Animal Physiology

Animal Physiology

  • Mark David Scherz added an answer:
    What are your experiences with clearing and staining (diaphonization)?

    I am going to try to clear and stain frogs in order to visualise their skeletons and cartilage for a comparative study with micro-CT based methods to extract skeletal data. However, I have no experience with this technique, and would appreciate insight from researchers who have experience, especially pertaining to amphibians.

    What protocols did you use? What was the biggest factor determining how successfully the stains worked? What do you do if your amphibian is relatively thick (thicker than 2 cm)?

    Mark David Scherz · Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich

    Cheers Douglas. I am actually only wanting to clear and stain the specimens to compare with the existing micro-CT data, in order to understand where the thresholds lie. My main focus remains micro-CT-based reconstruction, but without known thresholds it has limited verifiability.

  • Niraj Bhatt added an answer:
    Is there any drug that causes in vivo ER stress induction without affecting the animal body weight?

    I am using Tunicamycin as ER stress inducer in vivo and it is reducing the body weight a lot.

    Niraj Bhatt · Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

    I suppose you're working with mice or rat. Tunicamycin for longer time duration will reduce weight. You can try using thapsigargin or DTT. I've used them for ER stress induction in zebrafish and they don't have much affect in weight of the fish. Maximum treatment duration is for 24 hours.

  • C. Loren Buck added an answer:
    What to use for thermoregulation during mouse surgery?


    I'm starting to do mouse surgeries that are several hours long.  I've been looking into feedback-controlled thermoregulator units, but they are quite expensive (~ $2,000).  I'm interested in whether there are safe & effective alternatives that are more affordable. 


    C. Loren Buck · University of Alaska Anchorage

    Hello Ann,

    For short duration surgeries (30-40 min), a hot water bottle wrapped in a sterile drape or towel works well. Be sure to test the surface temperature before placing your animal onto it. Over the counter electronic heating pads also work well but be sure you know the temperature range of fluctuation before using. Also, as with the hot water bottle, the electronic heating pad needs to be covered with a towel of some sort. 

    Good luck!

  • Ahmed Mahmoud Al Adl added an answer:
    Are there definite biomarkers for the Erectile Dysfunction syndrome?

    We observed some cases of ED in male camels. In most of them, there were no gross lesions. We are searching for an appropriate biomarker for this syndrome and what could be the possible causes? What about this condition in other animals and even in men?    

    Ahmed Mahmoud Al Adl · Benha University

    I think penile hemodynamics should be investigated to proceed for further investigations and management 

  • Bhesh Raj Sharma added an answer:
    What is the range of fasting blood glucose for STZ-induced rats?

    My SD rats have fasting blood sugar (16-25 mmol/l) after 6 weeks of  STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/kg) . Can anyone give me the range for FBG in STZ-induced rats?

    Bhesh Raj Sharma · Mokpo National University

    Check this linkage

  • Onur Elmas added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest the approximate values of airway flow and tidal volume of a rat?

    I need normal values of airway flow and tidal volume of a rat. Some researches mentioned tidal volume is 0.13-0.20 ml and airway flow is aproximate 1 L/min. Is they true? Citation needed.

    Onur Elmas · Mugla Üniversitesi

    It is interesting that every research found different results.

  • Nikola M Stojanovic added an answer:
    How long does it take for mouse hair to grow back after removal?

    Does anyone know how long it would take for mouse hair to grow back after shaving? If it varies according to species I am most interested in BALB/c and C57BL/6 but it would be helpful to know about others too. 


    Nikola M Stojanovic · University of Niš

    Practical observation: I did the experiments on BALB/c mice that lasted 8 days and i had shaved their back and when the experiments were finished the hair growth was barely more then 8 days for sure 

  • What is a suitable concentration of pentylenetetrazole for making seizure and epilepsy in mouse?
    I want to simulate seizure and epilepsy in mouse, but I can't find a proper dose of pentylenetetrazole in saline in papers.
    Mithun Vishwanath K. Patil · Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University

     PTZ (95 mg/kg) dose is usually take to induce epilepsy in mouse, but I am totally agree with the Javad Mirnajafi- Zadeh , according to the age and weight of  animal you have to adjust the dose of PTZ to induce epilepsy.

  • FANTAZI Khaled added an answer:
    To confirm the results of a characterization thesis, how can I calculate the diameter of the wool of sheep without a microscope projection?

    we haven't a microscope projection to do it

    FANTAZI Khaled · Institute of Agronomic Research of Algeria

    Thank you for reminding me the measurement conditions, I'll take your comments into consideration during treatment. I would be very interested if you can give me references or wool discussing authors thank you in advance for your cooperation.   Best regards

  • Sakthivel Govindaraj added an answer:
    How can I estimate Vitamin D from animal brain tissue?

    Can anyone provide me protocol for Vitamin D estimation from animal brain tissue.

    Sakthivel Govindaraj · University of Madras

    Dear Sir,

          I want to measure 25(OH)-D, if you protocol please provide me.

  • Amy Birch added an answer:
    With regards to, non-specific vascular DAB staining in mice injected with Evans Blue, does EBD bind secondary antibodies?

    We have conducted an experiment where mice were injected with Evans Blue (i.v.) and then perfused 1 h later. Brains were extracted, hemisected, and one half was post-fixed (4% PFA, 48 h) for sectioning.

    As Evans Blue autofluoresces red, we decided to perform DAB staining to look at various markers (GFAP, CP13, etc..). However, we find non-specific vascular staining with the DAB, even in our no primary controls. 

    I am assuming that this is the EVB reacting somehow with our protocol - has anyone else seen this? Does the EBD bind the secondary antibodies?

    The protocol we use is as follows (on 40um free-floating sections):

    10 mins TBS wash, 20 mins hydrogen peroxide (0.6%) quench with Tx-100 (0.1%), TBS washes, 1 h block in 10% FBS in TBS-Tx 0.1%, Primary incubation in 2% FBS in TBS-Tx 0.02% (o/n), TBS washes, Secondary incubation in 2% FBS in TBS-Tx 0.02% (2 h), TBS washes, ABC incubation (45 mins), PBS washes, DAB reaction, mounting & dehydration.

    Any comments would be greatly appreciated!

    Amy Birch · Imperial College London

    Thanks for all your answers! Let the optimizing commence... :)

  • Mudhir Sabir Shekha added an answer:
    Why do we use 90 min equilibrations of isolated aortic rats?

    After that, rings were placed under a resting tension of 2 g and equilibrated for 90 min before starting the experimental protocols.

    If less or more than 90 min what occurs?

    Mudhir Sabir Shekha · Salahaddin University - Hawler

    Thank you Gry Skovsted 

    Best regard

  • Mireille Kameni added an answer:
    How can I test the modulatory potential of a medicinal plant directly on a K channel of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (penile tissue)?

    can I use an organ bath?

    Mireille Kameni · University of Yaounde I

    Merci Dr Foyet pour cet eclaircissement, je n'y manquerais. On a effectivement tenté de contracté le corps caverneux au labo (avec le KCl), mais on a buté sur l'isolation de l'organe. on y retournera à la suite de nouvelles lectures. Merci

  • Adesina Arikawe asked a question:
    Who has specific references on the origin and distribution of beta endorphin fibres in the rats central nervous system?

    I have been trying to analyze beta endorphin fibre density using imageJ in brain sections of locus coureleus and am having some technical difficulties.

  • Marc Verhaegen added an answer:
    Comparing human with animals, which is more important the differentiation in shape or brain beyond building culture?
    Animals express good abilities for learning, but building cultures and inventions are restricted to humans. from a physiological point of view, humans and animals have great similarities in between. is it the shape the main playing factor in building cultures?
    do you think in other factors?
    Marc Verhaegen · Study Center Anthropology

    Humans are animals. We're a very special case I guess (cf "Anthropocene") although all species are +-special cases, but we're no exception. Also with culture. Most "higher" animals have "culture": nest-building, song dialects, group customs, tool use & even manufacture, etc. Culture can be seen as an extra-corporal extension of the genome (Dawkins): there's no culture without nature (genome).

    When we analyse human characters into more elementary characters, and compare these with those of other animals, we can say a lot about human evolution. In comparison with Pan (our closest relatives chimp & bonobo), Homo (humans & fossil Homo) has e.g. a much larger brain, poorer olfaction, smaller mouth, external nose, thick fat tissues, fur loss, head-spine-legs in 1 line, bipedal gait, very long legs, low renal concentration, high needs of water, sodium, iodine & poly-unsaturated fats (esp.DHA), more sophisticated tools, longer life-span, global dispersal, spoken language, etc. This proves that human ancestors were not running over savannas as popular accounts of human evolution keep telling us contrary to the biological evidence: water, salt, iodine & PUFAs are scarce on savannas, we easily overheat, we're slow & have small teeth, we can't produce very concentrated urine, etc.  Instead, as confirmed by the fossil & archeological evidence, Pleistocene Homo populations followed the African & Eurasian coasts & rivers, beach-combing, diving & bipedally wading for littoral, shallow aquatic & waterside foods: e.g. shellfish consumption explains human shallow diving capacities incl. voluntary breathing (cf. speech), short mouth, closed tooth-row & descended tongue bone (cf sucking-swallowing rather than biting-chewing, cf consonants in speech), external nose, stone tool use & manufacture, thick bones in fossil Homo (as in littoral mammals), brain expansion (DHA), very long legs in sapiens (wading), abundant sweating (as in overheated furseals on land: sweat=water+salt), etc.

    In short, when we simply look at ourselves in a purely biological way without anthropocentric just-so prejudices ("we became bipedal when we left the forest for the open plain"), we're no longer an exception among other anmals, see the proceedings of the conference on human waterside evolution in London (9-10 May 2013, with Don.Johanson & David Attenborough, see attachment).

  • Vivek Morya added an answer:
    Could anybody provide me with the protocal for mouse nasal wash?

    I failed some times for the nasal wash. I tried opening the trachea and inverted the plastic tube into the nasal cavity direction. Then injected pbs and the pbs came out from the mouth instead of nose. It happened many times. I directly opened the nasal cavity, the structure became a bloody mess.

    Vivek Morya · Inha University

    This thesis can help you...

  • Danielle Moraviec added an answer:
    Are there any nutritional welfare concerns when feeding sun bears (Helarctos melayanus) in captivity?

    I am carrying out an investigation for my dissertation into the diets of captive sun bears in the UK, based on the digestibility of diets from a diet sheet and fecal matter from Colchester and Belfast Zoo sun bears, and the diet sheets from Animals Asia Vietnam Sanctuary, and Edinburgh Zoo. I aim to determine the nutritional content and digestibility of these diets, and carry out a literature review to see if there could be any nutritionally stimulated health concerns or changes in life stages that may be a consideration when developing diets for sun bears in captivity. So any information on sun bear nutritional requirements, health concerns of sun bears in captivity or anything relevant to the project would be a greatly appreciated.  Thank you. Danielle

    Danielle Moraviec · Sparsholt College

    Thank you that would be brilliant.

  • Anggadia Wardani asked a question:
    Can anybody tell me more about Kurloff's cells in guinea-pig?

    I have read some literature about the role of Kurloff's cells in guinea pigs. During the  gestation period, Kurloff's cells, which are peripheral WBC, migrate to placenta and become resident. It meant to protect the fetus from destruction by maternal antibody. I can't find literature that explains the mechanism briefly. What calls Kurloff's cells to go to placenta? Why are Kurloff's cells needed to protect the fetus, unlike in other mammals?

    Thanks for response ^_^

  • David Villegas-Ríos added an answer:
    Has anyone tested Zootracer (from Microsoft) for animal video tracking?
    I'm trying to install it but it seems the installation process cannot be completed. I follow all the instructions in the .txt doc but still, the .exe file does not run. Has anyone succesfully installed and tested it?
    David Villegas-Ríos · Institute of Marine Research in Norway

    I'm sorry I'm not using zootracer in the end...!

  • Kyle Green added an answer:
    How do I re-use fish in a randomised functional response experiment?

    I am planning a functional response experiment with an invasive fish species and a native comparator. I am using 2 prey types, at 6 densities, resulting in 24 individual treatments (2 fish species*2 prey species*6 densities). All treatments are being replicated 3 times. We only have 18 fish of each species, and we want to make a comparisons in consumption among the fish species and the prey species. To avoid time confounds, we have randomised all treatments for a single replicate, and are planning to repeat this list 3 times for the 3 replicates. In between each replicate we allow the fish 3 days of recovery to minimise the effect of a learned response towards certain prey types. But because we use the same numbers of fish of each species, every individual fish has an equal chance of being selected, which should "evens out" the effect of re-using fish. 

    My question boils down to this: Is it better to fully randomise each replicate such that fish will inevitably be re-used between replicates but in a random way, or to run all replicates of a single fish species/prey type combination at once and run species/prey types sequentially, which introduces time as a confound and reduces our ability to make comparisons between the consumption of the fish towards the 2 prey species?

    Kyle Green · Queen's University Belfast

    Thank you for your answers, in the end we were able to sample more fish (despite it being a 5 hour drive each way) such that re-use of fish became a non-issue. 

  • Anggadia Wardani added an answer:
    Is this the vesicula seminalis or uterus masculinus?

    I am studying the "Guinea-Pig" male reproductive system. After dissection, I found a structure (picture below) that is explained differently in various places in the literature. Some claimed it was the vesicula seminalis, and the other mention it was uterus maskulinus. When I cut that organ, some gel-like substances came out in large amount. Can anybody explain what organ it is? And what the contents are?
    Thanks for the responses. I attach my schematic diagrams to explain the topography.

    Anggadia Wardani · Gadjah Mada University

    Thanks all ^_^ very helpful. cheers

  • Ebrahim Bani Hassan added an answer:
    I am planning a research project on a Rabbit ACl model, does anyone have good slides or a detailed technique guide we can use?
    I am planning to use the long digital extensor tendon as an ACL repair and conduct pull out testing.
    Ebrahim Bani Hassan · University of Melbourne

    Rabit ACL is tiny and hard to work with. As a vet surgeon I would recommend bigger animals as models.

  • Jyrki Launes added an answer:
    Does anyone know what a change in 20 Hz Auditory Steady State Response means cognitively or physiologically?

    I have auditory steady state response data from anesthetized rats. One group shows an elevation in 20 Hz ASSR evoked trial power and phase locking factor. Does anyone have an interpretation of what this could mean?

    Jyrki Launes · University of Helsinki

    A few manuscripts, perhaps? ;-)

  • Piotr Bajdek added an answer:
    Is there a dye to detect the presence of plant material in faeces of vertebrates?
    I'm trying to detect if reptiles eat plants looking to their drops, but it is really difficult to see plant material using magnifying lens if they are digested. So, do you know if there is any dye to detect the presence of plant material in faeces of vertebrates? If so, is there a protocol available? Thanks!

    Hello Raquel,

    "I'm trying to detect if reptiles eat plants looking to their drops, but it is really difficult to see plant material using magnifying lens if they are digested."

    You have revealed few details of your study but it sounds as if you were looking for signs of a diet complementation in predominantly carnivorous reptiles. Am I right? One thing is to determine whether plants were ingested and another thing is to say whether the presence of plant remains (or biomarkers suggesting a herbivorous diet) in a fecal sample truely implies an omnivorous diet of its producer. The first task is the simplest one, the second one may be quite problematic.

    Plant elements are generally hard in digestion, especially those rich in lignin or silica, but cuticles are also abundantly present in feces. Reptiles are characterized by a longer food retention time in the gastrointestinal tract i.e. longer digestion than mammals, but due to the lack of chewing in extant reptiles, their feces contain plant elements of some bigger dimensions than feces produced by mammals of comparable body sizes (Fritz et al., 2010). I believe you should be able to detect plant elements under a stereoscope microscope after dissolution of the samples if they were indeed ingested (rather than expect them to have been completely digested), but complementary methods as lipid biomarkers (see Linseele et al., 2013) and even isotopic analyses (see Bajdek et al., 2014) to distinguish between carnivorous/omnivorous/herbivorous diets are interesting too. Because the first point (remains and markers) have been already explained above by others, let me comment briefly on the second one.

    The problem is that carnivores consume herbivores' intestines. Thus, if you examine feces produced a reptile which had consumed e.g. a cow or a mouse, you will likely found some plant elements (perhaps not too abundant, but detectable). For example, plant matter is known from stomach contents of crocodiles (Pauwels et al., 2007) and alligators (Keenan et al., 2013), but ingested rather with prey intestines or incidentally. Moreover, several papers document and discuss the presence of plant remains in carnivore coprolites (fossil feces) (e.g. Hollocher et al., 2010), and even biomarkers (Zatoń et al., 2014). I mean, you may find some plant remains in feces of carnivorous reptiles, but the results may be misleading if interpreted too literally. I hope this is helpful to you... :-)

    Just as an anecdote, some herbivorous animals as e.g. various tortoise species (Esque and Peters, 1994) are also known to ingest bones, perhaps for supplementation of minerals, but they are not necessarrily omnivorous animals as such, as one could deduce from such a dung ;-).

    Cited literature:

    Bajdek, P., Owocki, K., Niedźwiedzki, G. 2014. Putative dicynodont coprolites from the Upper Triassic of Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 411: 1–17.

    Esque, T.C., Peters, E.L. 1994. Ingestion of Bones, Stones, and Soil by Desert Tortoises. Fish and Wildelife Research 13: 105-111.

    Fritz, J., Hummel, J., Kienzle, E., Streich, W.J., Clauss, M. 2010. To chew or not to chew: fecal particle size in herbivorous reptiles and mammals. J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313A (9): 579–586.

    Hollocher, K.T., Hollocher, T.C., Rigby Jr., J.K. 2010. A phosphatic coprolite lacking diagenetic permineralization from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, northeastern Montana: importance of dietary calcium phosphate in preservation. Palaios 25: 132–140.

    Keenan, S.W., Engel, A.S., and Elsey, R.M., 2013. The alligator gut microbiome and implications for archosaur symbioses. Scientific Reports 3: 2877.

    Linseele, V., Riemer, H., Baeten, J., De Vos, D., Marinova, E., Ottoni, C. 2013. Species identification of archaeological dung remains: A critical review of potential methods. Journal of Environmental Archaeology 18(1): 5-17.

    Pauwels, O.S.G., Barr, B., Sanchez, M.L., Burger, M. 2007. Diet records for the dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis in Rabi Oil Fields and Loango National Park, southwestern Gabon. Hamadryad 31(2): 258–264.

    Zaton, M.P., Marynowski, L., Niedzwiedzki, G., Benzerara, K., Pott, C., Cosmidis, J., Filipiak, P. 2014. Integrative studies of Late Triassic vertebrate coprolites from Poland. 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia (19–22 October 2014), Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 46(6), p.76.

  • Umair AHSAN added an answer:
    Is it possible to check the activity of carbonic anhydrase enzyme in the shell gland secretions?

    Since carbonic anhydrase helps in the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbonic acid while present in the shell gland in order to complete the process of calcium deposition and ultimately shell formation.

    Umair AHSAN · Adnan Menderes University

    Can we measure the quantity of carbonic anhydrase in shell gland secretions of birds?

  • el hassane sidibé added an answer:
    Does anyone know why Jwatcher would output an incorrect state duration for only one behaviour measured?

    I am recorded stress response in mice.  I have set my focal analysis file to measure all duration total time however in the cd.res and t.res files that it is outputting for one of the files the time is different to what i have measured ( I have checked in the .dat file and different to manual measurements).  This is confusing as I have set a rule that should apply to all state analysis. Has this happened to anyone before? Help! 

    el hassane sidibé · Université René Descartes - Paris 5

    enter in pubmed gov

    eh sidibé tropical endocrinologist pobox (5062 DAKAR FANN SENEGAL

  • Matthijs Freudenthal added an answer:
    Does anyone know about public databases of animals body size?

    insects, birds, mammals, etc..

    Thanks in advance!

    Matthijs Freudenthal · University of Granada

    My database is available in

    Freudenthal & Martín-Suárez, 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents.

    Scripta Geologica 145.

    You can download at the page of Scripta Geologica or at Researchgate

  • Albert Damptey-Boakye added an answer:
    Can anyway help me get pictures and images possibly x-ray images of swimbladder of yellowfin and bigeye tuna?

    I am working on Tuna target strength measurements and would like to have pictures of the swimbladder, shape and sizes in bigeye and yellowfin tunas

    Albert Damptey-Boakye · University of Bergen

    @Lawrence.. Thanks, I had not though of it yet. @ Darlene...I have had a look at the URL,some great images to enjoy there. I couldn't find what I am looking for though. I shall stay in touch. Thanks.

  • Ali Shalizar Jalali added an answer:
    Can we consider chemical sympathectomy a preventive medicine?
    Based on my knowledge, several studies have suggested a preventive role for chemical sympathectomy for example in unilateral testicular damage induced deleterious effects in contralateral testis, while systemic effects of chemical sympathectomy has not recorded in these reports.
    Ali Shalizar Jalali · Urmia University

    Dear Nelson;

    Thank you for your time and consideration.


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