• Carina Moeller added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest literature on raised-field agriculture in Europe?

    Raised-field agriculture or raised field cultivation systems are met in very few places in Greece but so far no one has seriously searched this subject (from all points if view). I know that there is literature for several South American sites but I haven't been able so far to discover literature for Europe. I am not also sure if this system can be described also as "ridge-and-swale" agriculture or field systems?

    Carina Moeller · University of Tasmania

    The full-text is available on my reserach gate profile. But there are many more publications from the CIMMYT group.

  • Ana M. Fonseca added an answer:
    Which satellite images is good to assess changes from agriculture to residential?

    See above

    Ana M. Fonseca · National Laboratory for Civil Engineering

    Optical Images with visible and infrared bands, and depending of the resolution you need, you can have Landsat (for low resolution - 30/15m) SPOT, MODIS/Terra, .. (for medium resolution) or IKONOS, QuickBird, Worlview (for very high resolution - 0,5 m)

  • Barbara Sawicka added an answer:
    What are the main indicators of a sustainable supply chain network in agriculture?

    There are some components come together to produce and distribute a certain crop. Which one of them are considered significant?

    Barbara Sawicka · University of Life Sciences in Lublin

    Indicators of crop production management chain are:
    the use of new, innovative methods of livestock production, in order to extend the use of time and efficiency, maintain health and fertility, animal welfare, conservation of biodiversity, and of the protection of agricultural environment, including:
    intelligent application of precision farming techniques in sustainable crop production;
    application of new technology of natural and mineral fertilizers and their zero-emission application methods;
    reducing the negative impact of (production and environmental) the use of simplifications in the cultivation and crop rotation plants;
    Comprehensive food safety control;
    Comprehensive security control of the food chain: ryteriów limits, methods of identification and analysis of chemical, toxicological, pesticide residues, pharmaceutical and veterinary drugs, microbiological contaminants, naturally occurring anti-nutritional substances and the presence of genetically modified organisms;
    implementation of new methods related to the diagnosis and monitoring of zoonoses and their etiological factors with particular emphasis on molecular methods;
    the use of reliable systems for tracking and finding the raw material / product in the production and distribution chain to ensure its security and guaranteed origin;
    implementation of safe production methods and technologies, and traditional food control and food produced by organic farming methods the use of new methods and technologies for acquisition and processing of non-nutritive;
    raw materials and agricultural waste products;
    application of innovative technology and food production on the planned functions of healthy (foods for food for selected groups of consumers, functional foods, etc.).

  • James R Knaub added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me some applications of simple random sampling with replacement in real life scenarios?

    To be more specific in agriculture where this design is used? 

    James R Knaub · N/A

    Hi Jane -

    I'm afraid you aren't really going to see simple random sampling with replacement in a real life scenario in just about any field, including agriculture. First, a simple random sample is only going to cover a relatively narrow category before you should stratify. Second, it is inefficient to select the same respondent multiple times, so 'with replacement' is not generally used either. And in agriculture, there is a history of some rather complex designs.

    Sorry, but if it is real life that you want, it won't be simple random sampling with replacement. I cannot say that that has never been used in some very narrow application somewhere, and I might have suggested it for a very narrow problem for a small part of an electric power survey once, that I don't think we used, but it just generally is not practical.
    If you are interested in designs, a relatively available, and well-written classic would be Cochran, W.G.(1977), Sampling Techniques, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons.

    Cheers - Jim

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer:
    How can I modify fly ash for agriculture?
    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    Humic Modified Fly Ash
    [I]Fly ash[FA] showing high sorption efficiency towards humic substances* , is modified with humic substances and then evaluated for biofunctional agricultural uses. Humic-loaded FA is prepared in various humic to FA ratios. The Greek peaty lignite** of the Megalopolis Basin is used as raw material for obtaining both FA and humates.
    [II] The reaction is studied at different temperatures 291, 308, 323, 338, and 353 K and at several pH values.The adsorption capacity is found to increase at neutral pH and, also, with rise of temperature, that is, from 760 to 1300 mg humics/g FA at 291 K and 353 K, respectively.
    [III] The adsorption proceed stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between the two materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models are employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption to shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system.
    [IV]Both the slow release of adsorbed humic substances during washing and the existence of microbial populations are considered advantageous for employing humic-loaded FA in biological cultivations substituting traditional soil-conditioning materials.
    (V) Lastly,the humic modified FA is also very important from an economic point as power plant wastes of the coal reserves worldwide can well be utilized.

    *Humic substance( HS) exist as Humic acids(HA), Fulvic acids(FA) and Humin( Hu) Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil, peat, coal, many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water. It is produced by biodegradation of dead organic matter. It is not a single acid; rather, it is a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups so that the mixture behaves functionally as a dibasic acid or, occasionally, as a tribasic acid. Humic and fulvic acids{which invariably accompany Humic acids} are commonly used as a soil supplement in agriculture, and less commonly as a human nutritional supplement. Fulvic acids are poly-electrolytes and are unique colloids that diffuse easily through membranes whereas all other colloids do not.
    ** Greece boasts lignite resources of 4.7 billion tonnes and 3.0 billion tonnes of economically workable reserves.
    Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
    Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 457964, 8 pages .

  • Naveen Garg added an answer:
    Why do red chilli fruits split/crack?

    This year I have many chillies that spllitted in my garden. I tried to find causes of it, but not seen. This may be a researchable issue for agricultural experts working in vegetable crops or spice crops. Please let me know if you have any answer to this problem.

    Naveen Garg · Punjab Agricultural University

    Dear Dr Gyan, it is important to mention that how many varieties had you grown, was there cracking in all the varieties and at which maturity stage cracking appeared 

  • Kerstin Jantke added an answer:
    Does anyone have information about the costs of wetland restoration, esp. in Europe?

    Any (ideally somehow published) data on the costs of conversion of agricultural (or other) land to wetlands such as peatlands, alluvial or swamp forests, wet grassland or marshes would be helpful. I am especially interested in European examples. Thanks a lot!

    Kerstin Jantke · University of Hamburg

    Thanks a lot for your great answers!

  • Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri added an answer:
    Is there a clear distinction of Urban Agriculture from the conventional agriculture?

    What are the basic features for an agricultural scheme to be called as Urban Agriculture?

    Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri · Agril. Research Station.Dharwad (Karnataka:India)

    There is no concept like like urban agriculture. Conventional agriculture refers to traditional practices or age old practices that still prevails. It is away  from mainly mechanization /computation etc advanced tools. Urban agriculture is characterized by high input intensive agriculture mainly growing vegetables etc short duration  crops. It is influence of peri-urban/ city/urban output on agriculture practices.

  • José Alexandre Agiova da Costa added an answer:
    Why is maize often used as a test crop in soil fertility experiment evaluation?
    What other crops can be used instead of maize?
    José Alexandre Agiova da Costa · Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA)

    Corn is perhaps the most studied crop in the physiologic point of view, then the inter - relationship between physiological responses and soil fertility can be easily compared with others trials. Corn and soybean theme have broad economic value and are the basis of animal nutrition around the world.

  • Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero added an answer:
    Anyone know of any recent studies on the adopter perception model for agricultural technologies?
    Has anybody recently used or come across the adopter perception model to study adoption of agricultural technologies? Kivlin and Fliegel had used farmers' perception of attributes of the technology to explain their adoption behaviour. This model was later used by Adesina and others in their work in the mid 1990s. I am looking for some recent work on the same topics. If someone has worked on it or has seen any recent papers on this, please reply.
    Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero · Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura

    Dear Varsha please download this recent paper

  • John Ireland added an answer:
    How do I perform a conjoint analysis for agriculture input services delivery?

    Conjoint analysis is being widely used in market research.

    In regard to the agriculture service delivery sector where limited work has been attempted, can you please provide any methodology or questionnaires on how to perform it?


    John Ireland · Canadian University of Dubai

    Dear Subhash:

    Your questions are far too broad to answer. You need to do some reading on conjoint analysis to prepare yourself to ask good questions. Read Understanding Conjoint Analysis in 15 Minutes by sawtooth software then you will know the questions to ask.

    Good Luck

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer:
    Is there any evidence from field scale studies that conversion of natural vegetation to croplands increase SOC content?

    See above. 

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun, India

    Hi Kamaljit Banger; I did not come across any reference on increase in SOC content by conversing natural vegetation to crop land. I completely agree with the remarks of Dr Frank Veroustraete that the hypothesis may be otherwise.  However following links may be helpful for you.


  • Lilly Lim-Camacho added an answer:
    What are critical cons of moving the agricultural value chain from the supply chain?

    I have studied supply chain of cumin in Gujarat. To improve and make the whole chain more efficient I must consider the value chain approach. So I want to know the critical aspects of agricultural value chain.   

    Lilly Lim-Camacho · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    A very important point to note when shifting from supply chain thinking to value chain thinking is the scope of the study. It is possible to examine supply chains from a macro perspective of an industry or sector, but to truly understand value creation in chains, specific contexts have to be explored, i.e. how an individual business works. In my experience true value chain analysis can only be achieved if you look at specific business value chains and how individual businesses within that chain work (or don't work) together to create the value that you are investigating. 

  • Thomas G Measham added an answer:
    What is the governance process for climate change in the coastal area?

    Agriculture and environment

    Thomas G Measham · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    In densely settled areas, there will demand for defensive responses (e.g. Thames barrier in London). However in more sparsely settled areas defensive options will not be viable. In these areas managed retreat is an option but the governance implications are complicated: e.g. who decides when it is time to retreat and who is responsible for it?

  • Peter William Edward Kearns added an answer:
    Is Pseudomonas Ice minus causing droughts?

    Pseudomonas Ice- is a genetically modified bacteria used in agriculture to protect crops from frost damage. Is there a possibility that by adding these GMOs to the environment we are creating long term droughts in countries where they are being used, like California, Texas or Australia?

    Peter William Edward Kearns · Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

    I repeat my question. Is this the ice-minus Pseudomonas from the late 1980s/ early 1990s? Dr Lindow's work? Apart from that, unless I am missing something, there are no ice-minus bacteria (except those that may occur naturally) that currently exist in clouds or anywhere else. This is suely an old story.  

  • Samir K. Mondal added an answer:
    What does the agricultural development entails and how well to execute it if we are to realize its benefits?

    A number of key elements have been offered in the economic development literature, especially agricultural development most of which are either pro-smallholders or otherwise. But holistically, whether it is to advocate for inclusion or exclusion of smallholder farmers, what needs to be done to transform the agricultural sector of any country taking into account the differences in local conditions of those countries?

    Samir K. Mondal · National Council of Applied Economic Research

    The best to transform agriculture to harvest best results is to introduce the concept of

    collective farming by consolidating small and marginal cultivators.  

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer:
    What is the application of actinomycetes in agriculture and allied sectors?

    I found one isolate of actinomycetes which is able to produce high amount of blue color media diffusible pigment. After one week the agar plate turned in to dark blue. I want to know that what the application of this particular isolate in agriculture and allied sectors is.

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    After its synthesis most of the dyes biodegrade and convert in to simple metabolites mostly secondary metabolites.These contain pyragallols or any other ring structures and also have relationship with mitochondrial cytoshrome proteins. in shade loving plants these could be able to convert in other compounds of high therapeutic value. In horizontal evolution plant pigments or dyes, its genes are basically related to phytochemical index mainly stomatal and respiratory index that is equivalent to yield per hectare in agriculture crop. 

  • Arshad Yaseen added an answer:
    Centaurium erythraea - threatened or endangered species in your country? Field cultivation?
    Can someone provide me (official) information on vulnerability status of Centaurium erythraea Rafn in your country? Is it protected by law?
    Additionally, is there some data about field cultivation of this species. I couldn't find it on the internet.
    Arshad Yaseen · Salahaddin University - Erbil

    In my country 'Kurdistan' Centaurium erythraea is quite common you can easily find them in nature mainly in low temperature zones (places close to mountains and some valley areas) however they haven't been protected by law. In spring time you can see a wide area with a pink flower which is this plant. Unfortunately, there isn't any study on it so it is hard to find data in here.  all the best

  • Richard Lasker added an answer:
    Does anyone know a method to quantify nitrogen release from surface applied controlled release urea in field experiment?

    I intend to measure N release rate from broadcast applied controlled release fertilizers. I expect to explain other plant and soil variables according to different release rates. All methods I could find are based in fertilizers incorporation or small pots laboratory incubation. I would like to do that directly in the field. Has someone seen or done a paper with such evaluation?

    Richard Lasker · Brabant Research, Inc.

    leachate analyses combined with headspace GC.

  • Katheem Kiyasudeen added an answer:
    What are the conventional quality parameters for the cattle manure?

    Conventional quality parameters that are usually used in expressing the quality of the solid manure. Any advanced techniques available? What are the conventional categories which are taken into consideration and the reasons behind it? What are the optimum range of results that can be interpreted as valuable? Could you put up your suggestions and experiences in answers as well as with the references?

    Katheem Kiyasudeen · Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malayisa

    Thank you. Really helpful.

  • Joginder Singh added an answer:
    Which methods are appropriate for land suitability analysis for agriculture in hilly zones and why?

    land managment

    Joginder Singh · Punjab Agricultural University

    Land suitability of any area including hilly tracts depends upon the texture and structure of soil, fertility status, topography, water availability and soil and water conservation possibilities through terrace, contouring etc, possibility of human and mechanical power use, suitability of land for crop and livestock enterprises etc.

  • Paul Richard Watson added an answer:
    Can one character be non significant in pooled analysis?
    Can anyone tell me if one character of a crop is showing significant (at both 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance) each of two consecutive years? But if we do pooled analysis the same character showing non significant? What does it mean? Why it is not showing significant in pooled analysis?
    Paul Richard Watson · Tiaosan Research and Consulting

    What kind of analytical approach are you taking?   YIs the trait difference found through ANOVA or are you using a regression approach? 

    If ANOVA, what model are you using (Mixed, GLM, other?).  If you are using a Mixed Model, are you considering Year as a Fixed or Random effect. 

    Do you have multiple sites per year?

  • Jason Breitmeyer added an answer:
    Does anyone have a idea for VOC Identification from agriculture products using wireless sensors?

    I am working WSN in Agriculture. VOCs chemical identification from agriculture products using WSN and how can we develop sensor for this and how can we deploy it? Which is available in available in market please suggest.

    Jason Breitmeyer · Lincoln University New Zealand

    Please find attached a brochure for a product called the Cyranose 320 that may be suitable to your needs.

    All the best!

    Jason :)

  • chems-eddine Benkhelil added an answer:
    What could be the significance of bringing together different enterprise GIS or enterprises?

     For example, bringing together or integrating Agriculture, Electric, Telecommunication, Postal, Police, Railways, Transport  and Airways enterprise GISs on a whole in a single UI or utility and its impact and effectiveness in modern India. Is it really required? 

    chems-eddine Benkhelil · École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique

    In other words yes !

  • Sainath Aher added an answer:
    What are the best techniques for Image processing in agriculture?

    What are best suitable techniques in image processing to identify the real time change in the region of farm and what are the best suitable techniques to identify the real time change in the leaf of a plant to identify the plant diseases?

  • Kuldeep Tiwari added an answer:
    What would be useful agricultural tools for GIS desktop application?

    I am developing an open source GIS desktop application for agricultural purposes, I want some ideas about useful tools that can serve the end users. For example NDVI tools may be useful for them to recognize vegetation status in a study area. 

    Kuldeep Tiwari · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    tool for identifying growth stage of crop with time series datasat

  • chems-eddine Benkhelil added an answer:
    What the term "Galton's Fallacy" really means?

    Does "Galton's Fallacy" refer just the regression towards mean?  In context of convergence theory, do negative sign in regressing growth against initial income and a positive sign in regressing growth against terminal income refer Galton's Fallacy?

    chems-eddine Benkhelil · École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique

    A fallacy is an argument to the logical fallacy is an argument that seeks to seem harsh but in reality is not valid under the logic (and that even though his conclusion is "real ") . Unlike the fallacy is an error in reasoning , the fallacy is misleading : it is uttered with the intent to mislead the audience so , for example, to take the lead in a discussion. Often, the fallacies take the appearance of a syllogism (based on insufficient or irrelevant premises or proceeds by enthymeme , etc.). They may also rely on other psychological mechanisms eg playing with the emotions of the audience, the social ascendancy of the speaker ( argument from authority ) or cognitive biases ( such as forgetting the basic frequency ) .

  • Peter Griffiths added an answer:
    How can I accurately measure marketing efficiency of agricultural produce marketers?

    I want to know the data that I need to collect and the formular to use in other to determine whether my marketer respondents are efficiently performing expected marketing activities or otherwise

    Peter Griffiths

    Bowbrick discredited market margin analysis long ago, and it vanished from the literature for the next 20 years. Time to do it again. See

    Bowbrick, P., “Are price reporting systems of any use?”, British Food Journal. 90(2) 65-69 March/April. 1988. (This is credited with precipitating the abandonment of the first generation of Market Information Systems, leading to more useful ones

    “Some limitations of market-margin analysis”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. 4(2) 23-28. 1974. Click here

    “Retail mark-ups and distributive margins - a critical analysis of Professor Allen’s theory”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. 4(2) 1-23. 1973. Click Here
    Bowbrick, P., “Marketing Board inefficiency and farmers’ incomes”, Conference on African Marketing Boards. African Studies Centre, Leiden, Netherlands. 1983.
    Bowbrick, P., “Distributive margins - a rejoinder”, Oxford Agrarian Studies. 6 168-170. 1977.
    Bowbrick, P., “Price control and market margins for fruit and vegetables”, Acta Horticulturae. 55. 1976.
    Bowbrick, P., “Determining distributive margins”, Oxford Agrarian Studies. 5 124-129. 1976.
    Bowbrick, P., “Market-margin investigations and price control of fruit and vegetables”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology.

    The problems have not miraculously vanished.

  • Golam Kibria added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on the suitability of river water for agriculture?

    How I can identify the suitability of river water for agriculture exception SAR? Can anyone suggest me other method to identify suitability of river water for agriculture?

    Golam Kibria · RMIT University

    In Australia, river water to be supplied or to be used for irrigation, agriculture, livestock, aquaculture are monitored to assess the quality. These include for example, salinity/EC, pesticides, herbicides, trace metals and sometimes microbial pathogens, dissolved oxygen. There’s is a national water quality guideline for freshwater and marine water quality (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000) which provide trigger values for a range of water quality parameters to assess the suitability of river water for agriculture (chapter 4 focused on water quality for irrigation) (see the below reference)


    Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality (2000).

  • Yuri Yegorov added an answer:
    What natural factors can influence prices of farm lands?

    How can we differentiate between natural factors and other economic factors that determine the price of lands? there are a plenty of factors that determine land price not in cities. it seems difficult to distinguish them or measure the effects of variables. I want to know some methodologies to find and measure these natural factors without including human factors such as distance to facilities or urban areas.

    Yuri Yegorov · University of Vienna

    All this is correct: soil, water access, climate. But there is also an interaction with urban land price wen farm is on the border. Many of those land parcels have higher value than maximal possible sun of future agricultural revenue simply because of opportunity to sell this land for construction in future. New infrastructure projects can also upgrade the value of land because of closer access to markets.

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