Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Animal Anatomy and Physiology

  • Marc R Meyer added an answer:
    Which is the origin site of the omo-cervicalis (aka, atlanto-cervicalis, levator claviculae) muscle on the C1 atlas in non-human primates?

    There are many contradictions in the literature as to the origin of the omo-cervicalis (aka, atlanto-cervicalis, levator claviculae) muscle in non-human primates.  Miller 1932 reports it's on the spinous process but all images (including his) appear to depict its origin on the lateral aspect of the pars interarticularis.    Any informed knowledge on this from dissection or otherwise?  Not from the usual literature citing Miller (ie., Aiello, Wood).      

    Marc R Meyer · Chaffey College

    Thanks K.J.  very much for the article.  According to Parsons this muscle's origin is the transverse process of the atlas, which seems to contradict many recent texts - but 'feels' much better in terms of shoulder kinematics.  

  • Anggadia Wardani added an answer:
    Is this the vesicula seminalis or uterus masculinus?

    I am studying the "Guinea-Pig" male reproductive system. After dissection, I found a structure (picture below) that is explained differently in various places in the literature. Some claimed it was the vesicula seminalis, and the other mention it was uterus maskulinus. When I cut that organ, some gel-like substances came out in large amount. Can anybody explain what organ it is? And what the contents are?
    Thanks for the responses. I attach my schematic diagrams to explain the topography.

    Anggadia Wardani · Gadjah Mada University

    Thanks all ^_^ very helpful. cheers

  • Matthijs Freudenthal added an answer:
    Does anyone know about public databases of animals body size?

    insects, birds, mammals, etc..

    Thanks in advance!

    Matthijs Freudenthal · University of Granada

    My database is available in

    Freudenthal & Martín-Suárez, 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents.

    Scripta Geologica 145.

    You can download at the page of Scripta Geologica or at Researchgate

  • Anika Brüning added an answer:
    Is it reliable to use whole body measurement instead of blood measurement of small fish?

    If using large fish, I can use its blood to assess osmolality, electrolyte content, stress indicator (such as blood glucose), hormone, etc, what if i use small fish? is whole body measurement reliable enough?

  • Donald Davesne added an answer:
    Does anybody know of any electrogenic abilities in fossil fish?
    So, as many of you are probably aware, there are several living groups of fish which are able to use electroreception to some degree to either passively sense the world around them or, in some cases, actually stun or kill other animals. In particular, I'm thinking of members of the Gymnotiformes (including the electric eel), the electric catfish (Malapteruridae), the torpedo rays (Torpediniformes) and several families of the Osteoglossiformes (Mormyridae and Gymnarchidae).

    I was wondering if anyone knew of any evidence that a now totally-extinct group of fish may have possessed similar electroreceptive/generative abilities (that is to actually generate electric fields, rather than sense them as in sharks or paddlefish). I know that in South American knifefish (Gymnotiformes), the development of an electricity-generating system has strongly constrained the development of their locomotion, which makes me wonder whether a similar morphology among extinct fish (say, xenacanth sharks) might be indicative of such behavior.
    Donald Davesne · Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

    Hi Russell,

    Electrogenic ability has been suggested for at least one fossil chondrichthyan that I can remember : Ostenoselache from the Jurassic of Italy. Its body shape closely reminds the one of extant electrogenic teleosts such as Gymnotiformes, gymnarchids and malapterurid catfishes.
    There is a PDF here :

  • Gerhard Forstenpointner added an answer:
    Why do penguins have double trachea?
    What is the physiological significance of double trachea? It is seen in penguins,sea lions, dugongs spoonbills petrels .
    Gerhard Forstenpointner · University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna
    It would be surprising if penguins did not perform their phonation by means of the syrinx, the unpaired vocal organ that is situated at the bifurcation of the trachea. Therefore, the penguin's ability to "speak with two voices" is obviously limited by only one available voice-producing organ (sorry Anja!). Additionally, the term "double trachea" sounds a bit exaggerated, as it refers only to a tracheal septum which divides the tracheal lumen in its caudal part, just a few centimeters before it reaches the syrinx. The cranial and middle part of the trachea, at least three quarters of its length form a normal bird trachea with unpaired lumen. However, the presence of similar structures in other aquatic/diving species suggests a function within the complex of respiratory regulation.
  • Irina S. Khokhlova added an answer:
    How to convert blood meal size from mg to ml?
    I have data on blood meal size in mg per flea. I need to convert it to volume. Could someone recommend me any publication about blood density in gerbils?
    Irina S. Khokhlova · Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
    Thanks, Marshall. It's free! Got it. See you in Austin.

About Animal Anatomy and Physiology

The study of the physiology and anatomy of animals at a gross and microscopic level for veterinary application and research.

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