• Edward Harwood added an answer:
    How can a higher plant leaf brix be achieved in the most agricultural arable lands?

    Perhaps any degree above a minimal of 12?

    Edward Harwood

    Try harvesting earlier and using only those plants with first true leaves

  • Philip Williams added an answer:
    Is there any source of getting Chinese organic agriculture practices information?

    I'm interested about the Chinese organic agriculture: total land ares, production, labels, certification etc. What are , in China,  the organisms for inspection, certifications and accreditation? 

    Philip Williams

    The leaders of China's Communist Party who have always controlled everything of major importance in the PRC since 1949 are supplied with organically grown food from farms that specifically supply these ruling party leaders with organic food at taxpayer expense. In contrast, as in most other countries ordinary citizens must either pay a premium for organically grown food or else grow it themselves. PRC food safety regulations are still lagging far behind those of Hong Kong and other neighboring territories with more transparent and accountable governance and more professional and less censored media outlets. That is why PRC residents have often traveled to Hong Kong to buy large supplies of baby formula; PRC baby formula tainted with malamine has severely sickened hundreds of PRC babies who drank it, and some babies even died from the tainted baby formula. 

  • Francisco Javier Meléndez Hernández added an answer:
    Which model is most suitable for calculating the degree of industrialization?

    I'm doing a research on the application of machinery in area of agriculture in Sandzak from 1918 - 2008 and why I need advice on what is the best way to express the degree of industrialization

    Francisco Javier Meléndez Hernández

    Perhaps you could use Chenery and Taylor's Development Patterns among Countries abd over Time, (RES, Nov.,1968) in which they show how  the size of an economy determines the path and the type of industrialization; as well as another study by Leamer, Maul, Rodríguez and Schott; Does Natural Resource Abundance Increase Latin American Income Inequality?; (JDE, 1999) for a description of the path and degree of industrialization based on different resource endowments.

  • Selvaraju Sivamani added an answer:
    How can I do ethanol determination by chemical methods?

    I work on ethanol production from agricultural wastes. I need to determine the content of ethanol production in media content more carbohydrates by chemical method I not use Gas chromotgrphy  method or GC

    Selvaraju Sivamani

    Lucas test is used to identify/estimate secondary and tertiary alcohols. But, the question is about ethanol, which is a primary alcohol. Lucas test gives negative result for primary alcohols. Hence, Lucas test cannot be used for estimation of ethanol.

  • Ram Awadh Ram added an answer:
    Is there any source of getting Indian agriculture practices information?

    We know that there are regional variation in seasons onset and termination, crop pattern, requirement of water supply throughout the country. Where can we get information about all these?

    Ram Awadh Ram

    An Agricultural Testament – written by Sir Albert Howard may be the source for traditional Indian farming practices.

  • Marcelo Negri Soares added an answer:
    Capital and labor intensive in agriculture
    What is the total factor productivity in agriculture commodity?
    Marcelo Negri Soares

    Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices necessarily bring changes in demands on resources. This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive.

  • Mayank Pandey added an answer:
    How can we efficiently utilize the fly ash in agriculture?
    Fly ash contains heavy metals. Studies reported the use of fly ash in agriculture but no study reveals how much fly ash can be used as a fertilizer in the next crop season. How can one estimate the residual fly as in soil? If we use fly ash in one crop season, is it not necessary that all the fly ash can be used up? If we use the same concentration of fly ash in the next cropping season the concentration of fly ash may be increased and that may negatively affect the crop growth and germination.

    Please comment on this and clear my query. Thanks.
    Mayank Pandey

    Fly ash can be added to the mineral deficient soils in agriculture fields as nutrient supplement. But before the application, metals quanitification (characterization) is must as to assess the concentration of metals in the ash. Long term treatment (exposure) may cause bioaccumulation.   

  • Mustapha yusif ahmad added an answer:
    What governs the speed of food production?
    Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?
    Mustapha yusif ahmad

    Hi, among the reasons that govern food production with reference to Africa is policy making, in Africa most countries doesn't have have a good policy (e.g subsidy and ready made market). this is largely not because we Africans are not wise enough to make good decisions, but the leaders are not ready to do so. another reason is that African is made to be the market place for the commodities of the developed world such as USA, England etc. so if Africa is to produce to its demands, then there will be no market for them.

  • Valberto Feitosa added an answer:
    What are the possible areas for application of Fractal dimension in agricultural engineering?

    I would like to know the possibilities of application of fractal dimension in agriculture or agricultural engineering.

    Some examples are like spray pattern, shape of soil grain, cracking pattern of soil etc. 

    Valberto Feitosa

    Dear friend I am still in the first year of doctorate in agricultural engineering, still do not have this knowledge, however'll talk to my teachers about it. The friend could send me or indicate some work on what do you say?

  • Shanker Lal Shrivastava added an answer:
    What is the best air distribution system for a cold storage chamber (for horticultural produce)?
    Let us consider a chamber with L x B x H of 18 m x 16 m x 4 m storing apples. What type of air distribution system (including locations of air inlet and outlet) should be used?
    Shanker Lal Shrivastava

    Thanks Soran.

  • Peyman Falsafi added an answer:
    How do you describe the current status (and future) of agricultural extension system in your country?
    There are many different arrangements for delivery of agricultural extension services currently in place in different countries (i.e., public, private, contract, pluralistic extension system ). At first, please share how you evaluate the effectiveness of the system in the 21st century, generally speaking. I am curious to know also how do you see the trend towards the governance of the system. Is it towards private type delivery and funding systems? How do you see the future of the system in your country?
    Peyman Falsafi

    Dear Mr. Hashemi


    I suggest you have a look to me and Dr. Shahpasand's  country report in the recent Philippines workshop.


    Peyman Falsafi

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization is the main responsible authorized organizations in creation, storage, capturing, diffusion and utilization of knowledge and information in national agricultural innovation system in Iran. There is an extension coordination division in each provincial agriculture organization. These divisions are affiliated to 1213 Agricultural Services Center. The agricultural services centers as the public extension centers with accompanying of 2300 technical and advisory services companies from the private sector are providing innovations and extension services to small and commercial farmers and cover about 4 million farmers all over the country. We can add to this innovation spreading network the Farmers’ Organizations including 1200 producing cooperatives and more than 6000 rural and agricultural cooperatives in district level in the country. Currently, agricultural extension system in Iran is experiencing a radical change to make extension system more effective in helping farmers to be more productive, profitable and sustainable. Basic principles for reinventing agricultural extension are: 1) Focusing on small farmers and enhancing the access to public and private services in agriculture; 2) Starting from grass root level and people/farmer's needs/issues and their demands; 3) Learning from past experiences and develop our own methodology and model of extension; 4) Benefiting from emerging paradigm, latest theories and experiences to inform our collective action. Iranian agricultural extension system has been formulated 8 master strategies to reinforce the changes in the delivery extension services: 1) Restructuring the extension system; 2) Renovation of all extension sites for optimized exploitation and management of facilities and capacities; 3) Human resource development through promotion of training scales and employment of skilled staff at institutional levels; 4) Reorganization of extension media aiming at reconsideration in their context and connection to the clientele; 5) Networking agricultural knowledge and information system to enjoy information and communication technology and further dissemination in the sector; 6) Restructuring and developing of production cooperatives to identify the bottlenecks and formulate new policies for improvement; 7) Studying and assessing farming systems to discover the ongoing status at all sub-sectors concerned; 8) Reorganizing and expansion of non-governmental institutions in agriculture sector. The most important new programs of extension services are: Integrated Participatory Crop Management (IPCM), Comprehensive Production and Extension Model Sites (CPEM) and Learning Focus Sites (LFS). In all of these activities, extension administration tries to delivery innovation and empowers the small farmer in order to increase the agricultural productivity. Mostly these programs are Local community based, farmers-led and village based, capacity building activities, environmental friendly, multi- stakeholder activities, Integrated Management system, impact assessment, and innovative platform activities.
      Workshop on Innovative Extension Services to Agricultural Productivity, Manila – Philippines; 11/2014
  • Francis Macary added an answer:
    Is Agricultural extensification or Agricultural Intensification best for farmers living around the watershed areas?

    Both agricultural extensification and intensification are employed by some farmers around my study area for my research, there seems to be some variation in productivity, so which is best for them on the long run?

    Francis Macary

    Dear Olaolu,

    Firstly, sorry for the delay of my answer, because I read your question some weeks ago, but I am very busy at this period to find a little time.

    I am agronomist and PhD in environmental sciences. In our team, we assess consequencxes of intensive agricultural production in some watersheds with environmental issues.

    In our team, we assess consequences of intensive agricultural production in some watersheds with environmental issues, like surface water quality to be used in drinking water process. Also our investigations concern the uses of fertilisers (nitrogen), pesticides and their contamination risk of streams and rivers at different spatial scale of watersheds.

    Now the européen and national developed policies are applied to protect groundwater and surface water because they received lot of contaminants. For instance in France, the presence of pesticides is widespread in surface water (91% of data points contain) and groundwater (55% of points) and we can do quite the same constatation in Western Europe.
    Intensive agriculture has reached its limits in crop yields and cannot move; instead they tend to decrease with increase in costs, as the economic result fall. Also very perceptible climate change increases this phenomenon and a production mode change is necessary. The policies tried to promote organic farming system, but they are poorly developed. Now in France, the Ministry of agriculture launched since December 2012 a program concerning agroecology: a concept for integrating ecosystems into agricultural systems: this is the scientific, technological and political answer for achieve an efficient agriculture that respects the environment and the social character of rural territories. But, on the African continent, you know for a long time practice of agroecology and it is in my opinion the only way forward to be considered in the context of global change.

    Best regards

  • Alec Thornton added an answer:
    Could anyone provide some examples of community gardens developed within university campus green areas by using design competences?
    I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
    Alec Thornton

    I'm finishing up a study on UA and social movements. In a questionnaire, one respondent mentioned roof gardens at the University of Sydney...their Facebook site states "All are welcome"

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer:
    Are hybrid varieties of crop plants really so problematic especially with respect to organic agriculture?

    Hybrid crop varieties are often criticized by environmental NGOs (e.g. Navdanya in India; Arche Noah in Austria) for various reasons: seed to seed propagation is problematic; hybrids have high yields and are homogenous in pehnotype but require much input (fertilizers, pesticides etc.). According to these NGOs hybrid varieties are also threatening agrobiodiversity because a few hybrid varieties outcompte a broad range of seed-to-seed varieties. My current understanding is that hybrids are good for an industrialized (organic) agriculture but that non-industrial production conditions require different varieies growing under suboptimal/low input conditions. Likely you have some good supllemental or contradicting knowledge on that issue.

    Yuan-Yeu Yau


    The concept of 'hybrids' (such as interspecific hybrids) you mentioned is a little bit different from that of the 'hybrids' bred for hybrid seed production. For hybrid seed production, two inbred lines (high homozygosity) are developed and used for crossing to create F1 hybrids. This also triggers 'hybrid vigor or heterosis' in the F1 hybrid.

  • Syed Umar Hayat Shah added an answer:
    What are the economic and environmental costs of trees when they can also have a negative impact on human health?

    What are the economic and environmental costs of trees when they can also have a negative impact on human health? (e.g a tree which creates pollen)

    Secondly, what is the cost of the removal of these kinds of trees? 

    Syed Umar Hayat Shah

    thanks Sir ... Sharom ...

  • Pedram Shoa added an answer:
    In hydroponics: What is the best way to monitor varying nutrient levels in plants in "real time"?

    I have read in Howard Resh's Hydroponic Food Production that ideally the researcher would "take tissue analyses of the plant once a week, and in conjunction with these tests, nutrient solution analyses. The level of each essential element in the plant tissue and nutrient solution must be determined and correlated so that if needed, adjustments can be made in the nutrient solution."

    He mentioned that this method is not economically feasible for most commercial growers. My question is, today, is this method of taking tissue analyses the best way to truly optimize plant health in a hydroponics system, and has anyone been using this method and can comment on it?

    Pedram Shoa

    SPAD and leaf sample methods stated above are very good but they could not provide real time measurement. you should try non destructive and non contact methods, which could provide real time data acquisitions. do a research on non destructive topics such as optical reflectance or florescence methods. i think you can find beautiful approaches.

  • Suneel K KUMAR Goyal added an answer:
    Is there any recent data available indicating agricultural losses due to weeds?

    There are lots of weeds may be perennial or annual occur in tropical parts of India.

    Cyperus rotundus is one of them causing huge economical loss to Indian agriculture.

    Suneel K KUMAR Goyal

    Dear Sanjeet, Today, there are many website available, you should visit and get solution of your question. SEDA, FAO, USAD, ICAR and many more.

  • Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi added an answer:
    How does climate change-N deposition affect agriculture crops? I couldn't find relative studies. Thanks!

    Researchers in N deposition, Agriculture and Global climate change 

    Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi

    Hello, hope this paper can be useful

  • Peyman Falsafi added an answer:
    Does someone have information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension?

    I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.

    Peyman Falsafi

    Dear Dr. Hosseini

    I have some experiences in this case . We can make an appointment for the next week and see each other . I also refer you to  my and Dr. Shahpasand country paper which has presented in one of the recent APO's workshops in The Philippines. I have attached it to your application. 

  • Hojat Abasi added an answer:
    Do you know of herbs being capable of removing chemical and somehow microbial pollutants?
    Upcoming is the age of water battles. Most of water purifying equipment uses chemicals, and some physical barriers to purify water but I think by using plants maybe that be possible to get more healthy and natural friendly way to reach usable water especially in the lands with soil pollution too. I am looking to know if there is any kind of these herbs and plants or anybody has information about it.
    Hojat Abasi

    hi hawa.

    i think a vetiver grass(Chrysopogon zizanioides) is the best case. you can search it in  the web and get  article

    good luck

  • Konstantin Yu Kulichikhin added an answer:
    Could you help me to find the newest researches in Waterlogging Stress?

    I need to find the newest researches in the global for waterlogging stress in different plants?

    If it is possible please tell me or suggest the results after 2013 years and specially in Sesame cultivars.

    Best Regards

    Konstantin Yu Kulichikhin

    A Special Issue of Plant Cell and Environment "Flooding and Anaerobiosis" (volume 37, issue 10) has been published in October 2014. You can find there the latest achievements in this field.  The link is



  • Brian Braginton-Smith added an answer:
    What is the future of agricultural production in the context of greenhouse gases?
    Food production (agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture produce) is essential to feed current population (7.1 billion) and future rise of population (predicted to be 8.3-10.9 billion by 2050). Agriculture is important for food security since it provides food for the people and is the primary source of livelihoods in particular in Asia and Africa. There are projections that greenhouse gases (GHGs) will cause significant impact on future food production. It is also known that agriculture is responsible for about 22-25% GHG emissions. What is the future of poor farmers in food insecure regions in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-Asia who do not understand much about GHGs? Would it be possible to balance between food production and reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture?
    Brian Braginton-Smith

    Tamara,  I was uninformed about the unique technology you have described.  Sounds interesting.  Regarding the question of the relevance to the original discussion, I believe that the evolving sustainable agricultural paradigm will include urban facets.  In upper latitudes a lack of sunlight and cold temperatures prohibit a robust growing period for much of the year.  Artificial illumination and climate control will most assuredly break this barrier to more local food production as integrated distributed utility technology provides the platform for cost effective alternative resource opportunities.   Yes, we will in fact be tuning the interior climate to create ideal growing conditions.  The most important thing for contemporary scientists to avoid is merely creating a reflection of the existing paradigm.   Our future will depend upon vision, innovation and collaboration.

  • Carina Moeller added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest literature on raised-field agriculture in Europe?

    Raised-field agriculture or raised field cultivation systems are met in very few places in Greece but so far no one has seriously searched this subject (from all points if view). I know that there is literature for several South American sites but I haven't been able so far to discover literature for Europe. I am not also sure if this system can be described also as "ridge-and-swale" agriculture or field systems?

    Carina Moeller

    The full-text is available on my reserach gate profile. But there are many more publications from the CIMMYT group.

  • Ana M. Fonseca added an answer:
    Which satellite images is good to assess changes from agriculture to residential?

    See above

    Ana M. Fonseca

    Optical Images with visible and infrared bands, and depending of the resolution you need, you can have Landsat (for low resolution - 30/15m) SPOT, MODIS/Terra, .. (for medium resolution) or IKONOS, QuickBird, Worlview (for very high resolution - 0,5 m)

  • Barbara Sawicka added an answer:
    What are the main indicators of a sustainable supply chain network in agriculture?

    There are some components come together to produce and distribute a certain crop. Which one of them are considered significant?

  • James R Knaub added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me some applications of simple random sampling with replacement in real life scenarios?

    To be more specific in agriculture where this design is used? 

    James R Knaub

    Hi Jane -

    I'm afraid you aren't really going to see simple random sampling with replacement in a real life scenario in just about any field, including agriculture. First, a simple random sample is only going to cover a relatively narrow category before you should stratify. Second, it is inefficient to select the same respondent multiple times, so 'with replacement' is not generally used either. And in agriculture, there is a history of some rather complex designs.

    Sorry, but if it is real life that you want, it won't be simple random sampling with replacement. I cannot say that that has never been used in some very narrow application somewhere, and I might have suggested it for a very narrow problem for a small part of an electric power survey once, that I don't think we used, but it just generally is not practical.
    If you are interested in designs, a relatively available, and well-written classic would be Cochran, W.G.(1977), Sampling Techniques, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons.

    Cheers - Jim

  • Naveen Garg added an answer:
    Why do red chilli fruits split/crack?

    This year I have many chillies that spllitted in my garden. I tried to find causes of it, but not seen. This may be a researchable issue for agricultural experts working in vegetable crops or spice crops. Please let me know if you have any answer to this problem.

    Naveen Garg

    Dear Dr Gyan, it is important to mention that how many varieties had you grown, was there cracking in all the varieties and at which maturity stage cracking appeared 

  • Kerstin Jantke added an answer:
    Does anyone have information about the costs of wetland restoration, esp. in Europe?

    Any (ideally somehow published) data on the costs of conversion of agricultural (or other) land to wetlands such as peatlands, alluvial or swamp forests, wet grassland or marshes would be helpful. I am especially interested in European examples. Thanks a lot!

    Kerstin Jantke

    Thanks a lot for your great answers!

  • Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri added an answer:
    Is there a clear distinction of Urban Agriculture from the conventional agriculture?

    What are the basic features for an agricultural scheme to be called as Urban Agriculture?

    Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri

    There is no concept like like urban agriculture. Conventional agriculture refers to traditional practices or age old practices that still prevails. It is away  from mainly mechanization /computation etc advanced tools. Urban agriculture is characterized by high input intensive agriculture mainly growing vegetables etc short duration  crops. It is influence of peri-urban/ city/urban output on agriculture practices.

  • José Alexandre Agiova da Costa added an answer:
    Why is maize often used as a test crop in soil fertility experiment evaluation?
    What other crops can be used instead of maize?
    José Alexandre Agiova da Costa

    Corn is perhaps the most studied crop in the physiologic point of view, then the inter - relationship between physiological responses and soil fertility can be easily compared with others trials. Corn and soybean theme have broad economic value and are the basis of animal nutrition around the world.

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