anthropologists, and not also biologists, like me) the argument that Darwin was the "typical Victorian racist", as you mention it. Sadly, this misrepresentation biases them against any possible insight that might be gained from learning and applying an evolutionary perspective to their own work. In doing so, they neglect what is possibly the best metatheory for a truly scientific anthropology.

    Anyway, it is really interesting to learn that Darwin was also anticipating, in some manner, the role played by cultural transmission and niche construction on the advance of civilization. It seems clear that his vision of human evolution was much more sophisticated than it is usually portrayed.

    Best regards,

    José Ml. Rodríguez Arce

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    How different do languages need to be before they are considered separate? What is the "taxonomy" of languages?
    I have zero experience in the field of linguistics, but a paper I am writing now calls for a brief paragraph about using languages as one defining characteristic of a different cultural group. Can someone please suggest some good papers that discuss how different languages need to be before they are a different dialect, a different language altogether, and any other distinctions that I may be unaware of. I assume that this is an ongoing discussion, and that like defining a species, sub-species, etc., there is no set answer but that it depends which school of thought you want to prescribe to. I donʻt need an answer (and I donʻt think there is an "answer") to the question, but some sources that explore the theoretical aspects of the question would be very helpful.
    Rahimi Ali

    Hi , you can utilize either a family trees approach or ,Greenberg's  linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages,  ( typological linguistics )

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Does anyone know about rock art of horses in Chichimeca territory, 16th/17th century ?

    Hello, is there anyone on here who knows of rock art images of horsemen in the old Chichimeca territory of the 1500s and 1600s? According to Spanish sources, Chichimeca groups like the Guachichiles were using horses and keeping horse herds as early as the 1560s. Thanks for any suggestions on this subject.

    (Image of petroglyph below is from New Mexico).

    Michael Bletzer

    Thanks, James, I'll check out the link.

    I've seen quite a few horse/rider images across the U.S. Southwest - such as the one I posted with the question which is from south-central New Mexico and located near a couple of early colonial-period pueblos.

    At this point I'd like to keep the inquiry as close to the Gran Chichimeca as possible, mainly because I'm interested specifically in the Chichimecas' adaptations to Spanish pressures and because the Chichimecas (presumably the Guamares and/or some of the southern Guachichil groups) were the first to acquire horses from, and use them against, the Spaniards, ca. 1560s.

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with sixteenth-century occurrences of the name "Querechos"?
    I'm interested in the name "Querechos" and any occurrences in 16th-century documents from New Spain (i.e. Mexico). The name was used by members of the Coronado expedition to describe some Plains Indian groups (probably "proto-Apaches"), but I'd like to know if there were any tribal groups in New Spain that had been tagged as "Querechos" before 1540. I am familiar with all later occurrences of the name in and around New Mexico, and would like to track down its origin. .
    Michael Bletzer

    Thank you, David for your time and input,

    the Obregon reference to Ibarra's trip to the Paquime area is fascinating as Obregon was well read up on the early "travel literature", as it were, of the northern frontier (Alvar Nunez and Coronado). Coronado's people were the first to use Querechos as far as is known. Obregon read the available accounts and may even have met some of Coronado's men. He definitely did talk to the members of the Rodriguez-Chamuscado and Espejo-Beltran expeditions, who had just been to Nuevo Mexico. From them he would also have heard about the Querechos and by the time he wrote his Historia in 1585 he applied the name to the hunter-gatherers he had seen while he was with Ibarra in the northwest in the mid-1560s.

    All that suggests to me some sort of reverse migration of a Pueblo (probably Keres) word which the Spaniards first heard in 1541, and which they used for about 60 years to refer to some Apache groups (similar to the word "Vaqueros" for the buffalo plains Apaches) or groups that to them looked like Apache groups - a sort of lifestyle description, if you will, not unlike the word "Chichimecas" (which in some contexts the Spanish explorers of New Mexico actually used interchangeably with Querechos/Vaqueros).

    Thanks again, Michael

  • Marc Verhaegen added an answer:
    What is the evolutionary basis of human bipedalism system of locomotion?
    I need to have a detailed information on the aforementioned anthropology topic.
    Marc Verhaegen


  • Barry Bainton added an answer:
    Other than in research area and super specialisation can we tie sociology and anthropology in the same cart to give basic ideas, knowledge and explanations.
    When all we can relate sociology and anthropology
    Barry Bainton

    Sociology is the study of society and social relations. Sociology focuses on humans in groups and the structure of the groups in terms of such social facts as status (a position within a social network with rights and responsibilities aside to the position) and individual roles (the behaviors that individuals and social groups carry out as a function of their status in the network).

    Anthropology is the study of MAN in its original 4 field approach developed in America under Boas. It included the historical and biological nature of human evolution, the study of contemporary human societies, especially non-western, and the languages. The dominant sub-field is cultural  anthropology which focuses on the role of culture and cultural differences in human society.

    The British have developed a more sociological approach to the subject and anthropology is most often described as social anthropology. Physical/biological anthropology is some times treated as a separate discipline.

    As the social and behavioral sciences have evolved the differences between disciplines become more and more fragile.

  • Bruno Venditto added an answer:
    Family and household, are these two concepts superimposible?

    I am analysing the impact of migration on Namibian families, however I realise that in the academia there is not much clarity (or at least it is not clear to me) between the concepts of family and households which in many cases are considered as one. I am under thte idea that particularly in an African context the difference still exist. Any suggestion is welcome 

    Bruno Venditto

    Thanks Dimitris

  • Closed account added an answer:
    Could you suggest me fundamental literature which focuses on the concept of "community"?

    I am particularly interested in works stemming from the field of anthropology/sociology. Thanks.


    I would recommend the book written by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.


  • Eliana Barrios added an answer:
    Does anthropology use transdisciplinarity as an usual and common way for research?
    As anthropologist I think we do, transdiciplinarity is it necessary in sciences or disciplines like education and psychology, commonly with defined boundaries.
    Eliana Barrios

    Thanks Francesco, if it was an anthropologist it makes a lot of sense to me. And to Gwen and Charles, I do not think Sociology has much to do with Anthropology, the last one do not need and it is not associated neither to Sociology nor to Archaelogy, why should it be? It has its own research methods different from both, but maybe tja analisys is closer to the archaelogist work but not to Sociology. Sociology has borrowed some techniques and methos from Anthropology but that´s all.

  • D.E. Morant added an answer:
    Are there any critiques out there of Theresa Schenck's "The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar" which challenge her analysis of the original Ojibwa?

    What is your take on the argument of Theresa Schenck in "the Voice of the Crane Echos Afar" is? She says the Ojibway were originally the crane clan who in the contact era was located near the Sault - hence Ojibway being synonymous with Sault and Saulteax.

    She argues the Ojibway nation was a historical response to territorial expansion, but that the identity of Anishinaabeg was widespread throughout many of the algonquian speakers? Essentially she is arguing the larger identity of the Ojibwa is historically emergent and derives from population shifts. 

    It seems pretty convincing to me, but not being Ojibwe, I don't really have much context to refute here. 

    D.E. Morant contains a review by Timothy Cochrane, superintendent of Grand Portage National Monument

  • Younes Saramifar added an answer:
    Are there any papers that deals with the aesthetic understanding of power?

    I really don't want aesthetics of politics, because I am well aware of this field of research. What I am really searching for is the connection of aesthetics and power. There were always some artwork which deals with the theme of gaining or misuse of power, and I believe that aesthetic interest plays some role of the understanding, recipe, attraction, worshiping or decline of power (as such and as the main theme of some works). A very good example is Faust.

    So What I am asking for, are there some papers or researches of aesthetic reception of Power. Or am I mistaken to think that there is some relation (of course I continue to ask myself and am still trying to find a pattern)?

    Younes Saramifar

    The most amazing work which deals with aesthetics of violence and fellowship of power is Male Fantasies by Klaus Theweleit

  • Ivo Carneiro de Sousa added an answer:
    Can someone suggest articles, theses, books on the Nyemba people, also known as Ngangela, of Angola and northern Namibia?
    Origins, settlement, culture, traditional rule (political organisation), expansion and dispersal, ethnic variety.
    Ivo Carneiro de Sousa

    Dear Gerhard,

    In Angola, those communities are labeled Ganguela or Nganguela. The best research still is the book by the Portuguese anthropologist REDINHA, José. Etnias e Culturas de Angola. Luanda: Instituto de Investigação Científica de Angola, 1975. I ignore any English translation and summary. I live in Macao, China, and Redinha's son is a well known lawyer here and holds his father ethnographic collections from Angola as well as several manuscript unpublished studies. 

  • Gene Ammarell added an answer:
    Does anyone know any anthropologists who have studied how deception practices differ between cultures?

    I am looking for an anthropological comparison between the deception practices in the United States and China. The purpose of this research is to identify cues to deception that are present in each culture and to distinguish how culture plays a role in deception.

    Gene Ammarell

    I don't know of any other research, but I have data on it from my own research among the Bugis of Indonesia.  I'd be happy to discuss it.

  • Pedro Luengo Gutiérrez added an answer:
    Is there anybody trying to research on new technologies (artifitial intelligence, drones...) and heritage in Europe?

    We are thinking on the next call of Uses of Past and we are seeking different kind of researchers from diferent "heritage disciplines", such as Anthropology, Architecture, Tourism, Languague, Gastronomy, History, Biology...

    Pedro Luengo Gutiérrez

    I know clarin. I was in Amsterdam last March. Thank you very much. Best regards!

  • Marc Verhaegen added an answer:
    If the Oragutan-Austraolith theory is correct, which South Asian hominoid was their last common ancestor? Was it Asian or African or European?

    See above. 

    Marc Verhaegen

    Yes, enamel thickness I had tried to answer in my previous answer & in our "aquarboreal" papers (in TREE & see file attached). Most Mio-Pliocene hominoids had thick enamel (arguable as an adaptation to harder foods such as coco or other nuts or hard-shelled invertebrates HSIs, as seen in e.g. capuchins, who e.g. open mangrove oysters with oyster shells, see refs in papers above). Some hominoid spp developed superthick enamel (e.g. Ouranopith, aethiopicus-boisei, robustus), some got (directly or again) thinner enamel (Pan & esp.Gorilla), others kept or re-evolved thick enamel (Homo, Pongo). Generally, AFAICS (see attachment), in hominoids we see thick enamel in omnivores in coastal forests, superthick enamel in herbivores in open wetlands, and thinner enamel in foli-herbivores in tropical forests, but this provisionel impression requires a lot more detailed study. 

  • Ioana Iliescu added an answer:
    Do you have an articles about the evolutionary value of orgasm in the male and female human?


    Ioana Iliescu

    I'd suggest Daniel Goleman - Social Intelligence (particularly the fourth part of the book). At the end of his book you may find quite an impressive list of further articles and books that might help you in your endeavour. I might as well just give you some hints: David Buss 'Sex Differences in Human Mate Preference: Evolutionary Hypotheses in 37 Cultures' - Behavioural and Brain Sciences 12 (1989), pp. ; 1-49 or Jaak Panksepp - 'Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). The main idea is related to the chemistry created in the human brain during orgasms (oxytocin, vassoprasin, testosterone, serotonin, etc and their specific roles in keeping two partners together long enough so that they can procreate and raise the children in such a way as they could also apply the same mating rules with confidence in their choices). Helen Fisher also has several books that describe the brain chemistry, the first one that comes into my head is "Why Him, Why Her" and 'Why We Love'. 

    I hope my feedback doesn't come too late. 

  • Marystella Ramirez added an answer:
    Is any historian of medicine aware of Descartes and headaches and/or ORL symptomatology?
    In order to better understand the clinical presentation of this individual.
    Marystella Ramirez

    There is a text, which of the top of my mind I can't remember exactly, relating to pain and how it was connected to the mind. Its more philosophical than medical but has been seen as an precursor of the nervous understanding of disease that was important towards the end of the 18th C, though Descartes was preceeded in this by Oliva de Sabuco.

  • Iago Urgorri added an answer:
    Can someone suggest publications related to the Nabataean in Petra?
    Petra Archaeological Park (PAP)
    The region’s most important resource is the Petra Archaeological Park, which is one of the world’s richest and largest archaeological parks. Due to its outstanding universal value, it became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. The dramatic Nabataean and Hellenistic rock-cut temple and tombs (approached by a natural winding rocky cleft, the Siq, which is the main entrance from the east to a once extensive trading city) represent a unique artistic achievement. They are masterpieces of a lost city that has fascinated visitors since the early 19th century. The entrance approach and the settlement itself were made possible by the creative genius of the extensive water collection, distribution and storage system of the Nabataean people.
    The Cultural Space of the Bedu in Petra and Wadi Rum was inscribed in 2008 on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity. Some families of Bedu tribes – namely from the Bidoul, the Ammaariin and the Sa’idiyyiin – continue to use the Nabataean water collection system and caves near Petra. The Bedu communities inhabiting this area keep a traditional pastoral culture and related skills alive. The Bedu of Petra and Wadi Rum have preserved specific knowledge related to flora and fauna of the area, traditional medicine, camel husbandry, tent-making, craftsmanship, as well as trekking and climbing skills. The monuments of the Petra World Heritage site are subject to ongoing erosion due to wind and rain, exacerbated by windblown sand due to reduced ground cover. They are also vulnerable to flash flooding along Wadi Musa through the winding gorge (Siq) if the Nabataean diversion system is not continually maintained. Moreover, the property is under pressure from tourism, which has increased twofold during the last 10 years, particularly at congestion points such as the Siq. In 2010 the total visitor number of the PAP has reached 909.474 visitors, which is coming close to the maximum carrying capacity of the park, currently estimated by UNESCO at about 1.26 million (UNESCO, 1994). The region is also vulnerable to the infrastructure needs (e.g. electricity, sewage treatment, transportation) of local communities.
    Iago Urgorri

    I think that you should to see this web, which have a bit about all.


    I. U.

  • Sujay Rao Mandavilli added an answer:
    What should be role of human science to deal with the emergent contemporary issues, which have local, regional as well as global implications?
    The unique adaptive strategy and cultural space of diverse tribal communities has gained huge research attention across the world owing to complexities of the issues related to their bio-cultural diversities, ethnicity, historicity, response to state policies and ongoing negotiation processes in a globalise world. Depending on their exposure to the forces of change and intricate link to the wider socio-political realities of life these issues have accelerated the process of transition/transformation among the diverse tribal population. In view these facts and circumstances, what should be role of human science and other related disciplines to deal with the emergent contemporary issues, which have local, regional as well as global implications?
    Sujay Rao Mandavilli

    I don't have the exact answer, but go through all my publications on research gate. They should have many answers

  • Kizilkaya Mustafa added an answer:
    Does anyone know some literature about teaching in the hunter-gatherer context?

    It can involve teaching, learning, imitation, emulation, demonstration, etc...

    Thank You!

    Kizilkaya Mustafa

    Hi How are you, Ma'am
    Dasa Bombjakov
    I know how to help you

About Anthropology

Any and everything anthropological.

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