Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

  • Giacinto Libertini added an answer:
    Is it possible to generate enough electrical power using all the three types of alternative energy to replace conventional energy sources?

    A good amount of work is being carried to tap solar, wind and geothermal energy so as to replace facile fuel. With present day state of art is it possible to generate enough power to meet ever increasing demand of power?

    Giacinto Libertini · Independent Researcher

    Please, consider carefully VertEolo project and afterwards tell me your evalution

  • prof V.S Muralidharan added an answer:
    Would you like to do a degree in Materials Chemistry?

    The School of Chemical Sciences, UANL, gives you the opportunity to do an MA and Ph.D. in Materials Chemistry. We have the recognition of the National Register of Postgraduate Quality CONACYT. The thematic areas of research are:
    Nanomaterials, Alternative energy, Green chemistry, luminescent materials, solar cells, sensors toxic materials.

    All programs have scholarships from CONACYT.

    prof V.S Muralidharan · Central Electrochemical Research Institute

    i shall tell my students

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer:
    How valid are climatic models and IPCC results?

    Cornelis Van Kooten (2012) believes that "the truth has been sacrificed for political expediency" (Page 96). In a high critical scientific manner, he explains why so-called Global Climate Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) do not have factual temperature and rainfall outputs (e.g. by comparing actual data to predicted data). More interesting, he also scrutinizes the results of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and questions its assessment reports.

    Now, I'm not certain about applying GCM and RCM models and use the results of IPPC as well. Is there another option to consider more realistic scenarios? 

    Reference:Van Kooten, G. Cornelis. Climate Change, Climate Science and Economics: Prospects for an Alternative Energy Future. Springer, 2012.

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

    when you think Van Kooten has a "high critical scientific manner" to explain, you have not studied his CV: he is an economist NOT a climatologist.

    In the intro of the book, free on the web, he mentions that he started to study climate change during a sabbatical in 2009-2010. What can he have learnt in a SINGLE year to write e a critical book on the complete climatological aspects of Climate Change, published in 2012?

    I strongly advice you to go to the original work, the 2013 IPCC-report, written by hundreds of climatologists

  • A. Hajighasem added an answer:
    Which one is more sustainable, Biodiesel or bioethanol?

    To be a viable alternative to conventional fuels, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, offer environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and available in large quantities without reducing food supplies.

    What is the advantages and disadvantages of them in comparison each other?

    A. Hajighasem · Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute

    Evaluating the economics of biofuels using full life-cycle accounting for biodiesel from soybeans and ethanol from corn grain, biodiesel yields 93% more energy than the energy invested in its production, while ethanol yields only 25% more.

    This advantage of biodiesel over ethanol comes from lower agricultural input and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Hence, compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% as much agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutant, respectively, per net energy gain.

    Biodiesel also releases less air pollutant per net energy gain than does ethanol. Thus, relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 41% by the production and combustion of biodiesel, compared with 12% for ethanol.

  • Fabrice Auzanneau added an answer:
    What about generating energy by driving on a highway?
    I think it should be possible to generate energy just by driving a car on a highway. Imagine that the car is equipped with a permanent magnet under its base, just between the wheels, and the highway has some electrical wires inside, not too far from the surface. Then, by passing over the wires, the car and its magnet will generate a current in the wires which can be collected and stored in some batteries. Multiply this by the number of cars passing on the highway, this would lead to a high energy generation.
    Of course, our cars do not have magnets underneath, but they could be placed when entering the highway, just for the time you drive on it. The highway manager would gain money by selling the current, then they would decrease the fare if you accept to bear the magnet.
    Do you think this would be possible, and cost-effective?
    Fabrice Auzanneau · Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission

    As Samvel says "transform a fraction of kinetic energy into electric energy from the pockets of drivers" is quite right. I'm not expecting a high efficiency, I was more thinking of a market model: you pay lower highway fare by generating energy that can be sold by the highway's owner. The counteraction from the wires should be estimated (I don't know how to do this, even roughly) but it does not seem to me that it would slow the car down to an extend that the driver would sense it. Everyone knows that air conditionning increases gas consumption, but everyone uses it when it's hot. This would be the same: the additional drag created by the wires would increase gas consumption (how much is the question) but the reduced fare would make it worth it.

  • Alexander Tauras added an answer:
    Could pit latrines be the answer to domestic air pollution in developing countries?
    During the recently concluded CAHRD Meeting held in Liverpool (UK), one of the issues discussed was the prospect of reducing domestic air pollution (from burning biomass) and its negative health consequences, which particularly affects women and children.

    I frequently come across papers reporting the success of domestic and public pit latrines designed to double up as bio digesters to produce bio gas for cooking and lighting purposes.

    My questions are: Could this be the way forward for developing countries? How feasible is it to scale up?
    Alexander Tauras · Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital, Whittier, CA, United States
    I had some acquaintances in Washington DC working on developing a low-cost biodigester for this purpose, with partners in Madagascar. More info including photos here:

    I don't know the current status of their project. I believe their model is meant for use by a single extended family.

    I'm sure there are many other models out there as well being tested.
  • Gregoire Lacoste asked a question:
    Can a spheric steel resonator produce boiled water with a 116% energy efficiency ratio?
    I would like to find out if this new opensource french invention works: a spheric steel resonator which produces boiled water with a 116% energy efficiency.

    This process could involve cold fusion, which would be very strange at such a low rate energy input for this experiment.

    At this stage we lack theoretical and practical information.

    The plans and the website are linked
  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer:
    Low-cost, solar powered Stirling engine?
    Are there any designs for small, low-cost, solar -powered Stirling engines to produce electricity that can be competitive with small PV systems with 50W capacity? The PV systems mentioned here are commonly used in Kenya, the country with highest number of solar panels per capita in the world. Such devices can be a particularly viable solution for isolated, remote communities in developing countries, which still depend on traditional biomass and fossil fuels for energy.
    Gerro Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University
    If you are looking at dynamic steering of concentrated solar reflector or dish for your stirling device the you can also look at our stirling projects in this profile:
  • Wes Deuel asked a question:
    Does anyone have a working, cutting-edge Free Energy (Over Unity), solar, wind, wave or W2E device(s) available and need assistance in promoting?
    I'm Director of Research & Development for a company that specializes in new Alternatives, Exotic and/or Green Technologies for use in Environmental Remediation, Alternative Energies, Waste-to-Energy, Compost/Biogas, Oil Spill Recovery, Water Generation (desalination alternatives) and Protective Materials for Nuclear Fallout and Contamination. Clean Nature Solutions (thecnsgroup(dot)eu) is looking for the latest technologies to help promote and utilize in various projects World Wide. Please contact me if you have something unique.
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    How can you remove Systematic Bias from Demand Forecast?
    Correcting bias in power forecast
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    What is the origin of the systematic bias?

    The main problem with power forecasting, and we have this problem in the Pacific Northwest, is if your inputs to your base power load are variable because those inputs include intermittent generation by wind farms (or other).

    The secondary problem is the reliability of the demand profile, which often is weather related.

    Its hard for me to see the effects of any systematic bias here, there are lots of random elements that dominate.
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    Could coal deposits be promising sources of rare metals for alternative power and energy-efficient technologies?
    The concentrations of rare metal elements have been reported now.
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    In general, no, rare-earths in coal deposits have rather low yields in comparison to other metal ore deposits.
  • Mike Valliant added an answer:
    How small can an energy from a waste plant be whilst still being technically and economically viable?
    Most of the literature talks about "small" EfW plants being those which handle less than 100,000tpa of waste. Would it be cost-effective to build a very small one, say 500 tpa capacity?
    Mike Valliant · Temple University
    Zero, since most existing waste plants are viable and profitable while producing zero useful energy.

    The steam turbine for generation used with a simple incineration boiler are not really a good match for a small plant. Also the scrubbers for a first world installation would cost as much for a backyard 500tpa plant as for a much larger plant. The organics and moisture content of the waste stream would determine your energy output, viability and plant design for both gasification and anaerobic digestion.
  • Stafford Williamson asked a question:
    How do I find financing (public or private) to pay for sponsored research to integrate already patented processes, research done in same university?
    I'd like to license a set of closely related patented processes from a university, but only if the several processes can be shown to produce equal or better results by a demonstration of their integration (by the same professors and staff who invented them in the first place). With patents available for examination, cooperation (within the limits of deep bureaucracy) from the university, and the researchers themselves. What is the best course to seek financing for such an undertaking?
  • Sushant Kumar asked a question:
    Will climate change affect wind and thus the availability of wind energy?
    We all talk about climate change and its impact. IPCC in its reports has talked a lot about it. Do we need to consider the climate change scenario in wind resource assessment, where surface wind (up to 100-150m) plays the major role, knowing that the life of a wind farm could only be a couple of decades (20-30 years)? Please share your views and your experience.
  • Jorge Varejao added an answer:
    What is the most difficult factor for elaborate Biodiesel?
    The main factors for produce bio fuels
    Jorge Varejao · Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra
    Water presence both in methanol (or other alchool used) or in the fat material itself is the main factor which quench transesterify reaction, which otherwise proceeds steadily at temperatures higher than 20 Celcius. The glycerol phase formation also quenches the reaction.
  • Andrzej Lechowski added an answer:
    What are your thoughts about the claims of TH Moray?
    T.Henry Moray, author of "The Sea of Energy in which the Earth Floats", claimed that he found a way of harnessing an unknown energy he termed as Radiant Energy. Demonstrations were conducted and nobody could prove that it was a hoax. If such vast energy could be harnessed as predicted by Nikola Tesla, then reasonable enough, we should direct our search for new energy source to such direction.
    Andrzej Lechowski · Craegmoor
    Hi Ryan,
    Sorry for my late answer but during cleaning my email box I came upon an unanswered question. I do not carry out any experiments nor write papers. As an economist, I just analyse reality and write on it in the way I comprehend the nature- and that's all. For example, I couldn't imagine functioning of the universe without so-called ether. But in order to write on ether, one must properly understand space. Kindly see my articles, e.g.: and
    There are thousands of scientists and independent researchers supporting existence of ether. Kindly see:
    Moreover, one of my friends has carried out experiments and described them on his webpage (poor English, so reading requires some pain). The other one is writing about it among other things on:
  • Axel Berres added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest some references in computing output power of photo-voltaic cells?Are they able to produce 50 KW or 100 KW power?
    I want to model predict output power from pv cells.
    Axel Berres · German Aerospace Center (DLR)
    To create an array to produce up to ...100 KW (Ptotal) is an easy task, Search for the produced power of a module, usually 200 ... 800W (PMod). Ptotal / PMod returns the number of needed modules. Those modules need the aera Atotal = n * AMod * sin(AlphaMod). Because the maximum power of a moduel will be produced, if the sun shines direkt (90°) on the module, the module has to be mountet in the angle AlphaMod. Thats it. To calculate the cost you need the price per Module * n. Also about 20 ... 30% of the Module Price has to be added for the needed power electronic and measurement to ease the maionanence of the array.
  • Venu Jaiganesh asked a question:
    What is the alternate fuel for liquid nitrogen?
    Can we take H2O?
  • Antonio Lucero added an answer:
    How can manmade global warming trends be reversed?
    Right now and in the foreseeable future, civilization and even our physical survival is being threatened by extreme, erratic and shifting weather patterns. These in turn are caused by the Earth’s oceans becoming warmer, which in turn is being caused by the increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.

    The primary and ultimate cause of all of these effects is our burning of fuels.

    These changes are amplifying themselves because of various positive feedback mechanisms, thus accelerating these processes.
    Apparently, we have a lot of feasible technical methods for ameliorating global warming. What we lack is the will and determination of the political and financial leaders. Grassroots approaches, based on clear,scientific reasoning are needed to push our leaders to do the right things.
    In San Francisco and Seattle there are the beginnings of movements to divest the investments of collective funds out from fossil fuel companies and into renewable energy companies. (Similar to divestment movements against South Africa's old apartheid practices?)
    Meanwhile, on the national scene and globally, many of our elected and appointed officials are hooked on petroleum as a source of jobs and national income, not to mention the profits for the influential petroleum industry. This is the actual state of affairs, in spite of many of these same leaders acknowledging the consequences of global warming and the role that burning fossil fuels has in this.
    The just released UN report on global warming will, hopefully, help persuade people to become more proactive, especially the common man/woman.
    Eventually, if/when we get the politicians on board, a separate organization needs to be formed that sidesteps all the problems associated with bureaucracies. For example, during the 50's and 60's, NASA was formed for nonmilitary space research and development, and The Aerospace Corporation was formed for military space R&D. They were started from scratch, recruiting the best scientists and engineers from around the world and partitioning them from the contracting/business side of the house. The results were phenomenal and could not have been accomplished otherwise. To tackle global warming issues, a similar organizational entity needs to be founded.
    A systems approach needs to be taken. For example, problems in easing the transitions from petroleum-based industries to alternate energy industries need to be addressed, including re-training workers. All the interrelated and aspects need to be included in the approaches taken. Feedback mechanisms need to be clearly defined, including psychological factors. Because the systems are so complex, modeling and simulation are necessary tools.
    Where to start? Start with dialog and evidence-based recommendations of scientists and engineers.
  • Giuma Fellah added an answer:
    How we can obtain Ship fuel from ocean water?
    Giuma Fellah · University of Tripoli
    would you please check the following site, you may find the answer, however I would like to quote the following statement "The technology is about a decade away from becoming a reality".
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    What is the capability of a wireless energy transfer?
    Please provide Information on the capability of a wireless energy transfer including the distance, power, and list of methods available and possible methods in future
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    And this is very frequency dependent
  • Kadal Amutham added an answer:
    Energy, where we are going ?
    We are about 7.2 billion and the expectation is 9.6 billion in 2050.

    The coal, oil and natural gases are low, the shale gas exploitation is killing our drinking water resources. Green bio fuel seems to be less green if all the production aspects are counted. Solar energy conversion to electricity or hot water still has very low efficiency and can not be used everywhere. Wind conversion involve high costs and technological difficulties besides disturbing noise. Tidal power is still insufficient and the climatic changes are heavily affecting those power plants.
    After 60 years of nuclear energy it seems this is not exactly the right way (only ~13% of the world's electricity in 2012).

    We are talking too much about energy harvesting (using our electromagnetic pollution - the electro-smog, or the noises we are creating running our cars, trains and our mouths) but everything seems to be just a joke. We are using efficient bulbs (with doubtful efficiency) replacing the Edison's one in the name of energy savings, but do not give up our cars, burning fuel every day.

    Which do you think will be the energy of the future? Green energy, alternative energy or even "free energy" ? Which is your experience in this field of research?

    sponsoring the International Journal of Practical Electronics:
    win 200 euro for best paper accepted:
  • Victor Christianto added an answer:
    Is Sarah Becker's fully renewable US electricity system a realistic plan?
    Sarah Becker et al. just released a new paper (arXiv: 1402.2833) where she and her colleagues including Mark Jacobson suggest a new plan for fully renewable US electricity system. Their title is: Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions.

    The abstract goes as follows: "Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km2, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate a fully renewable electricity system, resting primarily upon wind and solar PV power. We find that the seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar PV comes at around 80% solar PV share, owing to the US summer load peak. By picking this mix, long-term storage requirements can be more than halved compared to a wind only mix. The daily optimal mix lies at about 80% wind share due to the nightly gap in solar PV production. Picking this mix instead of solar only reduces backup energy needs by about 50%."

    So do you think that Sarah Becker et al.'s plan is realistic or not? Your comments are welcome.
    Victor Christianto · University of New Mexico
    @Aria and @G. Bothun. Thank you for your answers. Best wishes
  • Jean M. Aymerich added an answer:
    How we can measure the energy flows and landscape levels to determine the policy implications of the use of biomass?
    I am interested in doing my PhD in this area.
    Jean M. Aymerich · Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center
    Thanks for you answer, yes the amount wastes is one part of the puzzle, but also I think in solar, eolic and energy crops.
  • Henrik Romar added an answer:
    Does anyone still have the operating guide for the Perkin-Elmer 240C Elemental Analyzer?

    I'm measuring the elemental composition of biomass fuels (ultimate analysis). I have an instrument in the lab but don't have the manual/guide for it, so I'm having trouble getting it to work. If anyone has the Perkin Elmer 240C Elemental Analyzer, could you please help me?
    I contacted Perkin-Elmer, even they don't have anything regarding this instrument, not even reference material for it.

    Henrik Romar · Kokkola University Chydenius
    Try this link, not a complete manual bot some operating hints
  • Biplab Das added an answer:
    Collaboration work on CFD?
    Anyone needs a visiting research scholar to work part time...or would like to do some collaborative work on heat transfer/fluid flow? Please let me know.
    Biplab Das · North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology
    Dear prof. h Hassan,
    Thank you very much for your interest. I apologies for late in reply. I have gone through your CV. Please find the attached CV. I want to visit your esteemed institution for a short duration, in the month of may 2014, during this i will come with my planned work and jointly we can do the same for possible publication. And also I will attempt your work.
    I do work on this topics: DOE(Taguchi) / Neural network/ GA based Optimization/ Correlation.
    Wind energy/Biodiesel/CFD heat transfer.

  • Gabriel H P M Ribeiro added an answer:
    Carbon emission variations between agricultural land and energy crop production - can anyone help?
    I am currently researching the emission variations between agricultural land and energy crop cultivation. There is extensive literature about the argument of preserving agricultural land for food production and keeping energy crop production separate. This is primarily due to the increasing demand of food and decreasing available land for such agriculture.

    My research has led me to the understanding that there are additional carbon emissions that need to be accounted for when calculating the environmental impacts of energy crops. This is due to previously stored carbon in the soils of uncultivated land, such as grassland, which is released once cultivation begins.

    Is anyone working on or know of a study that has extensively calculated the emissions of both separate land uses and/or the variations between the same piece of land being used for agriculture and then converted into energy crops?
    Gabriel H P M Ribeiro · Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
    Dear Sophie Archer

    try table 8.4 from
    best regards
    Gabriel Ribeiro

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