• Nermin Gürhan added an answer:
    Who would like to cooperate with us in a large-scale cross-populational research project?

    Dear Colleague,
    We would like to invite you to our new, large-scale cross-cultural research project.
    Our previous research projects, conducted in 53 study sites, turned out to be a great success. One of our manuscripts (from a first project) was published in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, other from the new project is currently under review in the same journal, one will soon be submitted to the Journal of Marriage and Family, and three more papers are in the final stages of preparations. Thanks to our efficient team work we now collaborate with, e.g., David Buss.

    It is more or less psychological study, bu we would like to invite to coopaeration scientists from all fields of social or biological sciences.

    This time, we plan to conduct six studies.
    a) Sexual Morality Project
    b) Comparison of daily life touch between countries
    c) Creativity study
    d) Love study
    e) Mate study
    f) Facebook study

    Now, we have collaborators from +- 60 countries (see list below). New collaborators from                                   - O T H E R - countries are WELCOME!

    Algieria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Etiopia France Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Hong Kong Hugary India Iran Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Korea Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Macedonia Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mexico Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Pakistan Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Russia Salvador Slovakia Slovenia
    South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Uganda UK Ukraine Uruguay

    Nermin Gürhan

    Hello Piotry;
    I would like to take part in this project. There are also my friends who take part in this project with me. I would be happy to work with you, but a little more information. Turkey is also participating in the study person / persons transaxle? I can move there while also establishing communication with that person.
    Prof. Dr. Nermin Gürhan
    G.Üniversite The Department of Psychiatric Nursing Faculty of Health Sciences


  • Michael P. Weinstein added an answer:
    Is it time we shift emphasis from technological solutions to climate change & focus on the 'Human Dimension'?

    Isn't the obvious solution and the elephant-in-the-room 'BETTER HUMAN BEINGS'? Shouldn't the focus be on better human beings rather than better technology? Why is it that everyone wants to develop better technology rather than focus on better humanity? Because no one has the answers and no one wants to change themselves? In environmental degradation, is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?

    A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?

    " Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky

    Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.

    We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
    Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
    Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
    Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?

    " We are what we Think.

    All that we are arises with our thoughts.

    With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 

    IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!

    The Mind is the Final frontier.

    + 2 more attachments

    Michael P. Weinstein

    Please talk to Harry ten Brink about this!

  • Blake A. Gentry added an answer:
    How do we explain the origin of private property in land?

    Demsetz bases his theory of private property formation on the anthropology of Canadian indigenes near Quebec during the fur trade.  He claims that soaring prices for furs stimulated the local indigenous peoples to form territories so they could more effectively husband their fur resources (mostly beaver populations).  My question is twofold:  (1) Did contact with the French devastate the indigenous populations as was the case further south, in both North and South American; and (2) did the privatization of the resource (in landed property) lead to local animal extinctions due to intense market pressure for furs?

    Blake A. Gentry

    Correction on previous entry. Jesuits were in the Americas until 1767, having entered in Brazil in 1549. After 1767 Franciscans took over the missions under the Spanish Crown.

  • Kebede Kassa added an answer:
    Is there a distinct African anthropological theory?

    The discipline of anthropology has taken much of its credit to the field data from Africa. That's, the row material for anthropological theories, and by extension, its evolutionary development, has been derived, in large measure, from African realities.

    The question, however, is "Has there been any noticeable African anthropological theory or tradition as apat the continent being the data mine of the discipline, at least in its formative years?"

    This question should in no anyway suggest that Africa/is was the only place where anthropological fieldwork was done given the fact Australia, Latin America and Asia have also been similar field schools.

    Kebede Kassa

    Kebede Kassa

    That's true and that is one aspect of looking at Africa. The other is more of social or historical. What about its contribution to world civilization? where does the so-called Western Civilization originate? There are issues such as this and the fact that we are far short of theories from an African perspective is both by design and by default. We can talk more on this next. Still come again.


  • José Manuel Rodríguez Arce added an answer:
    Does anyone know what methodology was employed by the anthropologist Donald E. Brown to derive the human universals he discusses in his famous book?

    Donald E. Brown's book, "Human Universals", explores and describes physical and behavioral characteristics that can be considered universal among all cultures, all people. I have not been able to get my hands on a copy of that work. Can someone who has read the book tell me if Brown employed a systematic cross-cultural analysis? Or did he employed a different methodology? If so, what was the procedure he used to determine which traits are ubiquitous in human societies? Are his findings robust and reliable? Or are they based on a somewhat haphazard survey of regionally isolated studies?

    José Manuel Rodríguez Arce

    Dear Peter,

    I hope you are doing fine! I want to thank you for taking the time to comment on my question. I did not know about Darwin's early contribution to this interesting debate. Certainly, I have heard many times among some of my colleagues (who are only anthropologists, and not also biologists, like me) the argument that Darwin was the "typical Victorian racist", as you mention it. Sadly, this misrepresentation biases them against any possible insight that might be gained from learning and applying an evolutionary perspective to their own work. In doing so, they neglect what is possibly the best metatheory for a truly scientific anthropology.

    Anyway, it is really interesting to learn that Darwin was also anticipating, in some manner, the role played by cultural transmission and niche construction on the advance of civilization. It seems clear that his vision of human evolution was much more sophisticated than it is usually portrayed.

    Best regards,

    José Ml. Rodríguez Arce

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    How different do languages need to be before they are considered separate? What is the "taxonomy" of languages?
    I have zero experience in the field of linguistics, but a paper I am writing now calls for a brief paragraph about using languages as one defining characteristic of a different cultural group. Can someone please suggest some good papers that discuss how different languages need to be before they are a different dialect, a different language altogether, and any other distinctions that I may be unaware of. I assume that this is an ongoing discussion, and that like defining a species, sub-species, etc., there is no set answer but that it depends which school of thought you want to prescribe to. I donʻt need an answer (and I donʻt think there is an "answer") to the question, but some sources that explore the theoretical aspects of the question would be very helpful.
    Rahimi Ali

    Hi , you can utilize either a family trees approach or ,Greenberg's  linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages,  ( typological linguistics )

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Does anyone know about rock art of horses in Chichimeca territory, 16th/17th century ?

    Hello, is there anyone on here who knows of rock art images of horsemen in the old Chichimeca territory of the 1500s and 1600s? According to Spanish sources, Chichimeca groups like the Guachichiles were using horses and keeping horse herds as early as the 1560s. Thanks for any suggestions on this subject.

    (Image of petroglyph below is from New Mexico).

    Michael Bletzer

    Thanks, James, I'll check out the link.

    I've seen quite a few horse/rider images across the U.S. Southwest - such as the one I posted with the question which is from south-central New Mexico and located near a couple of early colonial-period pueblos.

    At this point I'd like to keep the inquiry as close to the Gran Chichimeca as possible, mainly because I'm interested specifically in the Chichimecas' adaptations to Spanish pressures and because the Chichimecas (presumably the Guamares and/or some of the southern Guachichil groups) were the first to acquire horses from, and use them against, the Spaniards, ca. 1560s.

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with sixteenth-century occurrences of the name "Querechos"?
    I'm interested in the name "Querechos" and any occurrences in 16th-century documents from New Spain (i.e. Mexico). The name was used by members of the Coronado expedition to describe some Plains Indian groups (probably "proto-Apaches"), but I'd like to know if there were any tribal groups in New Spain that had been tagged as "Querechos" before 1540. I am familiar with all later occurrences of the name in and around New Mexico, and would like to track down its origin. .
    Michael Bletzer

    Thank you, David for your time and input,

    the Obregon reference to Ibarra's trip to the Paquime area is fascinating as Obregon was well read up on the early "travel literature", as it were, of the northern frontier (Alvar Nunez and Coronado). Coronado's people were the first to use Querechos as far as is known. Obregon read the available accounts and may even have met some of Coronado's men. He definitely did talk to the members of the Rodriguez-Chamuscado and Espejo-Beltran expeditions, who had just been to Nuevo Mexico. From them he would also have heard about the Querechos and by the time he wrote his Historia in 1585 he applied the name to the hunter-gatherers he had seen while he was with Ibarra in the northwest in the mid-1560s.

    All that suggests to me some sort of reverse migration of a Pueblo (probably Keres) word which the Spaniards first heard in 1541, and which they used for about 60 years to refer to some Apache groups (similar to the word "Vaqueros" for the buffalo plains Apaches) or groups that to them looked like Apache groups - a sort of lifestyle description, if you will, not unlike the word "Chichimecas" (which in some contexts the Spanish explorers of New Mexico actually used interchangeably with Querechos/Vaqueros).

    Thanks again, Michael

  • Marc Verhaegen added an answer:
    What is the evolutionary basis of human bipedalism system of locomotion?
    I need to have a detailed information on the aforementioned anthropology topic.
    Marc Verhaegen


  • Barry Bainton added an answer:
    Other than in research area and super specialisation can we tie sociology and anthropology in the same cart to give basic ideas, knowledge and explanations.
    When all we can relate sociology and anthropology
    Barry Bainton

    Sociology is the study of society and social relations. Sociology focuses on humans in groups and the structure of the groups in terms of such social facts as status (a position within a social network with rights and responsibilities aside to the position) and individual roles (the behaviors that individuals and social groups carry out as a function of their status in the network).

    Anthropology is the study of MAN in its original 4 field approach developed in America under Boas. It included the historical and biological nature of human evolution, the study of contemporary human societies, especially non-western, and the languages. The dominant sub-field is cultural  anthropology which focuses on the role of culture and cultural differences in human society.

    The British have developed a more sociological approach to the subject and anthropology is most often described as social anthropology. Physical/biological anthropology is some times treated as a separate discipline.

    As the social and behavioral sciences have evolved the differences between disciplines become more and more fragile.

  • Bruno Venditto added an answer:
    Family and household, are these two concepts superimposible?

    I am analysing the impact of migration on Namibian families, however I realise that in the academia there is not much clarity (or at least it is not clear to me) between the concepts of family and households which in many cases are considered as one. I am under thte idea that particularly in an African context the difference still exist. Any suggestion is welcome 

    Bruno Venditto

    Thanks Dimitris

  • Closed account added an answer:
    Could you suggest me fundamental literature which focuses on the concept of "community"?

    I am particularly interested in works stemming from the field of anthropology/sociology. Thanks.


    I would recommend the book written by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.


  • Eliana Barrios added an answer:
    Does anthropology use transdisciplinarity as an usual and common way for research?
    As anthropologist I think we do, transdiciplinarity is it necessary in sciences or disciplines like education and psychology, commonly with defined boundaries.
    Eliana Barrios

    Thanks Francesco, if it was an anthropologist it makes a lot of sense to me. And to Gwen and Charles, I do not think Sociology has much to do with Anthropology, the last one do not need and it is not associated neither to Sociology nor to Archaelogy, why should it be? It has its own research methods different from both, but maybe tja analisys is closer to the archaelogist work but not to Sociology. Sociology has borrowed some techniques and methos from Anthropology but that´s all.

  • D.E. Morant added an answer:
    Are there any critiques out there of Theresa Schenck's "The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar" which challenge her analysis of the original Ojibwa?

    What is your take on the argument of Theresa Schenck in "the Voice of the Crane Echos Afar" is? She says the Ojibway were originally the crane clan who in the contact era was located near the Sault - hence Ojibway being synonymous with Sault and Saulteax.

    She argues the Ojibway nation was a historical response to territorial expansion, but that the identity of Anishinaabeg was widespread throughout many of the algonquian speakers? Essentially she is arguing the larger identity of the Ojibwa is historically emergent and derives from population shifts. 

    It seems pretty convincing to me, but not being Ojibwe, I don't really have much context to refute here. 

    D.E. Morant contains a review by Timothy Cochrane, superintendent of Grand Portage National Monument

  • Karl Burmeister added an answer:
    Are there any papers that deals with the aesthetic understanding of power?

    I really don't want aesthetics of politics, because I am well aware of this field of research. What I am really searching for is the connection of aesthetics and power. There were always some artwork which deals with the theme of gaining or misuse of power, and I believe that aesthetic interest plays some role of the understanding, recipe, attraction, worshiping or decline of power (as such and as the main theme of some works). A very good example is Faust.

    So What I am asking for, are there some papers or researches of aesthetic reception of Power. Or am I mistaken to think that there is some relation (of course I continue to ask myself and am still trying to find a pattern)?

    Karl Burmeister

    I don't think anyone has mentioned Frederick the Great of Prussia. At one time he can considered the epitome of the Enlightenment ideal monarch. This gets topical for me as I am currently reading "Evening in the Palace of Reason, Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment" by James R. Gaines.

    Frederick was a very effective monarch and aesthetics was just one of his tools and from what I remember was focused entirely on music of what we call the Galant period.


    and yes I am running the Galant thread.

  • Ivo Carneiro de Sousa added an answer:
    Can someone suggest articles, theses, books on the Nyemba people, also known as Ngangela, of Angola and northern Namibia?
    Origins, settlement, culture, traditional rule (political organisation), expansion and dispersal, ethnic variety.
    Ivo Carneiro de Sousa

    Dear Gerhard,

    In Angola, those communities are labeled Ganguela or Nganguela. The best research still is the book by the Portuguese anthropologist REDINHA, José. Etnias e Culturas de Angola. Luanda: Instituto de Investigação Científica de Angola, 1975. I ignore any English translation and summary. I live in Macao, China, and Redinha's son is a well known lawyer here and holds his father ethnographic collections from Angola as well as several manuscript unpublished studies. 

  • Gene Ammarell added an answer:
    Does anyone know any anthropologists who have studied how deception practices differ between cultures?

    I am looking for an anthropological comparison between the deception practices in the United States and China. The purpose of this research is to identify cues to deception that are present in each culture and to distinguish how culture plays a role in deception.

    Gene Ammarell

    I don't know of any other research, but I have data on it from my own research among the Bugis of Indonesia.  I'd be happy to discuss it.

  • Pedro Luengo Gutiérrez added an answer:
    Is there anybody trying to research on new technologies (artifitial intelligence, drones...) and heritage in Europe?

    We are thinking on the next call of Uses of Past and we are seeking different kind of researchers from diferent "heritage disciplines", such as Anthropology, Architecture, Tourism, Languague, Gastronomy, History, Biology...

    Pedro Luengo Gutiérrez

    I know clarin. I was in Amsterdam last March. Thank you very much. Best regards!

  • Marc Verhaegen added an answer:
    If the Oragutan-Austraolith theory is correct, which South Asian hominoid was their last common ancestor? Was it Asian or African or European?

    See above. 

    Marc Verhaegen

    Yes, enamel thickness I had tried to answer in my previous answer & in our "aquarboreal" papers (in TREE & see file attached). Most Mio-Pliocene hominoids had thick enamel (arguable as an adaptation to harder foods such as coco or other nuts or hard-shelled invertebrates HSIs, as seen in e.g. capuchins, who e.g. open mangrove oysters with oyster shells, see refs in papers above). Some hominoid spp developed superthick enamel (e.g. Ouranopith, aethiopicus-boisei, robustus), some got (directly or again) thinner enamel (Pan & esp.Gorilla), others kept or re-evolved thick enamel (Homo, Pongo). Generally, AFAICS (see attachment), in hominoids we see thick enamel in omnivores in coastal forests, superthick enamel in herbivores in open wetlands, and thinner enamel in foli-herbivores in tropical forests, but this provisionel impression requires a lot more detailed study. 

  • Ioana Iliescu added an answer:
    Do you have an articles about the evolutionary value of orgasm in the male and female human?


    Ioana Iliescu

    I'd suggest Daniel Goleman - Social Intelligence (particularly the fourth part of the book). At the end of his book you may find quite an impressive list of further articles and books that might help you in your endeavour. I might as well just give you some hints: David Buss 'Sex Differences in Human Mate Preference: Evolutionary Hypotheses in 37 Cultures' - Behavioural and Brain Sciences 12 (1989), pp. ; 1-49 or Jaak Panksepp - 'Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). The main idea is related to the chemistry created in the human brain during orgasms (oxytocin, vassoprasin, testosterone, serotonin, etc and their specific roles in keeping two partners together long enough so that they can procreate and raise the children in such a way as they could also apply the same mating rules with confidence in their choices). Helen Fisher also has several books that describe the brain chemistry, the first one that comes into my head is "Why Him, Why Her" and 'Why We Love'. 

    I hope my feedback doesn't come too late. 

  • Marystella Ramirez added an answer:
    Is any historian of medicine aware of Descartes and headaches and/or ORL symptomatology?
    In order to better understand the clinical presentation of this individual.
    Marystella Ramirez

    There is a text, which of the top of my mind I can't remember exactly, relating to pain and how it was connected to the mind. Its more philosophical than medical but has been seen as an precursor of the nervous understanding of disease that was important towards the end of the 18th C, though Descartes was preceeded in this by Oliva de Sabuco.

  • Iago Urgorri added an answer:
    Can someone suggest publications related to the Nabataean in Petra?
    Petra Archaeological Park (PAP)
    The region’s most important resource is the Petra Archaeological Park, which is one of the world’s richest and largest archaeological parks. Due to its outstanding universal value, it became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. The dramatic Nabataean and Hellenistic rock-cut temple and tombs (approached by a natural winding rocky cleft, the Siq, which is the main entrance from the east to a once extensive trading city) represent a unique artistic achievement. They are masterpieces of a lost city that has fascinated visitors since the early 19th century. The entrance approach and the settlement itself were made possible by the creative genius of the extensive water collection, distribution and storage system of the Nabataean people.
    The Cultural Space of the Bedu in Petra and Wadi Rum was inscribed in 2008 on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity. Some families of Bedu tribes – namely from the Bidoul, the Ammaariin and the Sa’idiyyiin – continue to use the Nabataean water collection system and caves near Petra. The Bedu communities inhabiting this area keep a traditional pastoral culture and related skills alive. The Bedu of Petra and Wadi Rum have preserved specific knowledge related to flora and fauna of the area, traditional medicine, camel husbandry, tent-making, craftsmanship, as well as trekking and climbing skills. The monuments of the Petra World Heritage site are subject to ongoing erosion due to wind and rain, exacerbated by windblown sand due to reduced ground cover. They are also vulnerable to flash flooding along Wadi Musa through the winding gorge (Siq) if the Nabataean diversion system is not continually maintained. Moreover, the property is under pressure from tourism, which has increased twofold during the last 10 years, particularly at congestion points such as the Siq. In 2010 the total visitor number of the PAP has reached 909.474 visitors, which is coming close to the maximum carrying capacity of the park, currently estimated by UNESCO at about 1.26 million (UNESCO, 1994). The region is also vulnerable to the infrastructure needs (e.g. electricity, sewage treatment, transportation) of local communities.
    Iago Urgorri

    I think that you should to see this web, which have a bit about all.


    I. U.

  • Sujay Rao Mandavilli added an answer:
    What should be role of human science to deal with the emergent contemporary issues, which have local, regional as well as global implications?
    The unique adaptive strategy and cultural space of diverse tribal communities has gained huge research attention across the world owing to complexities of the issues related to their bio-cultural diversities, ethnicity, historicity, response to state policies and ongoing negotiation processes in a globalise world. Depending on their exposure to the forces of change and intricate link to the wider socio-political realities of life these issues have accelerated the process of transition/transformation among the diverse tribal population. In view these facts and circumstances, what should be role of human science and other related disciplines to deal with the emergent contemporary issues, which have local, regional as well as global implications?
    Sujay Rao Mandavilli

    I don't have the exact answer, but go through all my publications on research gate. They should have many answers

  • Kizilkaya Mustafa added an answer:
    Does anyone know some literature about teaching in the hunter-gatherer context?

    It can involve teaching, learning, imitation, emulation, demonstration, etc...

    Thank You!

    Kizilkaya Mustafa

    Hi How are you, Ma'am
    Dasa Bombjakov
    I know how to help you

  • Memory Malibha-Pinchbeck added an answer:
    How did people in urban marginality make their livelihood and history, in Kampala, Uganda?

    In anthropological perspectives, I am particularly interested in marginality in the urban settings in Africa. I have already done on it from the historical perspectives, on sanitation and public health in colonial Africa.

    Memory Malibha-Pinchbeck

    It sounds like you'll also need to look at the political and social restrictions of that society to help you determine what options such marginalised individuals had economically? Did they have access to education, healthcare? What resources could they access and afford to access? If this is colonial Africa there should be a lot of biographical data? 

  • Francesco Spagna added an answer:
    Does anyone know of studies on the concept of Infinite from an anthropological point of view?

    Metaphysical conceptions of the Infinite in particular cultures or in a cross-cultural perspective; interdisciplinary studies on this theme, between Philosophy and Cultural Anthropology.

    Francesco Spagna

    Thank you Christopher for your answer and your poem that reminds me William Blake

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    What are the key barriers in reaching men for health promotion (on any health subject)?
    For any health education outreach activity, how does one provide exposure to both men and women, especially those in low resource settings?
    Rahimi Ali

    ignorance , lack of knowledge, taboos, physical pleasure, media and states' tendency and policies of hiding realities of health issues , wrong stereotypical macho and patriarchal images of strength, power and control

  • Karl Schwerin added an answer:
    Has anyone studied the history of okra from Africa to South America?

    I am trying to look at how the African diaspora brought African food items to the new world.

    Karl Schwerin

    see the current issue of American Scientist (July-August 2015):                                "African Names for American Plants," by Tinde R. van Andel (pp. 268-275, and especially the sidebar on p. 271)

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Hello, is anyone on here engaged in, or aware of, archaeological research on reducción- or congregación-type mission settlements in Latin America?

    My primary interest is in the material record of 16th/17th-century settlements that were abandoned under reducción/congregación policies, especially in Nueva España (Mexico). I'm working on what was very likely a "reduced-abandoned" pueblo in New Mexico in the 1620s/30s and would like to compare material patterns of similar abandonments from a wider area. Gracias mil for any information you may have.

    Michael Bletzer

    Thanks everyone, for all the suggestions. I think they will keep me occupied for some time  :-)

    In the New Mexican case I've been referring to, the particular circumstances of a reducción-type abandonment are only vaguely alluded to in the historical record. The proximity of a known Franciscan mission pueblo, however, provides a significant clue as to what may have happened to the neighboring pueblos (as does the ceramic chronology).

    To test this hypothesis versus other possible abandonment scenarios, what is needed are extensive abandonment deposits. Unfortunately, for New Mexico such archaeological records really exist only for pre-contact pueblos. Folks like M. Schiffer, C. Cameron, M. Stevenson, however, have provided a theoretical framework that allows one to identify a range of abandonment conditions and their corresponding material patterns.

    Question for me now is, how does the abandonment pattern from "my" pueblo stack up against other sites that are known or suspected to have been "reduced" as the result of a Spanish mission settlement. I haven't yet really seen any mission-period studies that focus on abandonment deposits to the extent necessary for addressing the issue of reducción.

    Hopefully I'll be able to find something going over all your suggestions. Thanks again!

  • Mohan Bairwa added an answer:
    What are the various scales available to find the socio-economic status of populations residing in India or south east Asia?
    How good are they to use now (2014-2015)
    Mohan Bairwa

    Hmmm Binu, two things need to remember, most importantly it can be used only for urban population; second, it needs to be updated on the basis of Consumer Prices Index (CPI) for the particular year or month.

    Dear Knipe, Kuppuswamy scale based dynamic determinants, therefore, it is not affected by static assets. It depends on education, occupation, and income.

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