• Johannes Duelund added an answer:
    What is the worth of old dialects and languages?

    What are former varieties of language worth for current day speakers? Sociolinguistics have proven interesting in a lot of aspects, but - to my mind - mostly in the discussion of how language and varieties/dialects affect, our attitude towards and understanding of, each other. How we sound and the words we use are important in communication human to human. Do we today have any worth of studying, remembering and talking about former dialects in the perspective of improving language today?  

    I know this question could become very complex due to our different first languages, cultures and understandings. And, obviously I already have an reply myself to this question, but before I tease you with my own answer, let's try to start this discussion from and "open to interpretation perspective". 

    Are there any worth in older languages for current day communication? 

    Johannes Duelund · Malmö University

    Thank you for your reply Thorbjørn! 
    It's very nice to get that point emphasized and I definitely agree. So much is "Lost in Translation", but hopefully sometimes, something new can rise from it as well. 

  • Francine Alkisswani added an answer:
    Does someone know of references for a sociology of error?

    I am looking for good references to a sociology of error (if there is such a thing), preferably in the area of science. By that I do not mean it in the sense denounced by David Bloor (as a self restriction sociology of knowledge puts on itself). What I am thinking of is an analysis of how the concept of "error" is ascribed to various situations, how it is used as resource, types of error ascription, etc.

    I am without formal training in sociology, and so, I am not sure whether this is a trivial question, or an interesting one.

    Thanks in advance!


    Francine Alkisswani · U.S. Department of Commerce

    I think the literature on Statistical Type I and Type II Errors might be useful.

    Type I and Type II errors can be defined in terms of hypothesis testing:   

    ·       A Type I error () is the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

    ·        A Type II error () is the probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis.

    Or simply:

    ·       A Type I error () is the probability of telling you things are wrong, given that things are correct.

    ·        A Type II error () is the probability of telling you things are correct, given that things are wrong.

    Take a look at--Evaluating the Relative Seriousness of Type I versus Type II Errors in Classical Hypothesis Testing

     Francine E. Alkisswani

  • Does anyone knows of studies on the concept of Infinite from an anthropological point of view?

    Metaphysical conceptions of the Infinite in particular cultures or in a cross-cultural perspective; interdisciplinary studies on this theme, between Philosophy and Cultural Anthropology.

    Franz Rolando Flórez Fuya · Jorge Tadeo Lozano University

    Basic nonwestern notions of time and space has been analyzed by Gillermo Páramo, from the perspective of paraconsistent logic.

  • Martijn Koster added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend any publication on the criteria for ethnographic texts?
    For a methodology paper, I'm looking for authors that have written about the outline/criteria/structure of a good ethnographic text. So I'm interested in literature on the product of ethnographic research and how it should look like.
    Martijn Koster · Universiteit Utrecht

    Hi Philippe,

    The chapter by Atkinson & Hammersley is great. I'll check the other chapters. Thanks!

  • Dahlia James-Williams added an answer:
    Are there any papers that deals with the aesthetic understanding of power?

    I really don't want aesthetics of politics, because I am well aware of this field of research. What I am really searching for is the connection of aesthetics and power. There were always some artwork which deals with the theme of gaining or misuse of power, and I believe that aesthetic interest plays some role of the understanding, recipe, attraction, worshiping or decline of power (as such and as the main theme of some works). A very good example is Faust.

    So What I am asking for, are there some papers or researches of aesthetic reception of Power. Or am I mistaken to think that there is some relation (of course I continue to ask myself and am still trying to find a pattern)?

    Dahlia James-Williams · The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago

    You could try:

    "The Turn of Art: The Avant-Garde and Power" by Krzysztof Ziarek
    New Literary History, Vol. 33, No. 1, Reconsiderations of Literary Theory, Literary History (Winter, 2002), pp. 89-107

  • Francesco Spagna asked a question:
    Can anyone suggest some references about Anthropology of Counterculture?

    Looking in particular for studies about the cultural roots of counter-cultural movements in the Sixties, and studies on counter-cultural processes in general

  • Maureen Fuary added an answer:
    Can anyone connect me with experts in aboriginal societies and laws?

    Especially, I am interested in aboriginal networks, their structures and communication channels. 

    Maureen Fuary · James Cook University

    Hello Barbara,

    Your question about communication and networks is very timely as there have been some great publications coming out which look at the ways in which Indigenous Australians (and other peoples) are creatively utilising new technologies and media.In particular, take a look at

    •  the journal Culture, Theory and Critique 2013 vol 54 (2) and their special issue "The Newness of the New Media". The papers relating specifically to Australia have been authored by Jennifer Deger (The Jolt of the New: Making Video Art in Arnhem Land); Melinda Hinkson ( Back to the Future: Warlpiri Encounters with Drawings, Country and Others in the Digital Age); and Daniel Fisher ( Intimacy and Self-Abstraction: Radio as New Media in Aboriginal Australia).
    •  The Australian Journal of Anthropology 2014 vol 25 (2) is themed: "Communication Technology and Social Life: Transformation, Continuity, Disorder and Difference." See the paper by Inge Kral (Shifting perceptions, shifting identities: Communication technologies and the altered social, cultural and linguistic ecology in a remote indigenous context); and Petronella Vaarzon-Morel ( Pointing the Phone: Transforming Technologies and Social Relations among Warlpiri) .

    All the best,


  • G. K. Ustinova added an answer:
    Could faith be considered outside the fear model because it is a removal of fear or is it just a cover for fear?
    I suspect that not only are there the well researched Fight/Flight mechanisms and now the newly researched freeze mechanisms; that there is also a fourth mechanism. All these mechanisms are based upon fear (perceived threat/harm) and the need for pain suppression, probably as a survival strategy.
    Just as we have true +ves, false +ves, true-ves and false –ves, perhaps;
    Fight and Flight is a true or false +ve based upon context.
    Freeze would be a false +ve, if you are one of those goats that fall over (I forget the breed, but under stress, these goats muscles freeze and they then fall over); many species, with enough camouflage, use Freeze to their advantage, true +ve.

    I’d like to offer a fourth alternative for you to consider; that of faith, from martyrdom belief mechanisms, to hero status freedom fighters.
    G. K. Ustinova · Russian Academy of Sciences

    It is interesting, that doubts decrease, apparently, faith, but retard fear.
    Which neurological mechanism is responsible for doubts? It is undeniable that doubts are a powerful source/cause of evolution of consciousness.

  • Can someone suggest publications related to the Nabataean in Petra?
    Petra Archaeological Park (PAP)
    The region’s most important resource is the Petra Archaeological Park, which is one of the world’s richest and largest archaeological parks. Due to its outstanding universal value, it became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. The dramatic Nabataean and Hellenistic rock-cut temple and tombs (approached by a natural winding rocky cleft, the Siq, which is the main entrance from the east to a once extensive trading city) represent a unique artistic achievement. They are masterpieces of a lost city that has fascinated visitors since the early 19th century. The entrance approach and the settlement itself were made possible by the creative genius of the extensive water collection, distribution and storage system of the Nabataean people.
    The Cultural Space of the Bedu in Petra and Wadi Rum was inscribed in 2008 on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity. Some families of Bedu tribes – namely from the Bidoul, the Ammaariin and the Sa’idiyyiin – continue to use the Nabataean water collection system and caves near Petra. The Bedu communities inhabiting this area keep a traditional pastoral culture and related skills alive. The Bedu of Petra and Wadi Rum have preserved specific knowledge related to flora and fauna of the area, traditional medicine, camel husbandry, tent-making, craftsmanship, as well as trekking and climbing skills. The monuments of the Petra World Heritage site are subject to ongoing erosion due to wind and rain, exacerbated by windblown sand due to reduced ground cover. They are also vulnerable to flash flooding along Wadi Musa through the winding gorge (Siq) if the Nabataean diversion system is not continually maintained. Moreover, the property is under pressure from tourism, which has increased twofold during the last 10 years, particularly at congestion points such as the Siq. In 2010 the total visitor number of the PAP has reached 909.474 visitors, which is coming close to the maximum carrying capacity of the park, currently estimated by UNESCO at about 1.26 million (UNESCO, 1994). The region is also vulnerable to the infrastructure needs (e.g. electricity, sewage treatment, transportation) of local communities.
    Łukasz Niesiołowski-Spanò · University of Warsaw

    Edawrd Lipiński has published extensively on Arameans, including Nabateans.


  • Johannes Duelund asked a question:
    The future of dialects

    I know, there are loads of discussion of this in sociolinguistics, but I've yet to read one at our wonderful ResearchGate. So, what are your personal opinion of The future of Dialects?

    Will we experience more or less of them and what will their characteristics be?
    Will we be more fluent in more or less dialects and will our tolerance towards other (than our primary) change, from what is generally considered today - which I'd argue very generally, is that we commonly have less tolerance towards more foreign dialects or hierarchies of dialects which we still can relate to and more tolerance towards those we know of but don't experience often).
    Will dialects be completely extinct or will we be drowned by them?

  • Ingo Lehmann added an answer:
    Lost city in Swahili settlement - can anyone help?
    I am doing a research on the subject “form of the city and local socio-cultural impact on the situation of Jame Mosque in historical cities of East Africa”. Accordingly, I try to find and study Swahili settlements in the region. Historically, the Shirazi people were founder the urban civilization in that region. In this regards I have found good information but there is lost data about one of their settlements.
    Can anyone help me in finding the exact location of historical City of Shirazi settlement in south-east of Kenya? According to the documents it had changed the name to Funzi and in smaller area Kefunzi. Through Google Earth I found the Funzi peninsula, but the exact location of its historical city was not mentioned in the historical maps and Google map data.
    Can anyone have any information about its data even the location of its ruins?
    Ingo Lehmann · Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Bonn) and National Museums of Kenya (Nairobi)

    The Shirazi dynasty (prior 1500 A.D.; I do not know an exact date - if there is any) is closely linked to Shehe Mvita. Some traditions believe that Shehe Mvita was the first Muslim in Mombasa. The Mombasa Swahili regard Shehe Mvita as the founder of their traditional city. The Shirazi city you are thinking of was most probably near or in the Old Town of Mombasa, probably a little south of Kongowea (east-central Mombasa Island). The Swahili mosque named Mkanyageni (midway between Mvita and Gavana) was built ca. 1595.

  • Nelson Elias added an answer:
    Are you in favor of reducing the age of criminal responsibility? How is the law in your country?
    In Brazil at a seminar sponsored by the special committee of the Chamber of Deputies, the consensus was that the hardening of punishments applied to juvenile offenders would not be the solution to reduce the practice of criminal acts of the same.
    Nelson Elias · Rio de Janeiro State University

    Dear Subhasu

    Thank you very much

    best regards

  • Lorenzo Mariano asked a question:
    Anyone interested? Call for Papers "Food, Internet and Social Media” Montanchez, Spain [FREE REGISTRATION] Feel free to share

    The International Commission on the Anthropology of Food and Nutrition (ICAF) invite proposals for papers exploring “Food, Internet and Social Media”. The aim of this conference will be the phenomenon of food culture in the age of virtualization and the virtual relationship around the social networks. Internet shows and shares our global and local preferences and our virtual habits reveal our food manners, social and ethnic identities, new behavioural patterns, eating habits... New categories related to Food as “Foodporn”, “Gastrosphere” “(virtual) Foodies”, “Instafood”, etc. emerges in a number of websites devoted to food aesthetics, wines, food and wine tourism, restaurant reviews, food production and consumption, healthy diets and nutrition...
    This conference aims to be an opportunity to discuss the global-local influence of the Internet and the virtual social media on the state of Food Culture and cultures. We invite participants to present their research on relevant subjects looking for an interdisciplinary approach that will reveal important aspects of the conference theme.
    We encourage participants interested in this conference to submit an abstract for consideration. We welcome papers with anthropological, sociological, historical, nutritional, geographic or economic perspectives, as well as approaches from Health Sciences, Tourism, Enterprise, etc.

  • Petko Simeonov added an answer:
    Do you know some recent research about the relationship between psychoanalysis and anthropology in the field of the visual perception?
    My research deals with the impact of one picture on the mental representations. I'd like to discover some recents publications on this field.

  • David Butt added an answer:
    Do you know any examples of indigenous language having a concept for "wilderness?"
    Many of the thousands of indigenous languages in the world do not have a word for "wild" or any of its relatives -- wildness, wilderness, wilding, etc. -- in their vocabulary. Do you know any examples of indigenous languages that do?
    David Butt · Macquarie University

    Dear Contributors,

    Can I thank you for this absorbing array of responses!? I am working on the grammatical construction of the concept of "self" - the resources that can carry a community of speakers (almost inexorably?) into the ME and I of William James. The range of examples offered above reminds me of the intoxication one gets from hearing researchers 'compare notes'. Wild and wilderness run deep.

    Best Wishes,


  • Why is 'entanglement' such a buzz word in anthropology?

    When did 'entanglement' become such a popular word in the social sciences and humanities? What features of this word make it such a pervasive term in contemporary anthropology in particular? 

    Antonio Miguel Nogués-Pedregal · Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

    I totally agree with you!! Indeed, I was about to include that borrowing from "hard sciences" too in my previous answer. I love it. For instance, going back to the word 'resilience' nowadays and, even, to some drafted ideas I have read about social entropy and cybernetics staff to explain the complexity of social processes.

    Given my disciplinary de-formation I am allowed to even sustain that there is something of an inferiority complex behind the use of those borrowed concepts. Too many social scholars keep defining and defending the rigourosity of social science against non-social ones according to their 'order of things and words' (roughly speaking this is Foucault's notion of discourse) and forgetting the scientific honesty claimed by Bourdieu in his famous "The scientific fact is conquered, constructed, confirmed". Besides, the uncritical (because they are trendy) use of these borrowed notions ignore the Weberian idea of purpose and intentionality present in any human action. This is, from my theoretical approach of course, what makes the difference between "you and me writting about these things" and "a stone just rolling downhill". You and me have an intention to write now, but the 'stupid' stone is just rolling down because some external force (my finger or an earthquake) moved it from its place.

    But this is a very old and interesting though tiring discussion. I would traced it back, first, to Durkheim's idea on treating social facts as things (1895) and, then even further, to the Kantian epistemological distinction between the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) and the phenomenon... hence troubling the possibility of knowing the first through the second which is --empirically-- the only 'thing' we can perceive and measure,etcétera.

  • Anek R Sankhyan added an answer:
    If the Oragutan-Austraolith theory is correct, which South Asian hominoid was their last common ancestor? Was it Asian or African or European?

    See above. 

    Anek R Sankhyan · Anthropological Survey of India

    Amit- you are right; this is but only a belief, and there is no hard fossil evidence to make the belief a scientific basis.

  • Patrick James Christian added an answer:
    Is anyone working in any area of psychogeography (eg: Stein, 2010), or extentions thereof in psychogeology and psychoclimatology?
    My dissertation (ongoing) is on a psychological profile of tribes in violent conflict in the Sahara/Sahel. Specifically, I'm interested in exploring (in part) cognitive imprinting on developing cultures based on extremes of geography, geology and climates of deserts, mountain habitats that are threatened with encroachment, war, desertification and the like, and one example of what I am interested in is the Ek tribe in northern Uganda.
    Patrick James Christian · Nova Southeastern University

    Francesca, this is the link to that paper. It is as you say, a difficult subject matter, but one that must be addressed. respectfully, Patrick 

  • Catherine McGinn-Roberts added an answer:
    Are there any Egyptian Mummy radiography databases?
    I have been trying to locate some radiography databases for my research on the sample I have of Egyptian mummies. So far the only site I have found is IMPACT which does not work, does anyone know of any other sites that have x rays, CT's or even just skeletal images of mummies?
    Catherine McGinn-Roberts · University of Liverpool

    I have read this, thank you for your post.

  • Can someone elaborate the fundamental divergence of archaeology of gender from the feminist archaeology?

    I would be grateful if someone shares pdf files related to archaeology of gender and feminist archaeology.

    Franz Rolando Flórez Fuya · Jorge Tadeo Lozano University

    May be gender could see from a foucaultian or Droysen perspective: the modernn role of woman and her role in western society is not ahistorical. There was not a "prehistorice Eve" or somenthig like that in any place. Or a nuclear family (dad, mom, kids), the so called "society foundation". While the feminist perspective don´t assume its own historicism, and has to assume a essential definition of woman in order to support and agenda. That´s the modern concept of "human rights" problem. 

  • Gaetano Deleonibus added an answer:
    Wich authors talk about Evil from an anthropological perspective?

    I'm looking for literature about Evil from different cultures and the evolution of the concept, especially before Christianity. For example, the approaches of J. Attali in L'ordre cannibale or M.F. Colllière in Promouvoir la vie. Thanks.

    Gaetano Deleonibus · Willamette University

    A look at Cătălin Avramescu's An Intellectual History of Cannibalism (Princeton UP, 2011) might also be of interest.

  • Are the historical picture merge nations in ethnic groups repeating a cycle anthropogenesis?

    My idea an illustration of the cycle of anthropogenesis is based solely on the energy description of this process.

    I want to confirm or deny this my idea.
    Thank you!

  • Marc Walton added an answer:
    Does anyone know the location of any Red Shroud Roman Portrait mummies?

    Red Shroud Mummies.

    Marc Walton · Northwestern University

    The book on Herakleides lists the known examples extant at the time of publication. There are others in Egyptian Museum but they are less clearly documented.

  • John J. Crandall added an answer:
    When doing observational/participation research should I develop a detailed disclaimer, or just a few sentences for each participant to sign?
    This is for an undergraduate Honors Thesis in Cultural/Linguistic Anthropology
    John J. Crandall · University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    I would do your best to give as much disclaimer as you can. While this may not be published, often honors theses are. Additionally, this is good practice for later in your career where you'll need to regularly deal with IRB review. I'd learn to navigate this now and expect to have to build rapport with your community of study. This kind of challenge may result in you having closer ties to folks in the community who help you gain informant trust.

  • John J. Crandall added an answer:
    Why don't humans have a baculum?
    Many mammals have a bone called the baculum. Elephants and humans don't. Why?

    Is their a survival advantage specific to elephants & humans?

    When we look at the sequence of bones from homo erectus back through to neanderthal man and beyond, at any point is there a baculum?
    John J. Crandall · University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    Probably due to our unique sociosexuality as humans. There haven't been any hominin baculum bones. Alan Dixson extensively discusses this amidst his 2013 "Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans". It is worth a read.

    Dawkin's argument is weak in terms of what we know about evolutionary theory and it seems unlikely. There are other mechanisms leading women away from ill men who had conditions common in prehistory. Disease avoidance cognition seems to be one tightly-conserved mechanism that comes to mind here.

    I suspect it was lost early in early Australopithecines or perhaps the common ancestor. Dixson suggests the common ancestor likely had one. I suspect having to walk upright, alongside shifting sociosexualities towards something less competitive, more multi-male, multi-female and likely with the components needed to formulate later pair bonding likely discourage the utility of a baculum. In such a model, the baculum is part of a suite of traits that evolve in species with high male-male competition. Some discussion of this can be found in Peter Gray's work, particularly his book "Fatherhood" published with Harvard University Press.

  • Noa Lincoln added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of a discussion or papers on the creation of indigenous cultures?
    There are many discussions about defining an indigenous group, but are there seminal works on examining the processes through which cultural distinction occurs? For instance the Americas were likely colonized by a few people, but resulted in many distinct cultural tribes with different languages, practices, beliefs, religions, etc. What is this process called and what are the key works about it?
    Noa Lincoln · University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Thank you John.  Iʻll check it out.

  • John J. Crandall added an answer:
    What could cause the eburnation on these toe bones?

    This is an old kingdom mummy these are the only bone of the foot I have, cannot understand the cause of this polishing. Sadly the photo does not do it justice.

    John J. Crandall · University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    I'd recommend consulting Tony Waldron's work on Degenerative Joint Disease as this appears to be osteoarthritis. Jurmain's recent summary of joint disease and attempts to link these to activity in "A Companion to Paleopathology" (edited by AL Grauer) may also be helpful. Without large trends by age, sex and other variables, it is hard to say what this might mean in terms of who does what kinds of labor, etc. in any population. As others have noted, this is because OA/DJD are multifactorial and age, sex, and genetics matter. 

  • Judith Buendgens-Kosten added an answer:
    Have you identified any ‘‘verbal shock’’ in your language that you will want to share?

    For want of a better phrase I have coined ‘‘verbal shock ‘to mean any expression that exists in a language for use only at specific occasions or at specific times. The use of these expressions shocks even the natives who have not heard them before. I give two examples in, Ewe, my mother tongue. In Ewe, when a woman has given birth to a twin and a person wants to find out how the twins are doing, that person would use the expression, keseawo kua? This literally means, ‘‘are the apes dead?’’. For a mother of a twin who does not know this expression, when it is uttered, she is shocked, annoyed and sometimes accuses the person who has uttered this. Another example is when a woman has done her best possible to ensure that his sick husband recovers but the husband dies, she is greeted, “Woe wͻ yaka dͻ!’’, meaning, ‘‘you have done a worthless job!’’ A woman who is not aware of the use of this expression for an occasion such as that one thinks the speakers has a hand in the husband’s death. When she is not educated on this expression, it may lead to strife between them. Have you noticed similar expressions in your language? If so, share with us?
    Language and culture, sociolinguistics, sociology, anthropology, education

    Judith Buendgens-Kosten · Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

    Not sure these examples are specific enough for you: German has "Hals- und Beinbruch" - broken neck and leg - to wish somebody good luck with a difficult endeavor. (In aviation context, there's the variant "Holm- und Rippenbruch"). You can also say "Wird schon schiefgehen" - it certainly will fail - to wish good luck.

    All these terms are fairly well known, though, so misunderstandings will be rare (except perhaps when children are concerned).

  • Philipp Altmann added an answer:
    Can anthropologists generate public consciousness around a land grab by the government?
    This research made an attempt to dissect public perception around governmental land grab.
    Philipp Altmann · Freie Universität Berlin

    The case of land grabbing actually seems to me one of the most successful cases of consciousness-generating on an international level. A politically engaged academia (not only anthropologists, but social scientists in a broader sense) provided the expertise for transnational social movements - that led to a diffusion of the consciousness of this problematic in many countries. I am sometimes surprised of the quantity and quality of the discussions on this topic in my country (Germany), that is, in media outside of academia, for instance, movement-related journals.

    I think, it is harder to create consciousness on a local level, where the alliances between social movements, an engaged civil society and academia can be hard to build (because of the small scope). And, of course, it will be hard to impulse some kind of mayor mobilization, when most people think they are not involved. 

  • Leonard Mehlmauer added an answer:
    Can anyone give me with any information regarding rites of passage & identity formation in cultural components in the area suicide prevention?
    Many years of working with Alaska Natives have convinced me that most of what we call suicide prevention is in fact intervention. I am interested in reinforcing & inventing appropriate cultural components to assist in the formation of secure identity at early ages, and changing our definition of prevention.
    Leonard Mehlmauer · California State University, Long Beach

    Well, Paul, your response makes your intention clearer.  

    I, too, have had similar experiences---altho I haven't ever been so depressed---other than the passing thots the typical teenager goes thru to "get even" with what we then consider an "uncaring and unfeeling parent".  Two of my brothers were suicides (in their teens).  A dear adult friend gave warning, but I didn't take her seriously---and she did the deed.  

    My best understanding---mainly from studying spiritual literature---is that the body-mind functions here in this Earth realm as an opportunity (the supreme opportunity) to transcend oneself and everything else in Divine Awakening.  This process is accomplished via Divine Grace while turning attention to the true Adept Spiritual Master (whoever it is for the individual).  Further, when one---usually in ignorance of this bodily purpose in life---literally "throws away" the body in suicide, one is wasting the greatest opportunity in life.  Sadly, our culture (as is so with virtually all other world cultures) only says, in effect, "You mustn't do that."  But no one really comes right out and says exactly why suicide is definitely not a good thing.

    Another quality of this practice called suicide is that "we" (the deeper personality) get "recycled" back to where we were when we left---which may or not be this Earth plane, just something similar.  After 73 years of life, 43 of it in clinical practice as a physician and lots of study, this is my best understanding of how suicide works. 

    So, people need to be educated to all this.  They need to be brought up in real Wisdom and Love---as described in the amazing book, The First Three Stages of Life.  Meanwhile, here we are in this "crazy random" culture, the (for me) USA.  It doesn't take a genius to see that it is just very difficult to live here.  Everything and everyone we love here dies.  We can, still, be happy here, but not (certainly) because of that fact.  We can be happy because of the fact that real Happiness (capital "H:) is always already (albeit hidden) in our hearts.  It is what every heart longs for.  It just takes "The Awakener" to do his / her Work!  The book, The Knee of Listening describes this process perfectly.  (Does this help in some way?)

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