Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

  • Sudharshan K added an answer:
    Can anyone tell me the energy equivalent of wood-based panels such as particleboard and medium-density fibreboard?

    MJ per kg or m3

    Sudharshan K · Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal

     also you can contact Dr.Muthukrishnan achary who is in public pages with LInkedIn social network, he is doing govt project under India who can address you query....

  • Fabrice Auzanneau added an answer:
    What about generating energy by driving on a highway?
    I think it should be possible to generate energy just by driving a car on a highway. Imagine that the car is equipped with a permanent magnet under its base, just between the wheels, and the highway has some electrical wires inside, not too far from the surface. Then, by passing over the wires, the car and its magnet will generate a current in the wires which can be collected and stored in some batteries. Multiply this by the number of cars passing on the highway, this would lead to a high energy generation.
    Of course, our cars do not have magnets underneath, but they could be placed when entering the highway, just for the time you drive on it. The highway manager would gain money by selling the current, then they would decrease the fare if you accept to bear the magnet.
    Do you think this would be possible, and cost-effective?
    Fabrice Auzanneau · Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission

    Yes, you're right, Michael, but there will be magnets in electric cars also, maybe smaller though. But we can reverse the process : put the magnets inside the road and generate electricity to charge the battery of the electric car, thus increasing its range.

  • Russell Barton added an answer:
    Feasibility of low scale hydrogen fuel cells to avoid the use of batteries in PV applications?
    The cost economic and to the environment of the use of batteries in the PV applications at low scale (residential) is high. The problem is that the demand of PV energy in this kind of applications ins during the night.
    Now, one remedy is avoiding the use of batteries and connecting directly the PV bank to the net. But in isolated applications this principle is not feasible. Then, the alternative to store the energy obtained during the sun hours in hydrogen, may be attractive. The question is, the cost of a hydrogen fuel cell for low scale application is high? Anybody know some bibliography or commercial information about this possibility?
    Russell Barton · NanoOne Materials Corp

    Almost any battery will return over 80% of the watt hours you charge it with.

    Decomposing water over the day, and turning it back into electricity at night will never return even 1/2 of the power you start with. Seen that way, the more costly batteries are an investment in efficiency.

  • Negin Minaei added an answer:
    On water evaporation control, anyone aware of studies/reports on evaporation rates for floating solar platforms, solar water blanket or water covers ?

    Conducting environmental impact research on cleantech floating solar systems for sustainable agriculture at vineyards and wineries, in particular water savings in terms of water preservation and evaporation reduction due to installation of over water  floating solar systems on lakes, dams, irrigation ponds reservoirs, agricultural and mining ponds, hydroelectric reservoirs and canals. 

    Would really appreciate links to reports where evaporation rates had been monitored or measured, or forecasted with mathematical modelling or environmental monitoring models are used to model or predict water evaporation rates on irrigation ponds or rivers or water canals.

    Negin Minaei · Royal Agricultural University

    You may find this project interesting, Roots Up's Dew Collector greenhouse provides veggies and water in Ethiopia

  • Abbas Mardani added an answer:
    How detailed does an AHP hierarchy need to be?


    I was asking myself the above question when structuring a hierarchy to find out where businesses in the industry like to invest in optimization measures.

    The hierarchy is attached.

    The five alternatives are: Energy efficiency, optimization measures for processes, quality, technology and supply chain.

    Now I would be able to break down the criteria especially the quantitative ones into additional sub-criteria. For Example: Net present value in 0.15 - 0.3%, 0.3 – 0.5%, 0.6 - 1%, 1 - 2.8%, 2.8 - 5%, > 5% or payback period in static and dynamic and then in years (e.g. 0 - 1.5 years, 2 years etc.).

    But is that really necessary?

    Thanks in advance for any help you can provide. I also appreciate any comment regarding the hierarchy.

    Abbas Mardani · Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    the best paper for you answer is this paper

  • Behnaz Rezaie added an answer:
    What is the best psychological variable to measure people's perception about sustainable behaviour in energy consumption?

    I'm working on research about energy consumption in passiv houses in Luxembourg. I need some suggestions about variable(s) that could measure people's perception about sustainable behaviour in energy consumption. Thanks in advance!

    Behnaz Rezaie · University of Idaho

    The factors are not the same for all communities. I would say, you have to determined the community, then based on perception of that community find out the important factors related to useing renewable energy. For example people in Norway have different attitude toward renewable energy in compare with people in Egept.

  • Mahinda Henegedara added an answer:
    Can someone give an outline of a good business or economic model for hydrogen fuel cell technology in developing countries?
    Recent news says that the economic potential for hydrogen fuel cells will increase to USD2bil by 2018 in Asia alone. Let's not miss the boat.
    Mahinda Henegedara · University of Kelaniya

    Practical Action (Former Intermediate Technology Development Group ) Has conducted lot of studies and projects in this regard. Try to contact Practical Action (UK) or Sri Lankan office.

  • Mostafa Eidiani added an answer:
    Modelling 100% renewable electricity in Sub-S. Africa by 2030. Any software recommendations?
    As part of my thesis, i am looking at the best possible mix and the lowest cost option for providing 100% renewable electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2030. I have been researching modelling tools that are specific to the power sector when I stumbled across this forum. Any help will be appreciated.
    Mostafa Eidiani · Khorasan Institute of Higher Education


    Please use DIgSILENT POwer Factory and Please see this link:

  • Christopher T M Clack added an answer:
    How does the variation in power output of a solar module depend on the temperature?

    References says the power output of the  PV module will decrease when the temperature increases. This is due to the reduction in Voc.

    But the equations which relating to the temperature coefficient beta and Voc is like this

    Voc= Voc+ beta*(Toperational-T reference)

    So this equation says when temperature increases Voc increases.

    Guys,can any one help me with this?

    Or suggest me a reference.


    Christopher T M Clack · University of Colorado at Boulder


    Just to give my knowledge. The coefficient is usually negative. The temperature dependency is linked a reference

    Let me know if you would like some more information.


  • M.Azizul Moqsud added an answer:
    Is it necessary to use plexiglass for making the MFC?

    Is it plexiglass the only acceptable material for making MFC?

  • Vincenza Liguori added an answer:
    What are the possibilities of meeting the entire global energy requirements from renewable energy sources?

    Please discuss the possibilities, technologies required, changes required in energy utilisation methods and other related issues.

    OR is it foolish to think this way?

    Vincenza Liguori · University of Naples Federico II

    Succinctly : the possibility that renewable energy can meet the various requirements in global scope can be met in a coordinated and differentiated use of the same, in a smart grid approach , starting from the knowledge and the critical , efficient and profitable use of local energy potential, e.g: in an area wind energy more available; or biomass or energy from manure or solar energy ... and strengthening this method on a wide geographical basis.

  • Srikanth Reddy added an answer:
    How can I calculate trombe wall efficiency?

    Solar wall or trombe wall efficiency especially if it built for ventilation 

    Srikanth Reddy · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    The following presentation may help you:

  • Frank Veroustraete added an answer:
    Calculating Solar radiation on a tilted solar panel?
    I am trying to calculate the incident radiation on a tilted solar module. It is a fixed module and the angle is manually changed three times a year. I have the longitude and latitude of the location. I also have the TMY data provided by NREL. Since it is not my specialty (I am an Electrical/Industrial Engineer), I would appreciate if someone can help me with this.
    Frank Veroustraete · University of Antwerp

    Hi Haidar,

    Please find the relatioships you need,



  • Anjar Priandoyo added an answer:
    What is the difference between 'Energy harvesting' and 'Energy scavenging'?
    When we are discussing our research, we often come to meet difficulties in defining the sources of surrounding energy. What is your definition?
    Anjar Priandoyo · The University of York

    Thanks Veera for the explanation, so for device such as wireless sensor, micro electronics, the correct term is energy harvesting, but for device like shoe-mounted piezo or solar clothing the term to be used is energy scavenging.

  • Richard Faktor added an answer:
    Can anyone help me with regulation of appliances in micro-generation systems for energy consumption management?

    Can anyone recommend me any article or book, which can help me with regulation and shifting of domestic appliances for matching energy consumption to generation in micro-generation systems ( smart buildisng with solar PV panels for example )

    Richard Faktor · Brno University of Technology

    Thank you very much for your answer

  • Özgür Yildiz added an answer:
    How can I describe the relationship between certain characteristics of renewable energy projects and people's acceptability of the project?

    I am wondering is there any computable form describing the relationship between certain characteristics (e.g. the benefit) of renewable energy projects such as wind turbines and PV projects and people's acceptabiity of the projects. 

  • Özgür Yildiz added an answer:
    Does anyone know examples of the use of animal fat (beef) for energy purposes?

    Animal fat represents a waste in abattoirs, butchers shops and kitchens. I'm interested to know if there are any concrete examples of its use for energy purposes (fuel for engines, boilers, biogas generation, etc.).

  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    Can anyone help with the design of Floating platform for Solar power plant in lakes?

    I am currently working on designing a Floating structure for Installation of Solar modules in lakes. What are the factors to be considered ? Any technology or designs available for the same? Which is more reliable in long run (20 years) HDPE/FRP or Bamboo structures? Which one is cost effective? Whether the platform can be made flexible to adjust to the local water depth variation during different climatic conditions? 

    FC Prinsloo · University of South Africa

    Dear Sudhakar

    floating bamboo is an excellent idea, it will be cheap and will be a natural low cost building material to construct the solar structure.  You would however have to do tests to see how the structure would be deformed as a result of heating and cooling or drying over time.

    this review on floating photovoltaic structures references a number of installations and is worthwhile to quickly browse through these

    You should also read this article on the Kerala reservoir awaits floating solar farm

    where they plan to install floating solar on water reservoirs using the Kyocera floatation devices to fix the solar panels.



  • Sivakumar d.b. added an answer:
    Any suggestion on mixing nano power material in diesel fuel?

     I am doing research in IC engine. Nano fuel additives is readily available in markets. but I wish to know the procedure of mixing nano power material with diesel fuel.

    Sivakumar d.b. · Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli

    Good morning  to all.

    In this i join hands with  MR Anas.

    First decide whether you are going for single or two step process synthesis

    we have experimented  a  nanocatalyst additive( two different concentrations on mass basics) for improving the combustion and we achieved increase in BTH,reduction in TFC,reduction in Nox,hc,but slight increase in has been prsented in international conference at NIT trichy and we arepreparing to publiish shortly.i can help u in all the way sir

  • R. J. Yokelson added an answer:
    What is the feasibility of using plastic polymers in bio-briquettes?
    I am concerned with the emissions of these briquettes and how environmentally friendly it is to use plastic polymers as an energy resource. I will consider different types of polymers viz, low and high density polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate) (PET).
    R. J. Yokelson · University of Montana


    I agree that plastics without Cl seem fairly safe and they burned efficiently and cleanly in our tests pubished open access here:

    Best wishes to find good clean energy solutions for Nepal! Bob

  • Dr. Iva Ninova Kuznetsova added an answer:
    Is it possible to generate enough electrical power using all the three types of alternative energy to replace conventional energy sources?

    A good amount of work is being carried to tap solar, wind and geothermal energy so as to replace facile fuel. With present day state of art is it possible to generate enough power to meet ever increasing demand of power?

  • Uzor Steve Emezuru added an answer:
    What is the alternate fuel for liquid nitrogen?
    Can we take H2O?
    Uzor Steve Emezuru · Nigerian Defence Academy

    nitrogen is below 0degrees and water at that state is in its solid state. so a fuel for it should be a fluid that below zero degrees is still in its molten or liquid state.

    i hope this would help.

  • B. Chandrashekhar added an answer:
    Can someone provide me a detail diagram and economics of home of biogas plant?

    Please suggest me to setup a biogas plant for family of eight members? and also requested to provide the possibilities of biogas generation by using kitchen waste and other agricultural waste except cow dung.

    B. Chandrashekhar · National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

    Dear Pradeep

    Producing biogas from kitchen waste can be difficult if the quality of waste is not consistent daily as the type of food we eat daily may not be similar. 

    There is an upcoming conference in BITS Pilani, Goa Campus on this topic in November, 2014.

    You can also get some information from IIT Delhi Biogas Plant.  

  • Fabio Roselet added an answer:
    What is the most difficult factor for elaborate Biodiesel?
    The main factors for produce bio fuels
    Fabio Roselet · Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG)

    Hi Benavides,

    Regarding biofuels from microalgae (third generation biofuels), harvesting is one of the major bottlenecks to its commercial expansion.

    Microalgae are unicellular and microscopic organisms, ranging from 2 to 200 µm in diameter, achieve low densities even in high production systems as photobioreactors (< 5 g/L). Also, they have negative surface charge and low sedimentation rates, forming stable suspensions. These characteristics make microalgae hard to be concentrate.

    Nowadays, commercial microalgae harvesting is achieved by centrifugation, though large scale application is problematic due to increased power consumption, being only justified for high value products.

  • Adam Szewczyk added an answer:
    Energy, where we are going ?
    We are about 7.2 billion and the expectation is 9.6 billion in 2050.

    The coal, oil and natural gases are low, the shale gas exploitation is killing our drinking water resources. Green bio fuel seems to be less green if all the production aspects are counted. Solar energy conversion to electricity or hot water still has very low efficiency and can not be used everywhere. Wind conversion involve high costs and technological difficulties besides disturbing noise. Tidal power is still insufficient and the climatic changes are heavily affecting those power plants.
    After 60 years of nuclear energy it seems this is not exactly the right way (only ~13% of the world's electricity in 2012).

    We are talking too much about energy harvesting (using our electromagnetic pollution - the electro-smog, or the noises we are creating running our cars, trains and our mouths) but everything seems to be just a joke. We are using efficient bulbs (with doubtful efficiency) replacing the Edison's one in the name of energy savings, but do not give up our cars, burning fuel every day.

    Which do you think will be the energy of the future? Green energy, alternative energy or even "free energy" ? Which is your experience in this field of research?

    sponsoring the International Journal of Practical Electronics:
    win 200 euro for best paper accepted:
    Adam Szewczyk

    Isn't it a natural thing that the more energy available the greater the population of species that depend on it, in our case,  human population.  Even if we solve our energy  issues, then human population will continue to grow.  At some point, human population growth is going to stop, the question is what are the factors that will define the population limits and therefore its energy consumption. 

  • Arvind Lal added an answer:
    Which one is more sustainable, Biodiesel or bioethanol?

    To be a viable alternative to conventional fuels, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, offer environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and available in large quantities without reducing food supplies.

    What is the advantages and disadvantages of them in comparison each other?

    Arvind Lal · Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

    Bioethanol is more sustainable compare to biodiesel in the respect of natural resources.In the production of Biodiesel by the process of transesterification,we can use methanol a non renewable alternative fuel,but if we use bio-ethnol a renewable alternative fuel to substitute the petrol where as biodiesel is also a renewable energy resource substitute the Diesel.Although both diesel and Petrol are non-renewable fossile based fuel.So bio-ethanol itself a alternative substitute fuel  of Petrol E5,E10--. It  may be used in place of methanol for the production of Biodiesel in the process of transesterification.Bioethanol is also a plant based fuel ( Baggass-cane sugar), so it is more sustanable inn comparision to others.

  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer:
    Does anyone have a working, cutting-edge Free Energy (Over Unity), solar, wind, wave or W2E device(s) available and need assistance in promoting?
    I'm Director of Research & Development for a company that specializes in new Alternatives, Exotic and/or Green Technologies for use in Environmental Remediation, Alternative Energies, Waste-to-Energy, Compost/Biogas, Oil Spill Recovery, Water Generation (desalination alternatives) and Protective Materials for Nuclear Fallout and Contamination. Clean Nature Solutions (thecnsgroup(dot)eu) is looking for the latest technologies to help promote and utilize in various projects World Wide. Please contact me if you have something unique.
    Gerro Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University

    Dear Wes, you can look at our system on this link:

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer:
    How valid are climatic models and IPCC results?

    Cornelis Van Kooten (2012) believes "the truth has been sacrificed for political expediency" (Page 96). In a high critical scientific manner, he explains why so-called Global Climate Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) do not have factual temperature and rainfall outputs (e.g. by comparing actual data to predicted data). More interesting, he also scrutinizes the results of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and questions its assessment reports.

    Now, I'm not certain about applying GCM and RCM models and use the results of IPPC as well. Is there another option to consider more realistic scenarios? 

    Reference:Van Kooten, G. Cornelis. Climate Change, Climate Science and Economics: Prospects for an Alternative Energy Future. Springer, 2012.

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

    when you think Van Kooten has a "high critical scientific manner" to explain, you have not studied his CV: he is an economist NOT a climatologist.

    In the intro of the book, free on the web, he mentions that he started to study climate change during a sabbatical in 2009-2010. What can he have learnt in a SINGLE year to write e a critical book on the complete climatological aspects of Climate Change, published in 2012?

    I strongly advice you to go to the original work, the 2013 IPCC-report, written by hundreds of climatologists

  • Alexander Tauras added an answer:
    Could pit latrines be the answer to domestic air pollution in developing countries?

    During the recently concluded CAHRD Meeting held in Liverpool (UK), one of the issues discussed was the prospect of reducing domestic air pollution (from burning biomass) and its negative health consequences, which particularly affects women and children.

    I frequently come across papers reporting the success of domestic and public pit latrines designed to double up as bio digesters to produce bio gas for cooking and lighting purposes.

    My questions are: Could this be the way forward for developing countries? How feasible is it to be scaled up?

    Alexander Tauras · Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital, Whittier, CA, United States
    I had some acquaintances in Washington DC working on developing a low-cost biodigester for this purpose, with partners in Madagascar. More info including photos here:

    I don't know the current status of their project. I believe their model is meant for use by a single extended family.

    I'm sure there are many other models out there as well being tested.

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