Animal Physiology

Animal Physiology

  • Anthony Schlink added an answer:
    Does anyone have information about the method of determining the rate of cell proliferation in gastrointestinal tissues?

    I'm working on gene expression in Rumen epithelium of calf and I need some information about cell proliferation and Techniques to measure cell proliferation and differentiation

    Anthony Schlink · Department of Agriculture and Food

    My experience has been with colchicine in wool follicles. This is pretty straight forward and has been used in a number of studies. Not certain of it's use for rumen epithelium studies. There are not particular problems of stain to see dividing cells.

  • Sezai Adil added an answer:
    What do you think about the anterior part of velvet mites (Trombidioidae) larvae white and posterior part is reddish?
    I'm looking a new larvae of trombidiidae. I obtained larvae hatch from eggs. Anterior part of larvae white and posterior part is reddish. It's very fantastic!
    Sezai Adil · Erzincan University

    If this thory is true, all larvae (same familia) will be red and white. But other larvae only orange or red. At the same time this larvae not parasitic. Larvae obtained under laboratory conditions. Not feeding.

  • Pierre Guy Marnet added an answer:
    How long does it take for a 16 KDa to reach the pancreas and for how long will it be bound?

    I have injected an alexa fluor labelled peptide of size 16KDa into nude mice, the peptide is specific for GLP-1 receptor. How long does it take to reach the pancreas and for how long will it be bound? On Bio-imaging after 4 hours the fluorescence was observed posteriorly.

    Could anyone please help me out with this query?

    Thank you in advance.

    Pierre Guy Marnet · Agrocampus Ouest

    Hi again Erica,I cannot answer such a question. I do not know enough your model of receptor but if your receptor internal site is bigger than the marker, It is probable that internalisation can be done. In the other cas it is more difficult, especially if a part of the marker cannot access the receptor site and can modify accessiblity.

    Nevertheless, you give me a new data with the kind of linker you used. Such a linker is very short and sometimes, because of a stearic congestion, the active peptide does not have place enough to reach correcty the internal site of the receptor and you can change affinity a lot and sometimes obtain a total inhibition of binding.

    But if you have already obtained fluorescent signal after 4 hours (and if this binding is specific!!) , it is not the case and the bindind is efficient but may be less than with GLP like peptide alone. If you produce yourself the tracer, you can use a longer linker to test a possible better and faster labelling?

    good luck

  • Salheen Salheen added an answer:
    When is the best time to measure blood glucose level in mice?

    Our study is on the hypoglycemic effect of pili nut oil in diet-induced hyperglycemic mice.

    Salheen Salheen · RMIT University

    Dear Dr Souhad Can I ask you why you are 100% agree with Dr Ali? 

  • Jingbo Li added an answer:
    What should be the optimum dose to find out antioxidant activity on zebra fish model, 1mg/fish/day or 1mg/bw of fish or 1mg/L?

    I want to fix a dose for antioxidant activity on zebra fish. In the above mentioned dose, which one will be more reliable? Or should I follow some other dose pattern? 

    Jingbo Li · Jinan University (Guangzhou, China)

    For expressing antioxidant activities, we usually use the concept IC50. In addition, a positive control should be used as a comparison. The optimal dose may be the IC50. For the specific definition of IC50, you can see my paper published in Food Sci & Biotechnol.

    Hope it helps you.

  • Mahmoud Abdelaal added an answer:
    What are the appropriate collagen levels in the testis tissue?
    Dose anybody know the collagen level in the testis of animals, specifically mice? And if there is any difference in the level between human and mice testis?
    Mahmoud Abdelaal · Northwest A & F University

    you can read this paper maybe help   Synthesis and distribution of type IV collagen in mice testes

  • Holly M Scott Algood added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a suitable way to inject iron in rats with the correct dosage and it's root?

    I would like to evaluate the effect of iron on inflammatory Cytokines...............

    Holly M Scott Algood · Vanderbilt University

    Have you considered feeding a iron deplete or iron replete diet? It might be more relevant physiologically.

  • Anika Brüning added an answer:
    Is it reliable to use whole body measurement instead of blood measurement of small fish?

    If using large fish, I can use its blood to assess osmolality, electrolyte content, stress indicator (such as blood glucose), hormone, etc, what if i use small fish? is whole body measurement reliable enough?

  • Marcus Binner added an answer:
    How can we explain the different performances between dopamine and norepinephrine in fluorescent spectrometry during dopamine determination?

    This is a question about dopamine determination.

    Marcus Binner · Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden

    Hi Shishan,

    the -CHOH- group next to the aromatic ring in norepinephrine has an effect on the electronic situation of the pi-electrons in the aromatic ring due to weak +M effect. I guess that's the reason why you have slight differences in the performance of the two compounds.

  • Paulina Kaźmierska asked a question:
    External cooperation for educational project involving Lab Tutor from AD Instruments needed!

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Lodz is looking for external cooperation (Norway preferentially) in the framework of the educational project from Norway Grant, aimed at developing the course in Animal Physiology using Lab Tutor from ADInstruments. Contact:

  • Parviz Shahabi added an answer:
    How does one analyse the Electroencephalography data?
    How do we analyse the EEG recording waves in rat? What are the conclusions we can get from them? For a rat, we are getting only two waves ie frontal waves and occipital waves. How do we analyse these EEG waves in a rat?
    Parviz Shahabi · Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    It can be analyzed by Matlab sofware. Also some sftwares such as labchart, Spike 2 have option to EEG analyzing.

  • Gilbert Proulx added an answer:
    Can anybody help me in finding literature on every aspect of Stone Marten (Martes foina)?

    I am facing difficulty in finding literature about Range, habitat biology of this species.

    Gilbert Proulx · Alpha Wildlife Research and Management Ltd.

    A new synthesis has recently been published by Cornell University Press. See

    The reference is:

    Aubry, K., B., J. W.  Zielinski, M. G. Raphael, G. Proulx, and S. W. Buskirk.  Editors.  2012. Bi.ology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers : A new synthesis. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    This book reviews most publications published on martens.

    Information about the species distribution is available from (also available on my site):

    Proulx, G., K. B. Aubry, J. Birks, S. W. Buskirk, C. Fortin, H. C. Frost, W. B. Krohn, L.  Mayo, V. Monakhov, D. Payer, M. Saeki, M. Santos-Reis, R. Weir, and W. J. Zielinski.    2004.  World distribution and status of the genus Martes in 2000. Pages 21-76 in D. J.  Harrison, A. K. Fuller, and G. Proulx, editors, Martens and fisher (Martes) in human- altered landscapes: an international perspective. Springer, New York, New York, USA.

  • Ahed Jumah Alkhatib added an answer:
    Comparing human with animals, which is more important the differentiation in shape or brain beyond building culture?
    Animals express good abilities for learning, but building cultures and inventions are restricted to humans. from a physiological point of view, humans and animals have great similarities in between. is it the shape the main playing factor in building cultures?
    do you think in other factors?
    Ahed Jumah Alkhatib · Jordan University of Science and Technology

    thanks dear Rafael,

    I download the article, I will go through  

  • Lawrence Margulies added an answer:
    Can anyway help me get pictures and images possibly x-ray images of swimbladder of yellowfin and bigeye tuna?

    I am working on Tuna target strength measurements and would like to have pictures of the swimbladder, shape and sizes in bigeye and yellowfin tunas

    Lawrence Margulies · University of Guelph

    Have you considered making a proposal for tomography measurements at a synchrotron source? Given the low contrast phase contrast tomography would be the best bet. In Europe there are numerous facilities which can do this. ESRF, DESY/Petra III, Diamond, Maxlab, Soleil, SLS, ALBA, Ellectra

  • Salman Malakpour added an answer:
    Is there anyone who can help me to translat one old Japanese paper Ogawa, 1959?!
    The kidney
    Salman Malakpour · University of Porto

    Dear Tadayoshi Mitsuhashi

    Thank your kind and sorry because of my very late answer. Could you please find the attached file regarding mentioned paper?!

    I'm looking forward to your response.

    Best regards,


  • Helen M Massa added an answer:
    What is the simple and reliable method to measure BP(blood pressure) by invasive method in rats?

    I would like to know which method is simple to measure BP by invasive methods in rats.

    Helen M Massa · Griffith University


    Intra-arterial cannulation with connection to pressure transducers provides reliable and continuous recording of blood pressure in rats. I would recommend insertion via the common carotid (under anaesthesia) and dependent upon how long you need to record the BP and the physiological state you plan to investigate will dictate how to best exteriorise the catheter. For example, for sampling/recording of BP in conscious, unanaesthetised rats without handling, I suggest considering externalising at the base of the tail then covering the vulnerable cannula (rats will chew the polyethylene and could exsanguinate) and run it up the tail using a semi tethered model. Keeping the cannula line clear, you could measure continuously, without having to handle your rat, for long periods (over month or more). Inclusion of a t-piece tap in the line permits flushing of the line and arterial sampling and arterial administration of medication or replacement blood if sampling. For shorter term studies where handling the rat is not an issue, consider externalising the cannula between the scapulae on dorsal thoracic region (runs via tunnel from common carotid).

  • Behnam Saremi added an answer:
    Does anybody know an institution that has XF Analyzers - Seahorse Bioscience and is willing to work with avian and swine cells?
    This is a method to measure mitochondria bioenergetics at the level of cells.
    Behnam Saremi · Evonik Industries

    There are some institutes.

  • Stefano Gaburro added an answer:
    Which is the best way to meassure heart rate and body temperature in Wistar rats?

    Hi. We need measure some physiological indicators to could have a correlation between behavior and physiology.

    Stefano Gaburro · University of Oxford

    Dear Steven,

    for my publication in the mice I have for correlation of behavior (mostly fear) and heart rate I have used the DSI devices.

    Have a look at Gaburro et al 2011.

    Alternatively publication in rats

    If you want the pdf just let me know.

    Best Regards,


  • Sherif Wagih Mansour added an answer:
    How many days of the 8% Nacl diet should be given to normal Sprague-Dawley (not salt sensitive) rats to make them hypertensive?

    I want to create salt induced hypertension in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, so how long do I have to feed 8% diet Nacl to make them hypertensive?

    Sherif Wagih Mansour · Zagazig University

    2-3 weeks are enough to make them experimentally hypertensive

  • Bubba Nicholson added an answer:
    Is there a measured map of temperatures of the human head?
    I work with head lice and I would like to know if they prefer a specific temperature or a temperature combined with other parameters of the human head.
    Bubba Nicholson ·

    Of course, different species have different body temperatures.

  • Jennie Dusheck added an answer:
    How do nocturnal animals handle their metabolism with lack of sufficient vitamin D?
    see above
    Jennie Dusheck · University of California, Berkeley

    And what about mice? They are nocturnal or crepuscular. I'd be surprised if wild mice spent a lot of time in the sun during the day (like a sloth in a tree). I'm really interested in this question because mice are used in biomedical research on vitamin D metabolism. In the lab, people shave off the fur and expose the mouse skin to UV -and the mice synthesize D. But I wonder how mice do it in the wild. Or maybe lab mice are so different physiologically that that's irrelevant? I keep reading that mice supposedly lick it off their fur, but I've yet to see an actual citation and the similar belief that cows do that has been called into question.

  • Zuzana Cadková added an answer:
    Which is the best type and size of feeding needle for gastric lavage in laboratory rats weighing approx. 300-400 g.
    I need to administrate specific dose of risk element water solution right to the rat gastrointestinal tract.
    Zuzana Cadková · Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

    Alexey, thank you very much for an useful information.

  • Viola Galligioni added an answer:
    How do you consider animal welfare in animal experiment?
    I have been working on the relationship between autophagy and cardiovascular diseases using KO mice. I found some proteins change when the mice are injected with mites of LPS. I used LethalDose 50% of lps to observe the mice Mortality rate.
    How can I implement the revisions that the animal welfare gave me which contains the 3R principle? Do you have any advice?
    Viola Galligioni · Università degli Studi di Trento

    Hi Zi,

    for the replacement, just consider that LD50 is not accepted anymore in Europe as experimental method, apart from Regulatory studies. Hence , you shoud try to set up a good in viro test to check the best concentration to test in vivo.

    For the reduction, I would suggest, as mentioned before, to carry out the power analysis accordind to the statystical test you want to use; this website from Prof. Festing could help you a lot

    For the replacement, decide the humane endpoints of your experiment (examples are % of weight loss in 48hs, particular behaviour, dehydration, inability to move hind legs or others): if your animals pass that point you should euthanize them; give them a good enrichment and provide analgesics.

    Hope it helps, good luck!

  • Hossein Hassanpoor added an answer:
    What is the physiological or anatomical difference between place cells and grid cells in the hippocampus?

    In the medial temporal lobe,there are specific types of neural cells such as place cells, head-direction cells, grid cells, and boundary vector cells which involved in cognitive map and spatial memory. Hippocampal “place cells” encode the rat’s location within an open environment independently of its orientation and fire in the specific position. The complementary encoding of the orientation, independently of location, is done by “head-direction cells” .I think all of them are pyramidal neurons. So Is there any physiological or anatomical difference between these kinds of cell?

    Hossein Hassanpoor · Amirkabir University of Technology

    Dr. Burgess said:

    "The differences between grid cells and place cells may well be due to their inputs, although some of the stellate cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex are probably grid cells, and they have some differences to pyramidal cells."

  • Andreas Otterbeck added an answer:
    What adaptations have birds such as raptors evolved to mitigate the effects of positive and negative G-forces in high speed flight?
    I have been searching for some time (perhaps I am not using the right search terms) but I have not been able to find any studies that have been done to study the effects of g-forces on birds which normally attain high speeds of flight, such as raptors. For example, the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is known to attain top speeds of over 200km/hr in hunting dives. Obviously the bird had to have evolved ways of mitigating effects likely similar to what fighter pilots endure in high speed turns, e.g. increased difficulty getting blood to the brain, or else high speed turns through terrain would end in g-LOC and likely an impact. Or is it perhaps that these speeds are simply not high enough to induce debilitating G-force loads, given the moment of inertia of the bird's collective anatomy and the radius of a given turn? And what about other species, such as those that conduct aerobatic maneuvers with extremely small turn radii to evade being hunted by a larger bird?
    Andreas Otterbeck · University of Oslo

    I think this is a matter of the direction in which the g-forces are operating. When a fighter pilot (which sits upright in his seat) make a high-speed left turn, he rotates the horisontal axis towards the left and pulls back on the joystick. This exerts positive g-forces on the sitting pilot which pushes blood away from the head and towards the pilots feet. This is because the airplane "rises" relative to the pilots vertical axis. If the plane were "descending" relative to the pilot, the g-force would push blood towards the head and away from the feet. 

    I am not an expert, but i think part of the problem is that the pilot is sitting vertically in the travel direction of the plane and that the gforces in high speed turns acts in the very axis where blood could be pushed towards or away from the head.

    For instance, if the pilot were actually were lying on his belly in the travel direction of the plane, the gforces from the same turn would mainly not act in the direction towards or away from the head, probably reducing the problem in steep turns. Now, the acceleration and deacceleration would be the main factors acting on pushing blood towards and away from the brain.

    When birds fly, they orient their body in the axis of travel, much as the lying pilot.

  • Monia Savi added an answer:
    It is possible to study cardiac arrhythmia in a rat heart using Langendorff apparatus?

    It is possible to study cardiac arrhythmia in a rat heart using Langendorff apparatus? Or is it possible only with larger hearts such as guinea-pigs, pigs or rabbit hearts?

    Monia Savi · Università degli studi di Parma

    Yes it is possible. I assess inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias  by programmed electrical stimulation and rapid ventricular pacing. For the two approaches, square-wave electrical impulses are delivered to the pulmonary cone area through electrically insulated platinum wires inserted in the ventricular wall and connected to a general purpose stimulus generator. In both  protocols, 10 sec unipolar electrograms are recorded at sinus rhythm via a flexible, 6x6 microelectrode array (EcoFlexMEA36, Multi Channel Systems) laid down on the LV surface (gain 1000, bandwith 0,1-500 Hz, sampling rate 1000 Hz). Eventually, arrhythmias are classified according to the Lambeth Conventions. For more details contact me by email. 

  • Bertrand Faurie added an answer:
    Can you help me with an inhibitor of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase?

    I want an inhibitor of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase from animal, plants, human, yeast, bacteria etc..

    Bertrand Faurie · Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2


    You should take a look to this publication :-)

  • Mohammad Yasin Karami asked a question:
    What is the normal range of kisspeptin in wistar rats?

    I need some information about it, would you help me?

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