Alternative Energy

Alternative Energy

  • How can I describe the relationship between certain characteristics of renewable energy projects and people's acceptability of the project?

    I am wondering is there any computable form describing the relationship between certain characteristics (e.g. the benefit) of renewable energy projects such as wind turbines and PV projects and people's acceptabiity of the projects. 

    Maddali V S Murali Krishna · Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

    Govt should come forward to encourage projects pertaining to renewable energy, in form of giving subscidaries, land and other facilities like government clearance.  Projects related to renewable energy will strengthen rural economy by providing employement opportunities to rural youth. The general problems faced by rural sector like power, water, etc. can be solved to some extent by adopting renewable energy technnology. People can accept these projects without any difficulty.   

  • R. J. Yokelson added an answer:
    What is the feasibility of using plastic polymers in bio-briquettes?
    I am concerned with the emissions of these briquettes and how environmentally friendly it is to use plastic polymers as an energy resource. I will consider different types of polymers viz, low and high density polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate) (PET).
    R. J. Yokelson · University of Montana


    I agree that plastics without Cl seem fairly safe and they burned efficiently and cleanly in our tests pubished open access here:

    Best wishes to find good clean energy solutions for Nepal! Bob

  • Gabriel Negreanu added an answer:
    Does anyone know examples of the use of animal fat (beef) for energy purposes?

    Animal fat represents a waste in abattoirs, butchers shops and kitchens. I'm interested to know if there are any concrete examples of its use for energy purposes (fuel for engines, boilers, biogas generation, etc.).

    Gabriel Negreanu · Polytechnic University of Bucharest

    Thank you, Don and Urs.

    The beef fat that I wish to treat comes from tanneries that transform beef skins in leather, so, it is not eatable. And the quantities are not so large. According to all opinions, the applicable techniques are: direct combustion, biodiesel and biogas.

  • Dr. Iva Ninova Kuznetsova added an answer:
    Is it possible to generate enough electrical power using all the three types of alternative energy to replace conventional energy sources?

    A good amount of work is being carried to tap solar, wind and geothermal energy so as to replace facile fuel. With present day state of art is it possible to generate enough power to meet ever increasing demand of power?

  • Zeashan Khan added an answer:
    What is the difference between 'Energy harvesting' and 'Energy scavenging'?
    When we are discussing our research, we often come to meet difficulties in defining the sources of surrounding energy. What is your definition?
  • Uzor Steve Emezuru added an answer:
    What is the alternate fuel for liquid nitrogen?
    Can we take H2O?
    Uzor Steve Emezuru · Nigerian Defence Academy

    nitrogen is below 0degrees and water at that state is in its solid state. so a fuel for it should be a fluid that below zero degrees is still in its molten or liquid state.

    i hope this would help.

  • Vidur Raj added an answer:
    Any suggestion on mixing nano power material in diesel fuel?

     I am doing research in IC engine. Nano fuel additives is readily available in markets. but I wish to know the procedure of mixing nano power material with diesel fuel.

    Vidur Raj · Amity University

    let me tell you something, you should firstly concentrate on making of nano materials. Once you have the nanomaterials there are various ways by which even insoluble nanomaterials can be made soluble in any solvent. Like we can functionalize the materials, We can use core-shell kind of structure etc. 

  • B. Chandrashekhar added an answer:
    Can someone provide me a detail diagram and economics of home of biogas plant?

    Please suggest me to setup a biogas plant for family of eight members? and also requested to provide the possibilities of biogas generation by using kitchen waste and other agricultural waste except cow dung.

    B. Chandrashekhar · National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

    Dear Pradeep

    Producing biogas from kitchen waste can be difficult if the quality of waste is not consistent daily as the type of food we eat daily may not be similar. 

    There is an upcoming conference in BITS Pilani, Goa Campus on this topic in November, 2014.

    You can also get some information from IIT Delhi Biogas Plant.  

  • Fabio Roselet added an answer:
    What is the most difficult factor for elaborate Biodiesel?
    The main factors for produce bio fuels
    Fabio Roselet · Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG)

    Hi Benavides,

    Regarding biofuels from microalgae (third generation biofuels), harvesting is one of the major bottlenecks to its commercial expansion.

    Microalgae are unicellular and microscopic organisms, ranging from 2 to 200 µm in diameter, achieve low densities even in high production systems as photobioreactors (< 5 g/L). Also, they have negative surface charge and low sedimentation rates, forming stable suspensions. These characteristics make microalgae hard to be concentrate.

    Nowadays, commercial microalgae harvesting is achieved by centrifugation, though large scale application is problematic due to increased power consumption, being only justified for high value products.

  • Adam Szewczyk added an answer:
    Energy, where we are going ?
    We are about 7.2 billion and the expectation is 9.6 billion in 2050.

    The coal, oil and natural gases are low, the shale gas exploitation is killing our drinking water resources. Green bio fuel seems to be less green if all the production aspects are counted. Solar energy conversion to electricity or hot water still has very low efficiency and can not be used everywhere. Wind conversion involve high costs and technological difficulties besides disturbing noise. Tidal power is still insufficient and the climatic changes are heavily affecting those power plants.
    After 60 years of nuclear energy it seems this is not exactly the right way (only ~13% of the world's electricity in 2012).

    We are talking too much about energy harvesting (using our electromagnetic pollution - the electro-smog, or the noises we are creating running our cars, trains and our mouths) but everything seems to be just a joke. We are using efficient bulbs (with doubtful efficiency) replacing the Edison's one in the name of energy savings, but do not give up our cars, burning fuel every day.

    Which do you think will be the energy of the future? Green energy, alternative energy or even "free energy" ? Which is your experience in this field of research?

    sponsoring the International Journal of Practical Electronics:
    win 200 euro for best paper accepted:
    Adam Szewczyk · McMaster University

    Isn't it a natural thing that the more energy available the greater the population of species that depend on it, in our case,  human population.  Even if we solve our energy  issues, then human population will continue to grow.  At some point, human population growth is going to stop, the question is what are the factors that will define the population limits and therefore its energy consumption. 

  • Arvind Lal added an answer:
    Which one is more sustainable, Biodiesel or bioethanol?

    To be a viable alternative to conventional fuels, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, offer environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and available in large quantities without reducing food supplies.

    What is the advantages and disadvantages of them in comparison each other?

    Arvind Lal · Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

    Bioethanol is more sustainable compare to biodiesel in the respect of natural resources.In the production of Biodiesel by the process of transesterification,we can use methanol a non renewable alternative fuel,but if we use bio-ethnol a renewable alternative fuel to substitute the petrol where as biodiesel is also a renewable energy resource substitute the Diesel.Although both diesel and Petrol are non-renewable fossile based fuel.So bio-ethanol itself a alternative substitute fuel  of Petrol E5,E10--. It  may be used in place of methanol for the production of Biodiesel in the process of transesterification.Bioethanol is also a plant based fuel ( Baggass-cane sugar), so it is more sustanable inn comparision to others.

  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer:
    Does anyone have a working, cutting-edge Free Energy (Over Unity), solar, wind, wave or W2E device(s) available and need assistance in promoting?
    I'm Director of Research & Development for a company that specializes in new Alternatives, Exotic and/or Green Technologies for use in Environmental Remediation, Alternative Energies, Waste-to-Energy, Compost/Biogas, Oil Spill Recovery, Water Generation (desalination alternatives) and Protective Materials for Nuclear Fallout and Contamination. Clean Nature Solutions (thecnsgroup(dot)eu) is looking for the latest technologies to help promote and utilize in various projects World Wide. Please contact me if you have something unique.
    Gerro Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University

    Dear Wes, you can look at our system on this link:

  • Harry ten Brink added an answer:
    How valid are climatic models and IPCC results?

    Cornelis Van Kooten (2012) believes that "the truth has been sacrificed for political expediency" (Page 96). In a high critical scientific manner, he explains why so-called Global Climate Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) do not have factual temperature and rainfall outputs (e.g. by comparing actual data to predicted data). More interesting, he also scrutinizes the results of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and questions its assessment reports.

    Now, I'm not certain about applying GCM and RCM models and use the results of IPPC as well. Is there another option to consider more realistic scenarios? 

    Reference:Van Kooten, G. Cornelis. Climate Change, Climate Science and Economics: Prospects for an Alternative Energy Future. Springer, 2012.

    Harry ten Brink · Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

    when you think Van Kooten has a "high critical scientific manner" to explain, you have not studied his CV: he is an economist NOT a climatologist.

    In the intro of the book, free on the web, he mentions that he started to study climate change during a sabbatical in 2009-2010. What can he have learnt in a SINGLE year to write e a critical book on the complete climatological aspects of Climate Change, published in 2012?

    I strongly advice you to go to the original work, the 2013 IPCC-report, written by hundreds of climatologists

  • Fabrice Auzanneau added an answer:
    What about generating energy by driving on a highway?
    I think it should be possible to generate energy just by driving a car on a highway. Imagine that the car is equipped with a permanent magnet under its base, just between the wheels, and the highway has some electrical wires inside, not too far from the surface. Then, by passing over the wires, the car and its magnet will generate a current in the wires which can be collected and stored in some batteries. Multiply this by the number of cars passing on the highway, this would lead to a high energy generation.
    Of course, our cars do not have magnets underneath, but they could be placed when entering the highway, just for the time you drive on it. The highway manager would gain money by selling the current, then they would decrease the fare if you accept to bear the magnet.
    Do you think this would be possible, and cost-effective?
    Fabrice Auzanneau · Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission

    As Samvel says "transform a fraction of kinetic energy into electric energy from the pockets of drivers" is quite right. I'm not expecting a high efficiency, I was more thinking of a market model: you pay lower highway fare by generating energy that can be sold by the highway's owner. The counteraction from the wires should be estimated (I don't know how to do this, even roughly) but it does not seem to me that it would slow the car down to an extend that the driver would sense it. Everyone knows that air conditionning increases gas consumption, but everyone uses it when it's hot. This would be the same: the additional drag created by the wires would increase gas consumption (how much is the question) but the reduced fare would make it worth it.

  • Alexander Tauras added an answer:
    Could pit latrines be the answer to domestic air pollution in developing countries?

    During the recently concluded CAHRD Meeting held in Liverpool (UK), one of the issues discussed was the prospect of reducing domestic air pollution (from burning biomass) and its negative health consequences, which particularly affects women and children.

    I frequently come across papers reporting the success of domestic and public pit latrines designed to double up as bio digesters to produce bio gas for cooking and lighting purposes.

    My questions are: Could this be the way forward for developing countries? How feasible is it to be scaled up?

    Alexander Tauras · Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital, Whittier, CA, United States
    I had some acquaintances in Washington DC working on developing a low-cost biodigester for this purpose, with partners in Madagascar. More info including photos here:

    I don't know the current status of their project. I believe their model is meant for use by a single extended family.

    I'm sure there are many other models out there as well being tested.
  • Th. Höpner added an answer:
    Can a spheric steel resonator produce boiled water with a 116% energy efficiency ratio?
    I would like to find out if this new opensource french invention works: a spheric steel resonator which produces boiled water with a 116% energy efficiency.

    This process could involve cold fusion, which would be very strange at such a low rate energy input for this experiment.

    At this stage we lack theoretical and practical information.

    The plans and the website are linked
    Th. Höpner · Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

    sorry, I can´t

  • Gerro Prinsloo added an answer:
    Low-cost, solar powered Stirling engine?
    Are there any designs for small, low-cost, solar -powered Stirling engines to produce electricity that can be competitive with small PV systems with 50W capacity? The PV systems mentioned here are commonly used in Kenya, the country with highest number of solar panels per capita in the world. Such devices can be a particularly viable solution for isolated, remote communities in developing countries, which still depend on traditional biomass and fossil fuels for energy.
    Gerro Prinsloo · Stellenbosch University
    If you are looking at dynamic steering of concentrated solar reflector or dish for your stirling device the you can also look at our stirling projects in this profile:
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    How can you remove Systematic Bias from Demand Forecast?
    Correcting bias in power forecast
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    What is the origin of the systematic bias?

    The main problem with power forecasting, and we have this problem in the Pacific Northwest, is if your inputs to your base power load are variable because those inputs include intermittent generation by wind farms (or other).

    The secondary problem is the reliability of the demand profile, which often is weather related.

    Its hard for me to see the effects of any systematic bias here, there are lots of random elements that dominate.
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    Could coal deposits be promising sources of rare metals for alternative power and energy-efficient technologies?
    The concentrations of rare metal elements have been reported now.
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    In general, no, rare-earths in coal deposits have rather low yields in comparison to other metal ore deposits.
  • Mike Valliant added an answer:
    How small can an energy from a waste plant be whilst still being technically and economically viable?
    Most of the literature talks about "small" EfW plants being those which handle less than 100,000tpa of waste. Would it be cost-effective to build a very small one, say 500 tpa capacity?
    Mike Valliant · Temple University
    Zero, since most existing waste plants are viable and profitable while producing zero useful energy.

    The steam turbine for generation used with a simple incineration boiler are not really a good match for a small plant. Also the scrubbers for a first world installation would cost as much for a backyard 500tpa plant as for a much larger plant. The organics and moisture content of the waste stream would determine your energy output, viability and plant design for both gasification and anaerobic digestion.
  • Axel Berres added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest some references in computing output power of photo-voltaic cells?Are they able to produce 50 KW or 100 KW power?
    I want to model predict output power from pv cells.
    Axel Berres · German Aerospace Center (DLR)
    To create an array to produce up to ...100 KW (Ptotal) is an easy task, Search for the produced power of a module, usually 200 ... 800W (PMod). Ptotal / PMod returns the number of needed modules. Those modules need the aera Atotal = n * AMod * sin(AlphaMod). Because the maximum power of a moduel will be produced, if the sun shines direkt (90°) on the module, the module has to be mountet in the angle AlphaMod. Thats it. To calculate the cost you need the price per Module * n. Also about 20 ... 30% of the Module Price has to be added for the needed power electronic and measurement to ease the maionanence of the array.
  • Giacinto Libertini added an answer:
    How can manmade global warming trends be reversed?
    Right now and in the foreseeable future, civilization and even our physical survival is being threatened by extreme, erratic and shifting weather patterns. These in turn are caused by the Earth’s oceans becoming warmer, which in turn is being caused by the increasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.

    The primary and ultimate cause of all of these effects is our burning of fuels.

    These changes are amplifying themselves because of various positive feedback mechanisms, thus accelerating these processes.
    Giacinto Libertini · Independent Researcher

    By cleanly producing energy!

    Eolic power could satisfy all present and future - direct and indirect - energy demands, with really low costs!

    Please, consider VertEolo project ( / the book on titled Project for powerful wind power plants with vertical axis of rotation).

    Your comments and questions are sincerely welcome!

  • Giuma Fellah added an answer:
    How we can obtain Ship fuel from ocean water?
    Giuma Fellah · University of Tripoli
    would you please check the following site, you may find the answer, however I would like to quote the following statement "The technology is about a decade away from becoming a reality".
  • G. Bothun added an answer:
    What is the capability of a wireless energy transfer?
    Please provide Information on the capability of a wireless energy transfer including the distance, power, and list of methods available and possible methods in future
    G. Bothun · University of Oregon
    And this is very frequency dependent
  • Victor Christianto added an answer:
    Is Sarah Becker's fully renewable US electricity system a realistic plan?
    Sarah Becker et al. just released a new paper (arXiv: 1402.2833) where she and her colleagues including Mark Jacobson suggest a new plan for fully renewable US electricity system. Their title is: Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions.

    The abstract goes as follows: "Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km2, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate a fully renewable electricity system, resting primarily upon wind and solar PV power. We find that the seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar PV comes at around 80% solar PV share, owing to the US summer load peak. By picking this mix, long-term storage requirements can be more than halved compared to a wind only mix. The daily optimal mix lies at about 80% wind share due to the nightly gap in solar PV production. Picking this mix instead of solar only reduces backup energy needs by about 50%."

    So do you think that Sarah Becker et al.'s plan is realistic or not? Your comments are welcome.
    Victor Christianto · University of New Mexico
    @Aria and @G. Bothun. Thank you for your answers. Best wishes
  • Jean M. Aymerich added an answer:
    How we can measure the energy flows and landscape levels to determine the policy implications of the use of biomass?
    I am interested in doing my PhD in this area.
    Jean M. Aymerich · Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center
    Thanks for you answer, yes the amount wastes is one part of the puzzle, but also I think in solar, eolic and energy crops.
  • Henrik Romar added an answer:
    Does anyone still have the operating guide for the Perkin-Elmer 240C Elemental Analyzer?

    I'm measuring the elemental composition of biomass fuels (ultimate analysis). I have an instrument in the lab but don't have the manual/guide for it, so I'm having trouble getting it to work. If anyone has the Perkin Elmer 240C Elemental Analyzer, could you please help me?
    I contacted Perkin-Elmer, even they don't have anything regarding this instrument, not even reference material for it.

    Henrik Romar · Kokkola University Chydenius
    Try this link, not a complete manual bot some operating hints
  • Gabriel H P M Ribeiro added an answer:
    Carbon emission variations between agricultural land and energy crop production - can anyone help?
    I am currently researching the emission variations between agricultural land and energy crop cultivation. There is extensive literature about the argument of preserving agricultural land for food production and keeping energy crop production separate. This is primarily due to the increasing demand of food and decreasing available land for such agriculture.

    My research has led me to the understanding that there are additional carbon emissions that need to be accounted for when calculating the environmental impacts of energy crops. This is due to previously stored carbon in the soils of uncultivated land, such as grassland, which is released once cultivation begins.

    Is anyone working on or know of a study that has extensively calculated the emissions of both separate land uses and/or the variations between the same piece of land being used for agriculture and then converted into energy crops?
    Gabriel H P M Ribeiro · Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
    Dear Sophie Archer

    try table 8.4 from
    best regards
    Gabriel Ribeiro
  • Giovanni Zurlini added an answer:
    Limitations of the present sustainability and energy efficiency discussion
    A sustainable manufacturing or production in general is viewed by many governments and industries in various countries as the basis or key for a sustainable life / future by maintaining the status quo or by further increasing the wealth of their society. The view is focusing to a large extent on a sustainable energy and material supply, but partially also on education in case of limited energy and material resources in a country. It didn't take long that, after the idea of sustainable production, the idea of energy efficiency was introduced. The major idea is to improve the usage of the available energy resources by reducing fossil and non-regenerative energy sources and take advantages of regenerative or alternative sources like wind power, photovoltaic energy a.s.o. - This whole discussion is intensively diving by energy Prices. At present the oil Prices are falling from a very high Level and new sources from oil / gas sand or shale oil / gas have been made available. Which is putting the rather expensive regenerative Technologies under pressure. The question here is: for how Long? - In manufacturing engineering energy efficiency seems to mean basically reducing the necessary energy for the manufacture of the product to be produced. Mostly electrical machinery and processes are designed in a way to use less energy for the same task as before. However a real shift of the intention related to a sustainable production or society I can only see in the regenerative energy sources and an even more intensive recycling of materials. Reducing wast energy and resources is good, but not really sufficient I think. The Impact of an seemingly everlasting paradigm of economical increase and gain seems to have a larger and more complex impact on out societies and our life than expected or considered so far. Keep on doing as we have been doing by producing more and more of the same products, but only reducing the amount of material and energy per unit will not reduce the environmental impact and hence will further increase the effect on our health and life in many places. Is there a better paradigm than the present? What will be the next shift ? What will be necessary for it to come about?
    Giovanni Zurlini · Università del Salento
    To address limitations of the present sustainability discussion and "new" paradigms for sustainability, I advance here what I posted already elsewhere where I recall the classic work of Donella Meadows (1941 – 2001), late research fellow at MIT, on how do we change the structure of systems to produce more of what we want (sustainable) and less of that which is undesirable (unsustainable). Donella was a pioneering American environmental scientist, teacher and writer an best known as lead author of the influential book "The Limits to Growth", which made headlines around the world. She proposed a list of places (leverage points) to intervene in complex systems in increasing order of effectiveness. Here they are (from Meadows 2009):
    • 12. Numbers: Constants and parameters such as subsidies, taxes, and standards
    • 11. Buffers:The sizes of stabilizing stocks relative to their flows
    • 10. Stock-and-Flow Structures: Physical systems and their nodes of intersection
    • 9. Delays: The lengths of time relative to the rates of system changes
    • 8. Balancing Feedback Loops: The strength of the feedbacks relative to the impacts they are trying to correct
    • 7. Reinforcing Feedback Loops: The strength of the gain of driving loops
    • 6. Information Flows:The structure of who does and does not have access to information
    • 5. Rules: Incentives, punishments, constraints
    • 4. Self-Organization: The power to add, change, or evolve system structure
    • 3. Goals:The purpose or function of the system
    • 2. Paradigms: The mindset out of which the system—its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters—arises.
    • 1. Transcending Paradigms
    As you can see the most effective leverage points are paradigms and trascending paradigms, very difficult to change but the most effective for a really sustainable change. In the words of Donella "the shared ideas in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions, constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the world works. These beliefs are unstated because it is unnecessary to state them—everyone already knows them. Money measures something real and has real meaning; therefore, people who are paid less are literally worth less. Growth is good. One can “own” land. Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumbfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious". Notice, however, that most of the current sustainability research, even the most advanced on complex systems, instead, is focused on the least effective leverage points like the economical aspects likely because decision makers and politicians believe that sustainability is mainly an economic problem even in the case of sustainability and energy efficiency discussion where technology takes the lead. So, "Numbers" like constants and parameters such as subsidies, taxes, and standards become the main focus. This happens for sustainability in environmental protection science too, related to manufacturing or production in general that is viewed by many governments and industries in various countries as the basis or key for a sustainable future by just providing numbers, standards, thresholds for pollutants that should not be trespassed. However this is a quite myopic viewpoint and I doubt that it can lead to sustainability ever. We have, in my opinion, to put in the right place the issues of our list of priorities if we want to foster a "sustainable" future.
    Here is the link for Donella's work

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