Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Animal Anatomy and Physiology

  • Sajid Khan added an answer:
    What could the reason for goosebumps appearing in BALB/c mice after feeding on a high-fat diet?

    In one of my experiment,  I am observing that the animals (Balb/c mice) feeding on high-fat diet are having goosebumps along with a increase in their body weights as compared to control diet-fed animals. What could be the possible reason for it?

    Sajid Khan · Central Drug Research Institute

    Dr Blum, Dr Springer, Dr Clemens..Thank you so much for your invaluable responses.

    These days, the mice are not showing as much piloerection as they were showing previously. I think the mice have now been adapted to high fat diet.

    Dr Clemens, Please see the following answers to your queries.

    It was appeared after about one week of putting them on high-fat diet.

    The mice were 8-9 weeks old at that time.

    They are kept in groups.

    They have nesting material.

    Housing is changed almost weekly.

  • Ilse Corkery added an answer:
    Does anyone know of animals that have a narrow thermal tolerance range?

    I want to see how thermal tolerance differ from among animals.

    Ilse Corkery · University College Cork

    the below article may be of interest to you - basically says that tropical ecosystems are an excellent place to find thermal specialists

  • Lindsay Mccallion added an answer:
    Does anyone know the permanent and temporary adaptations that occur in the horse and the mountain goat at different altitudes?

    Including red blood cell counts, blood pressure and lung capacity changes

    Lindsay Mccallion · Salford City College

    I've done a lot of work on this subject recently, I will upload it later.

  • Younes BOUALLEGUI added an answer:
    Could someone help to find recent references about detailed mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis anatomy?

    I'm trying to find recent references about Mytilus ssp. anatomy but all what I found old referee or not very exact. Any suggessions please?

    Younes BOUALLEGUI · University of Carthage

    Thanks Caterina, yes it's, neverthless that you were contributed, Regards!!!

  • Santosh Dhakal added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a reference for Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) of pig?

    Can anyone suggest any good references to understand physiology and immune function of Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) of pigs? Pigs in particular, not cattle, sheep and human. 

    Santosh Dhakal · The Ohio State University

    Thanks Anggadia Wardani. I have gone through that. It describes in general the immune system of respiratory tract. They have not discriminated BALT and NALT. But BALT and NALT may not necessarily function same way, just my opinion. I was curious if anybody has focused on NALT structure, fate of antigen delivered through intranasal route in pigs, effect of dose-solubility-particulate nature of antigen for intranasal delivery in pigs etc.  Thanks for the suggestion, it is a nice paper. 

  • M. Balakrishnan added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with using the neutral red retention time assay in frog erythrocytes?

    First of all, I would like to know if frog erythrocytes have lysosomes.

    M. Balakrishnan · Addis Ababa University

    1. Green RH 1979. Sampling design and statistical methods for environmental biologists. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    2. UNEP 1995. Global biodiversity assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    3. Underwood  AJ 1997. Experiments in ecology, their  logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Cambridge University Press, New York.

    There are also several recent literature, but I hope the ones I have listed are good enough for the purpose.

  • Jiří Ambros added an answer:
    Can I use IMU (like gyroscope) to measure head direction of small animals?

    Hi, I'm considering using Inertial measurement unit (IMU) like accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer to measure head direction and rotation for animal behavior. This is a small animal and it moves in 3D. Ideally the device will be mounted on the animal's head and needs to be less than 20mm x 20mm x 15mm in size and transfer data by telemetry. Does anyone have any experience on this? Main consideration here is precision, drift, data output rate and whether to use hardware sensor fusion computations.

    I know a lot of people use IR tags or LEDs with cameras to do this. But since the animal can run upside down, it seems tricky/costly to build and calibrate a multi-camera system.

    Thanks a lot!

    Jiří Ambros · CDV - Transport Research Centre

    Dear Lingyun, it sound like very interesting application. I believe it is doable. I have heard about similar applications, but can't remember the source. Now I found this, for example -

  • Oscar Inostroza-Michael added an answer:
    Does anyone know about public databases of animals body size?

    insects, birds, mammals, etc..

    Thanks in advance!

    Oscar Inostroza-Michael · University of Concepción

    anyone knows a database of body sizes for amphibians?

  • Marc R Meyer added an answer:
    Which is the origin site of the omo-cervicalis (aka, atlanto-cervicalis, levator claviculae) muscle on the C1 atlas in non-human primates?

    There are many contradictions in the literature as to the origin of the omo-cervicalis (aka, atlanto-cervicalis, levator claviculae) muscle in non-human primates.  Miller 1932 reports it's on the spinous process but all images (including his) appear to depict its origin on the lateral aspect of the pars interarticularis.    Any informed knowledge on this from dissection or otherwise?  Not from the usual literature citing Miller (ie., Aiello, Wood).      

    Marc R Meyer · Chaffey College

    Thanks K.J.  very much for the article.  According to Parsons this muscle's origin is the transverse process of the atlas, which seems to contradict many recent texts - but 'feels' much better in terms of shoulder kinematics.  

  • Anggadia Wardani added an answer:
    Is this the vesicula seminalis or uterus masculinus?

    I am studying the "Guinea-Pig" male reproductive system. After dissection, I found a structure (picture below) that is explained differently in various places in the literature. Some claimed it was the vesicula seminalis, and the other mention it was uterus maskulinus. When I cut that organ, some gel-like substances came out in large amount. Can anybody explain what organ it is? And what the contents are?
    Thanks for the responses. I attach my schematic diagrams to explain the topography.

    Anggadia Wardani · Gadjah Mada University

    Thanks all ^_^ very helpful. cheers

  • Anika Brüning added an answer:
    Is it reliable to use whole body measurement instead of blood measurement of small fish?

    If using large fish, I can use its blood to assess osmolality, electrolyte content, stress indicator (such as blood glucose), hormone, etc, what if i use small fish? is whole body measurement reliable enough?

  • Donald Davesne added an answer:
    Does anybody know of any electrogenic abilities in fossil fish?
    So, as many of you are probably aware, there are several living groups of fish which are able to use electroreception to some degree to either passively sense the world around them or, in some cases, actually stun or kill other animals. In particular, I'm thinking of members of the Gymnotiformes (including the electric eel), the electric catfish (Malapteruridae), the torpedo rays (Torpediniformes) and several families of the Osteoglossiformes (Mormyridae and Gymnarchidae).

    I was wondering if anyone knew of any evidence that a now totally-extinct group of fish may have possessed similar electroreceptive/generative abilities (that is to actually generate electric fields, rather than sense them as in sharks or paddlefish). I know that in South American knifefish (Gymnotiformes), the development of an electricity-generating system has strongly constrained the development of their locomotion, which makes me wonder whether a similar morphology among extinct fish (say, xenacanth sharks) might be indicative of such behavior.
    Donald Davesne · Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

    Hi Russell,

    Electrogenic ability has been suggested for at least one fossil chondrichthyan that I can remember : Ostenoselache from the Jurassic of Italy. Its body shape closely reminds the one of extant electrogenic teleosts such as Gymnotiformes, gymnarchids and malapterurid catfishes.
    There is a PDF here :

  • Gerhard Forstenpointner added an answer:
    Why do penguins have double trachea?
    What is the physiological significance of double trachea? It is seen in penguins,sea lions, dugongs spoonbills petrels .
    Gerhard Forstenpointner · University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna
    It would be surprising if penguins did not perform their phonation by means of the syrinx, the unpaired vocal organ that is situated at the bifurcation of the trachea. Therefore, the penguin's ability to "speak with two voices" is obviously limited by only one available voice-producing organ (sorry Anja!). Additionally, the term "double trachea" sounds a bit exaggerated, as it refers only to a tracheal septum which divides the tracheal lumen in its caudal part, just a few centimeters before it reaches the syrinx. The cranial and middle part of the trachea, at least three quarters of its length form a normal bird trachea with unpaired lumen. However, the presence of similar structures in other aquatic/diving species suggests a function within the complex of respiratory regulation.
  • Irina S. Khokhlova added an answer:
    How to convert blood meal size from mg to ml?
    I have data on blood meal size in mg per flea. I need to convert it to volume. Could someone recommend me any publication about blood density in gerbils?
    Irina S. Khokhlova · Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
    Thanks, Marshall. It's free! Got it. See you in Austin.

About Animal Anatomy and Physiology

The study of the physiology and anatomy of animals at a gross and microscopic level for veterinary application and research.

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