Animal Physiology

Animal Physiology

  • Edward Narayan added an answer:
    Would irradiating faecal samples before extracting glucocorticoid hormones affect the results of the EIA?
    For safety reasons (to kill potentially infective micro-organisms) I would like to irradiate faecal samples (from various mammalian species) before performing enzyme immunoassays for faecal glucocorticoid metabolites. I use freeze-drying, followed by a chemical extraction method (using 80% methanol) to extract the GC hormones from the faeces. I would like to do the irradiation before the freeze-drying step. I am currently using both cortisol and corticosterone EIAs on the extracts. Is the irradiation likely to affect the EIA results?
  • Sergio Trigos added an answer:
    What do you think about this assumption: 'The bigger it is the final size of the bivalves the shorter is the distance between VO2 and CR exponents'?

    I measured the respiration rate and clearance rate of geoduck clam to determine their allometric coefficients. Since the final size of geoduck clam is nearly 1 kg, the comparison between species might be lame. If you have determined the allometric coefficients of RR and CR for a bivalve species which is similar size to mine, please let me know. Many thanks.  

    Sergio Trigos · Catholic University of Valencia "San Vicente Martir"

    Dear Dung,

    Not always the bigger sizes are related to bigger RR. It depends on many parameters such as temperature among others. Check this work (you can find it in Researchgate).

    Trigos, S., García-March, J. R., Vicente, N., Tena, J., & Torres, J. (2014). Respiration rates of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis at different temperatures. Journal of Molluscan Studies, eyu075.

    For any question please contact me.



  • Oladele Ayobami Afolabi added an answer:
    How do I induce anemia in rats?

    I want to test the efficacy of a certain plant extract on anemic rats. Anybody with useful suggestion on how to induce anemia in animals?

    Oladele Ayobami Afolabi · Ladoke Akintola University of Technology

    I recently worked on iron deficiency anemia and what we did was to bleed the rats through the retro-orbital sinus. You can vary the degree of anemia by bleeding 10% or 20% of blood volume. Blood volume of each rat is a function of its weight. The formula is Blood volume (ml) = 0.06 x body weight (g) + 0.77 (Lee and Blaufox 1985). The bleeding is best done under light anaesthesia.

  • Lindsay Mccallion added an answer:
    Does anyone know the permanent and temporary adaptations that occur in the horse and the mountain goat at different altitudes?

    Including red blood cell counts, blood pressure and lung capacity changes

    Lindsay Mccallion · Salford City College

    I've done a lot of work on this subject recently, I will upload it later.

  • Fatiha Chigr added an answer:
    What is the dissection protocol of rodent brain to get midbrain?
    1. Dissection of total brain of rodents
    2. Dissection of mid brain region intact
    3. Axes of dissection
    Fatiha Chigr · Université Sultan Moulay Slimane

    Please could you specify the goal of your study (immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, molecular biology,...).

  • Eunus S. Ali asked a question:
    How does pyruvate treatment cause blood glucose reduction in Alms1 mutant (FOZ) mice?

    In pyruvate tolerance test, by treating the FOZ mice (Fat Aussie mice) with Pyruvate (Pyruvate/Body Weight: 2g/kg), there is unpublished evidence that mice may/will be dead within the next one or two days. It was also noted that blood glucose level of mice was dramatically reduced over time. I was just wondering, what is happening in Alms1 mutant mice when they are with pyruvate treatment? Any suggestions or speculations is highly appreciated. Thanks.

  • Ornella Cappellari added an answer:
    Where can one get animal models ( exercise models)?

    Are there any companies where I can order animal exercise models? 

    Ornella Cappellari · Royal Veterinary College

    Charles river


  • Jiří Ambros added an answer:
    Can I use IMU (like gyroscope) to measure head direction of small animals?

    Hi, I'm considering using Inertial measurement unit (IMU) like accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer to measure head direction and rotation for animal behavior. This is a small animal and it moves in 3D. Ideally the device will be mounted on the animal's head and needs to be less than 20mm x 20mm x 15mm in size and transfer data by telemetry. Does anyone have any experience on this? Main consideration here is precision, drift, data output rate and whether to use hardware sensor fusion computations.

    I know a lot of people use IR tags or LEDs with cameras to do this. But since the animal can run upside down, it seems tricky/costly to build and calibrate a multi-camera system.

    Thanks a lot!

    Jiří Ambros · CDV - Transport Research Centre

    Dear Lingyun, it sound like very interesting application. I believe it is doable. I have heard about similar applications, but can't remember the source. Now I found this, for example -

  • Kulvinder kochar kaur added an answer:
    Do larger animals have higher leptin levels because of their abolute higher amount of fat mass?

    When comparing leptin levels between a larger and a smaller rodent of the same species and similar body composition, will the larger one have a higher serum leptin concentration due to absolutely higher fat mass, or will the concentration be the same, as fat mass relative to body mass is similar?

    Kulvinder kochar kaur · Dr kulvinder kaur centre for human reproduction,Jalandhar,Punjab,India.

    not only that did you study the central pomc.npy,agrp,cart levels in these mice besides the elevated leptin levels recently angiotensin 1receptor in subfornical region has been found to mediate the effect of leptin on energy expenditure in BAT although having no effects on allthese other neuropeptides since angiotensin converting enzyme inibitors are associated with various changesin pbesity with telemesartan having different effects so you should see the effects on central neuropeptides as well .

  • Moslem Sharifinia added an answer:
    Can any one suggest me the best key for identification subtidal sea anemons?

    I want to identify sea anemones in muddy coastal waters (subtidal zone).

    Moslem Sharifinia · Hormozgan University

    Dear Mauricio,

    Thank you so much for the useful comments.


  • Selçuk Takir added an answer:
    Why do we use 90 min equilibrations of isolated aortic rats?

    After that, rings were placed under a resting tension of 2 g and equilibrated for 90 min before starting the experimental protocols.

    If less or more than 90 min what occurs?

    Selçuk Takir · Giresun University

    The resting time is depends on to the tissue. We before tested it and most of rat aotic rings were equilibrated aprox. in 1 h. but some of them were not and the contractile response to the spasmogens were affected. The contractions to KCl and Norepinefrine were unstable. The contractions of KCl were tended to increase and the NE was to decrease (it does not reach to a plateau) .

  • Louw Claassens added an answer:
    Can anyone help with references to seahorse physiological studies - especially respiration?

    Any references with regards to seahorse physiology.

    Louw Claassens · Rhodes University

    Thank you very much for the info! I will look through the thesis - but at first glance it looks quite interesting! 

  • Sarah Alshahrani added an answer:
    Is there a measured map of temperatures of the human head?
    I work with head lice and I would like to know if they prefer a specific temperature or a temperature combined with other parameters of the human head.
    Sarah Alshahrani · King Khalid University

    I think, I read in one of the research papers prefer to normal body temperature 37 C

  • Kay Van Damme added an answer:
    Is there a dye to detect the presence of plant material in faeces of vertebrates?
    I'm trying to detect if reptiles eat plants looking to their drops, but it is really difficult to see plant material using magnifying lens if they are digested. So, do you know if there is any dye to detect the presence of plant material in faeces of vertebrates? If so, is there a protocol available? Thanks!
  • Oscar Inostroza-Michael added an answer:
    Does anyone know about public databases of animals body size?

    insects, birds, mammals, etc..

    Thanks in advance!

    Oscar Inostroza-Michael · University of Concepción

    anyone knows a database of body sizes for amphibians?

  • Ernst-Hermann Solmsen added an answer:
    Which is the most indicative morphological criterion for nectarivory in bats?

    Nectar bats show a rich variety in adaptive morphological traits  - such as hair structure, tongue length, tooth reduction or rostral prolongation… comparing different skull features (i.e. mandibular length, height of coronoid process, palatinal length) which would you regard as the most characteristic data expressing nectarivory?

    Ernst-Hermann Solmsen · AG Fledermausschutz


    thanks for your contribution to my question - by the way: you are the first to mention concrete cranial details concerning fact the ratio of mandibular length/coronoid may be the most striking trait, I agree.

    You are experienced in Monophyllus? Very fascinating bat (not only the positioning of lower incisives)!

    All the best,


  • Alexander F Hoffman added an answer:
    How to make the criteria for selecting the healthy cells for experiment?

    In some in vivo patch clamp paper, they often describes a range of resting potential in which the cells are considered healthy and can be used for further analysis. I was wondering how such criteria can be established.

    Thank you very much in advance!

    Alexander F Hoffman · National Institutes of Health

    Healthy cells will typically have resting membrane potentials of -55 mV or more negative as a general rule of thumb, and should fire action potentials in response to small depolarizing current injections (100-200 pA). Action potentials should be fairly large and robust (30 mV or more). These are general guidelines, although the exact properties will depend on the cell type. Some cells may also fire spontaneously.

    Hyperpolarizing steps of -10mV can be used to check the quality of the seal. Basically, a large current in response to a small voltage step implies a 'leaky' membrane and poor access. Input resistances of 150-200 MOhms are not uncommon, but again, smaller cells might have even higher input resistance.

  • Ahmed Yehia Badawy added an answer:
    I am planning a research project on a Rabbit ACl model, does anyone have good slides or a detailed technique guide we can use?
    I am planning to use the long digital extensor tendon as an ACL repair and conduct pull out testing.
    Ahmed Yehia Badawy · Universitat Politècnica de València

    Hi Dr. Sameh
    Here you can find attached papers, I hope it will be useful

  • Arjun Singh added an answer:
    Is there any drug that causes in vivo ER stress induction without affecting the animal body weight?

    I am using Tunicamycin as ER stress inducer in vivo and it is reducing the body weight a lot.

    Arjun Singh · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    very good suggestions

  • Karthik Soman added an answer:
    What is the physiological or anatomical difference between place cells and grid cells in the hippocampus?

    In the medial temporal lobe,there are specific types of neural cells such as place cells, head-direction cells, grid cells, and boundary vector cells which involved in cognitive map and spatial memory. Hippocampal “place cells” encode the rat’s location within an open environment independently of its orientation and fire in the specific position. The complementary encoding of the orientation, independently of location, is done by “head-direction cells” .I think all of them are pyramidal neurons. So Is there any physiological or anatomical difference between these kinds of cell?

    Karthik Soman · Indian Institute of Technology Madras

    Medial entorhinal cortex has two principal cells. They are stellate and pyramidal cells. Stellate cells are having round shaped soma and pyramidal cells are having pyramidal shaped soma. The connections between the stellate cells are mainly inhibitory in nature, inhibition being provided by the parvalbumin interneurons where place cells have excitatory connections between them. Stellate cells are seen mainly in the second layer of the medial entorhinal cortex where as pyramidal cells are found mainly in the deeper layers. 

  • Mark David Scherz added an answer:
    What are your experiences with clearing and staining (diaphonization)?

    I am going to try to clear and stain frogs in order to visualise their skeletons and cartilage for a comparative study with micro-CT based methods to extract skeletal data. However, I have no experience with this technique, and would appreciate insight from researchers who have experience, especially pertaining to amphibians.

    What protocols did you use? What was the biggest factor determining how successfully the stains worked? What do you do if your amphibian is relatively thick (thicker than 2 cm)?

    Mark David Scherz · Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich

    Cheers Douglas. I am actually only wanting to clear and stain the specimens to compare with the existing micro-CT data, in order to understand where the thresholds lie. My main focus remains micro-CT-based reconstruction, but without known thresholds it has limited verifiability.

  • C. Loren Buck added an answer:
    What to use for thermoregulation during mouse surgery?


    I'm starting to do mouse surgeries that are several hours long.  I've been looking into feedback-controlled thermoregulator units, but they are quite expensive (~ $2,000).  I'm interested in whether there are safe & effective alternatives that are more affordable. 


    C. Loren Buck · University of Alaska Anchorage

    Hello Ann,

    For short duration surgeries (30-40 min), a hot water bottle wrapped in a sterile drape or towel works well. Be sure to test the surface temperature before placing your animal onto it. Over the counter electronic heating pads also work well but be sure you know the temperature range of fluctuation before using. Also, as with the hot water bottle, the electronic heating pad needs to be covered with a towel of some sort. 

    Good luck!

  • Ahmed Mahmoud Al Adl added an answer:
    Are there definite biomarkers for the Erectile Dysfunction syndrome?

    We observed some cases of ED in male camels. In most of them, there were no gross lesions. We are searching for an appropriate biomarker for this syndrome and what could be the possible causes? What about this condition in other animals and even in men?    

    Ahmed Mahmoud Al Adl · Benha University

    I think penile hemodynamics should be investigated to proceed for further investigations and management 

  • Bhesh Raj Sharma added an answer:
    What is the range of fasting blood glucose for STZ-induced rats?

    My SD rats have fasting blood sugar (16-25 mmol/l) after 6 weeks of  STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/kg) . Can anyone give me the range for FBG in STZ-induced rats?

    Bhesh Raj Sharma · The University of Tennessee Health Science Center

    Check this linkage

  • Onur Elmas added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the approximate values of airway flow and tidal volume of a rat?

    I need normal values of airway flow and tidal volume of a rat. Some researches mentioned tidal volume is 0.13-0.20 ml and airway flow is aproximate 1 L/min. Is they true? Citation needed.

    Onur Elmas · Mugla Üniversitesi

    It is interesting that every research found different results.

  • Nikola M Stojanovic added an answer:
    How long does it take for mouse hair to grow back after removal?

    Does anyone know how long it would take for mouse hair to grow back after shaving? If it varies according to species I am most interested in BALB/c and C57BL/6 but it would be helpful to know about others too. 


    Nikola M Stojanovic · University of Niš

    Practical observation: I did the experiments on BALB/c mice that lasted 8 days and i had shaved their back and when the experiments were finished the hair growth was barely more then 8 days for sure 

  • What is a suitable concentration of pentylenetetrazole for making seizure and epilepsy in mouse?
    I want to simulate seizure and epilepsy in mouse, but I can't find a proper dose of pentylenetetrazole in saline in papers.
    Mithun Vishwanath K. Patil · Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University

     PTZ (95 mg/kg) dose is usually take to induce epilepsy in mouse, but I am totally agree with the Javad Mirnajafi- Zadeh , according to the age and weight of  animal you have to adjust the dose of PTZ to induce epilepsy.

  • FANTAZI Khaled added an answer:
    To confirm the results of a characterization thesis, how can I calculate the diameter of the wool of sheep without a microscope projection?

    we haven't a microscope projection to do it

    FANTAZI Khaled · Institute of Agronomic Research of Algeria

    Thank you for reminding me the measurement conditions, I'll take your comments into consideration during treatment. I would be very interested if you can give me references or wool discussing authors thank you in advance for your cooperation.   Best regards

  • Sakthivel Govindaraj added an answer:
    How can I estimate Vitamin D from animal brain tissue?

    Can anyone provide me protocol for Vitamin D estimation from animal brain tissue.

    Sakthivel Govindaraj · University of Madras

    Dear Sir,

          I want to measure 25(OH)-D, if you protocol please provide me.

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