• Francesco Spagna added an answer:
    Does anyone know of studies on the concept of Infinite from an anthropological point of view?

    Metaphysical conceptions of the Infinite in particular cultures or in a cross-cultural perspective; interdisciplinary studies on this theme, between Philosophy and Cultural Anthropology.

    Francesco Spagna · University of Padova

    Thank you Christopher for your answer and your poem that reminds me William Blake

  • James Smith added an answer:
    Does anyone know some literature about teaching in the hunter-gatherer context?

    It can involve teaching, learning, imitation, emulation, demonstration, etc...

    Thank You!

    James Smith · Saybrook University

    Dasa, While broader in its scope, have you read any of Vine Deloria Jr's work? Look especially at the book, Sprit and Reason, which is a collection of articles of varioius topics, including indigenous ways of knowing. (Fulcrum Publishing, 1999).

  • Rahimi Ali added an answer:
    What are the key barriers in reaching men for health promotion (on any health subject)?
    For any health education outreach activity, how does one provide exposure to both men and women, especially those in low resource settings?
    Rahimi Ali · Bangkok University

    ignorance , lack of knowledge, taboos, physical pleasure, media and states' tendency and policies of hiding realities of health issues , wrong stereotypical macho and patriarchal images of strength, power and control

  • Carol Ikard added an answer:
    Has anyone studied the history of okra from Africa to South America?

    I am trying to look at how the African diaspora brought African food items to the new world.

    Carol Ikard · Walden University

    I understand Thomas Jefferson tried to introduce okra to the French when he was ambassador to France. He may have written about it; he was so prolific.  Also, I understand the slaves brought the seeds over by hiding them in the folds of their ears. Good luck....the history of okra may be as fascinating as the history of the color red.

    A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire

    Apr 25, 2006
    by Amy Butler Greenfield

  • Michael Bletzer added an answer:
    Hello, is anyone on here engaged in, or aware of, archaeological research on reducción- or congregación-type mission settlements in Latin America?

    My primary interest is in the material record of 16th/17th-century settlements that were abandoned under reducción/congregación policies, especially in Nueva España (Mexico). I'm working on what was very likely a "reduced-abandoned" pueblo in New Mexico in the 1620s/30s and would like to compare material patterns of similar abandonments from a wider area. Gracias mil for any information you may have.

    Michael Bletzer · Jornada Research Institute

    Thanks everyone, for all the suggestions. I think they will keep me occupied for some time  :-)

    In the New Mexican case I've been referring to, the particular circumstances of a reducción-type abandonment are only vaguely alluded to in the historical record. The proximity of a known Franciscan mission pueblo, however, provides a significant clue as to what may have happened to the neighboring pueblos (as does the ceramic chronology).

    To test this hypothesis versus other possible abandonment scenarios, what is needed are extensive abandonment deposits. Unfortunately, for New Mexico such archaeological records really exist only for pre-contact pueblos. Folks like M. Schiffer, C. Cameron, M. Stevenson, however, have provided a theoretical framework that allows one to identify a range of abandonment conditions and their corresponding material patterns.

    Question for me now is, how does the abandonment pattern from "my" pueblo stack up against other sites that are known or suspected to have been "reduced" as the result of a Spanish mission settlement. I haven't yet really seen any mission-period studies that focus on abandonment deposits to the extent necessary for addressing the issue of reducción.

    Hopefully I'll be able to find something going over all your suggestions. Thanks again!

  • Mohan Bairwa added an answer:
    What are the various scales available to find the socio-economic status of populations residing in India or south east Asia?
    How good are they to use now (2014-2015)
    Mohan Bairwa · All India Institute of Medical Sciences

    Hmmm Binu, two things need to remember, most importantly it can be used only for urban population; second, it needs to be updated on the basis of Consumer Prices Index (CPI) for the particular year or month.

    Dear Knipe, Kuppuswamy scale based dynamic determinants, therefore, it is not affected by static assets. It depends on education, occupation, and income.

  • Santiago Muñoz Arbeláez added an answer:
    Can you recommend any articles on "Anthropology in/of the Amazon"?

    I am especially interested in the Brasilian part of the Amazon, but hints on the neighbouring countries are welcome as well. Thank you.

    Santiago Muñoz Arbeláez · Yale University

    Eduardo Viveiros de Castro and  Philippe Descola

  • Aashish Basnet added an answer:
    What is the verge of Pragmatic Anthropology that sets the so called Derrida's notion to Deconstruction?

    Pragmatic Anthropology

    Aashish Basnet · Tribhuvan University

     Rahimi Ali thanx for ur reply still thinkin over ur answer

  • Jimmy Petit added an answer:
    How can I define the mid-diaphysis in unfused human long bones?

    To calculate the platymeric and platybrachial indexes, I need to observe the antero-posterior and medio-lateral diameter of the femur and the humerus. How can I determine the mid-diaphysis in bones without epiphysis?

    Jimmy Petit · University of Bordeaux

    Thank you all for your answers. Initially i would take the mid-shaft measurement of the description of Tim White (Human Osteology), but it seems more reasonable to follow the Buikstra & Ubelaker (1994) even if they don't develop the methodology for unfused long bones. 

  • Anne Savage added an answer:
    Who should I read for postmodern anthropology? Or applications of postmodernist theory to anthropology?

    Where will I find readings in anthropology which apply postmodern critical theory?

    Anne Savage · McMaster University

    I'd like to thank everyone for their answers, which also lay out different contexts for both the question and the wide rang3 of answers.

  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    Don't you think that the use of the word "tribe" today has been deconstructed?
    I think the colonial anthropologists applied it in respect to groups of people who were not yet exposed to the "outside world". So with the growing awareness of mutual intelligibility, among ethnic groups, "tribe" in their context becomes narrow and loses a sense of universality.
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah · University of Ghana

    Tribe was a colonized constructed word which now have lost it value. though the layman will not understand the technicality of such things we in the academia should be able to deconstruct such terminologies.

  • Could you suggest literature on small-scale mining in El Oro, Ecuador and beyond?

    I am mainly interested in perspectives from sociology/anthropology/political ecology, but open for a wide disciplinary scope. The more recent the better.

    Juan Oliver Sanchez Fernandez · Complutense University of Madrid

    Se me olvidaba. El autor de la obra <<Trabajo, política e ideología en una cuenca minera>> es Sánchez Fernández, Juan Oliver

  • Kevin Coffee added an answer:
    Does anyone know something about John Jacob Astor's (1763-1848) gifts of ethnographical objects to a museum in U.S. or Europe?

    Gifts could be of anthropological objects too and I am also interested if anyone knows something about gifts made by John Jacob Astor's son in-law, the german diplomat Vincent Rumpff (1789-1867). Thank you!

    Kevin Coffee · consultant

    Depending upon how one defines 'ethnographical gifts' - the New-York Historical Society has some material pertaining to the dominant classes of American society gifted by Astor. And the Museum of the City of New York holds mainly documentary evidence of the same, including images of the old man himself, but they may have more than that.

  • Catalin Lazar added an answer:
    Does anybody know red ocher beads from neolithic or other prehistoric periods?

    In the summer of 2014, we discovered a new Eneolithic cemetery at Sultana (Romania), and near one of the skeletons we identified a fragment of red ocher bead.

    Does anybody know other similar artefacts from prehistory or other time periods?

    Thanks in advance.

    Catalin Lazar · Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României

    Dear Stefan,

    Thank you for the information.

    Best wishes,


  • Keith G. Tidball added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of any studies describing/defining "locavore" and locavore behavior, motivations, values, etc.?

    i need better definition of this increasingly popular vernacular demographic...

    Keith G. Tidball · Cornell University

    Thanks for the helpful answer Daniel!

  • Riva Berleant added an answer:
    Are there any papers that deals with the aesthetic understanding of power?

    I really don't want aesthetics of politics, because I am well aware of this field of research. What I am really searching for is the connection of aesthetics and power. There were always some artwork which deals with the theme of gaining or misuse of power, and I believe that aesthetic interest plays some role of the understanding, recipe, attraction, worshiping or decline of power (as such and as the main theme of some works). A very good example is Faust.

    So What I am asking for, are there some papers or researches of aesthetic reception of Power. Or am I mistaken to think that there is some relation (of course I continue to ask myself and am still trying to find a pattern)?

    Riva Berleant · University of Connecticut

    You might look at Terry Eagleton's book THE IDEOLOGY OF THE AESTHETIC. Eagleton shows that ideology and power are intrinsic in aesthetic theory, and how aesthetics has functioned coercively.

        You might also scroll through the contents of the on-line, peer-reviewed, open access journal CONTEMPORARY AESTHETICS <>.  It publishes out-of-the-ordinary and cutting edge papers in aesthetics. 

  • Saurav Kumar added an answer:
    What is the science behind evolution of language, script, and number? It is common among all the culture and civilization?

    Whenever we look into history or culture of any geographical patches it is very common to find language and script identity as generic way to find their evolution. So it might comes into mind frequently what is the basic science behind this whole story.

    Saurav Kumar · Central Scientific Instruments Organization

    Thank you for giving very nice and appropriate input. @Rafael , Sir, the purpose is not to put someone in brain game while just to explore simple science behind evolution of language, script and number in all the civilization irrespective of geographical constrain.

  • Talitha Guittin added an answer:
    In what way does the anthropology in the catechism of the Catholic church take into account disability?

    Researchers in theology of disability have presented, over the last decades, a non-normate hermeneutic of the Bible, offering a disability-lecture of the Scripture which presents a theological anthropology taking into account the lives/views of people with disabilities. 

    Has anyone tried to analyse the catechism of the Church to see if its anthropology is compatible with a disability-hermeneutic?

    Talitha Guittin · University of Strasbourg

    Thank you for contributing - when I write about catechism, I refer to the CCC (Catechism of the Catholic Church)  of 1992... I wouldn't describe it as a contradictary and full of mistakes - I donot agree with everything it says, but it is doctrine and the standard by which the church tries to make intelligible our faith. I use it very often and have studied it in detail - why would you call it ambiguous?

  • Philip Greenfeld added an answer:
    Are you aware of any anthropological or sociological literature on the 'Gond' tribal group of Central India?

    Looking for literature that expounds upon the sub-groups present within the Gond tribe such as Gond Thathiyas, Gond Thakurs, Gond Korkus etc. Village studies on Gond villages and anthropological accounts of Gonds and the sub-groups from Madhya Pradesh would be helpful.

    Philip Greenfeld · San Diego State University

    A sociolinguistic survey of the Gondi-speaking communities of central India / by David Karl Beine. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Dept. of Anthro. San Diego State University

  • Catalin Lazar added an answer:
    Does anybody know rectangular pot-stands from Neolithic or other prehistoric periods?

    Does anybody know support-pots with a rectangular shape such as those from the attached picture dated in Neolithic or other prehistoric periods?
    In Romania, they are specific to Boian culture, final phases (ca. 5000-4500 BC).

    Thanks in advance.

    Catalin Lazar · Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României

    Dear Lolita,

    Thanks for the information. I'll contact Stefan Chokhadzhiev or Alexander Chokhadzhiev to ask them about this finds.

  • Jochen Glaser added an answer:
    Could you suggest me fundamental literature which focuses on the concept of "community"?

    I am particularly interested in works stemming from the field of anthropology/sociology. Thanks.

    Jochen Glaser · Technische Universität Berlin

    Hi Emanuel,

    sorry for being late. Quite a tricky question. I tried to read through the literature when I was dealing with scientific communities. The question is tricky because there has been a major fallacy in the sociology of community since Tönnies, namely sociologists assuming they know 'what communities really are' and trying to fit the definition to that understanding (also assuming that community is something 'good').

    For the emergence of the concept, you would want to look at Tönnies (the common reference) and Cooley, who independently developed a similar concept:

    Tönnies, Ferdinand (1991 [1887]). Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundbegriffe der reinen Soziologie. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

    Cooley, Charles Horton (1911). Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York: CharlesScribner's Sons.

    The concept deveoped by Tönnies was soon eroded by empirical studies (which is of course possible only due to the above-mentioned fallacy, from a nominalist perspective you would say it was discovered that no empirical phenomenon actually fitted Tönnies' definition). In my opinion, two important contributions were Janowitz ("communtiy of limited liability") and Webber, who proposed the distinction between "communities of place" and "interest communities":

    Janowitz, Morris (1952). The Community Press in an Urban Setting. Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.

    Webber, Melvin M. (1963). "Order in Diversity; Community without Propinquity". In: Lowdon Wingo (Ed.), Cities and Space: The Future Use of Urban Land, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 23-54.

    Thse contributions marked the extension of the community concept to actively shaped (rather than primordial) communities and to "thin" rather than "thick" relationships between community members. Since then, the sociology of community expanded by including 'virtual' and 'posttraditional' communities. An argument that often remains implicit to the discussion concerns the constituting feature of community: is it emotional bond, solidarity, shared valued and norms, or is it a shared collective identity that shapes members' actions. I argued for the latter but spare you my own publication, not least because they are in German anyway :). Some more recent publications I foun interesting (although I do not share the authors' views) include:

    Wellman, Barry (1979). "The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers." American Journal of Sociology 84(5): 1201-1231.

    Brint, Steven (2001). "Gemeinschaft revisited: A critique and reconstruction of the community concept." Sociological Theory 19(1): 1-23.

    Cerulo, Karen A. (1997). "Reframing Sociological Concepts for a Brave New (Virtual?) World." Sociological Inquiry 67(1): 48-58.

    Hope this helps

    Cheers, Jochen

  • Is anyone aware of a discussion or papers on the creation of indigenous cultures?
    There are many discussions about defining an indigenous group, but are there seminal works on examining the processes through which cultural distinction occurs? For instance the Americas were likely colonized by a few people, but resulted in many distinct cultural tribes with different languages, practices, beliefs, religions, etc. What is this process called and what are the key works about it?
    Franz Rolando Flórez Fuya · Jorge Tadeo Lozano University

    The Native Languages of South America: Origins, Development, Typology.

    Loretta O'Connor & Pieter Muysken, 2014

    Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia. 

    Alf Hornborg & Jonathan D. Hill. 2011

  • Marco Acosta asked a question:
    Do you have an articles about the evolutionary value of orgasm in the male and female human?


  • Edmund Ikechukwu Itanyi added an answer:
    Are there evidences that all humans descended from a single population of ancestors in Africa?

    I read somewhere concerning this hypothesis. Do you know any evidence?

    Edmund Ikechukwu Itanyi · University of Nigeria

    Yes. Look at the works of the Leakey family in kenya and Olduvai gorge in Tanzania.

  • Ciobotaru Anca added an answer:
    Do you have an article about the meaning of Ntumu Fang masks?

    L. Perrois wrote a lot about it. Is there other recent publications? thank you.

    Ciobotaru Anca · Universitatea de Arte "George Enescu" Iasi

    You can look for: Dragan, Esther [1990] - Emotions in Motion: Theatrical Puppets and Masks from Black Africa 

  • Lionel Nicolas added an answer:
    Is there anybody trying to research on new technologies (artifitial intelligence, drones...) and heritage in Europe?

    We are thinking on the next call of Uses of Past and we are seeking different kind of researchers from diferent "heritage disciplines", such as Anthropology, Architecture, Tourism, Languague, Gastronomy, History, Biology...

  • Dan Jorgensen added an answer:
    Do you know any examples of indigenous language having a concept for "wilderness?"
    Many of the thousands of indigenous languages in the world do not have a word for "wild" or any of its relatives -- wildness, wilderness, wilding, etc. -- in their vocabulary. Do you know any examples of indigenous languages that do?
    Dan Jorgensen · The University of Western Ontario

    Sure - among the Telefolmin of the Sepik headwaters, the word /sep/ means "bush", and is associated among other things with "bush enemies" (whom one would have killed pretty much on sight in the old days) = /sepwaasi/, as opposed to "house enemies" /amwaasi/, with whom one could make peace. It was also the abode of wild pigs /saaman/, who had no spirit /sinik/, vs. domestic pigs /kong/ who do have spirit..... I don't think this is a particularly unusual configuration in PNG. In fact, I would *especially* expect people who plant crops and keep domestic animals to make such a distinction.

  • Gazi Islam added an answer:
    Is there a difference between being "critical" and being "reflexive"?
    In the context of social theory generally, and critical theory more specifically. If so, how to best describe this difference?
    Gazi Islam · Grenoble École de Management

    Hello Katherine,

    Thank you for your comment - very useful!  I myself had been thinking of "critical" from the critical theory tradition, which does focus on issues of self-understanding, both in the sense of understanding the composition and limits of one's own thought (i.e. the Kantian tradition), and also the self-understandings of a society vis-a-vis its ideological and material composition.  Perhaps, from this point of view, I find it hard to see how it is possible to be critical without being reflexive, since "critique" in this sense tends to stress "internal" critique.

    I see, though, that if one takes critique to mean 'criticism', than this does not at all imply reflexivity, just opposition. 

    Perhaps a deeper question would be whether non-reflexive 'critique' (not criticism) is possible.  I suppose this would be the case of someone critiquing an system that is not one's own, so self-reflexivity would not be required to launch critique.  Yet even here, critique would imply being able to both understand the 'internal' point of view and see its limits, which would seem to require the critic to take up a reflexive position.

    At any rate, I think the two concepts should probably be seen as analytically distinct, but bound up with each other in a way that is quite intimate but not totally clear.

    Cheers, Gazi

  • Katherine Bischoping added an answer:
    How do family stories create a kind of family 'culture' and identity?
    I am looking for sources and information for my master's thesis on family stories and how they create and maintain family "culture" and identity among its members. I am particularly interested in the East-Central European context, as my focus is on Hungarian narratives of depression, and how stories of depression passed down among family members influence how they themselves interpret their own experiences of depression.
    Katherine Bischoping · York University

    The Rosenthal reference that Larisa Fialkova mentions is a great one. As works about how psychological landscapes are transmitted through the generations, I would add these works:

    Rosenthal, Gabriele (2002). Veiling and denying the past: The dialogue in families of Holocaust survivors and families of Nazi perpetrators, The History of the Family 7:225-238.

    Kreher, S. (2002). Continuity and change over the generations: trials and tribulations of an East German family. The History of the Family, 7(2), 183-205.

    and also a chapter of my own:

    Bischoping, K. (2014). Identity and mutability in family stories about the Third Reich1. Engaging Violence: Trauma, Memory and Representation. London: Routledge.

    Kind regards,


  • Michael Issigonis added an answer:
    Is there any significant research on place names in the Northern Plains?
    I am working on "deterritorialization" of the Metis during the later part of the 19th century and I think that ancient place names (both French and Aboriginal) could be a good starting point to investigate territorial dispossession of minorities during the later part of the colonization of North America and more specifically in Manitoba and North Dakota.
    Michael Issigonis · Brandon University

    I don't know if you are actually looking for the origin of place names like " Manitoba", but a comparison of aboriginal place names there and across Canada with pre-Classical Greek would reveal amazing similarities with identical words in both languages. To take "Manitoba" as an example, "Manitou", the "Great spirit" compares with "Manti" of Ancient Greece, the shamans who can read the oracle or prophesize the future. 

    best regards

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