• Noa Lincoln added an answer:
    What governs the speed of food production?
    Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?
    Noa Lincoln · University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Nutrient limitations pay a crucial role in capping the productive capacity of any ecosystem. When you say "resource rich" for Africa, I assume you are referring to precious metals and minerals, because agriculturally African soils are typically very old and depleted. I think traditionally, particularly before the green revolution, the availability of water and nutrients explained vast majority of the agricultural productive potential around the world.
  • Asmat Ali added an answer:
    Are you worried because of human infertility?
    Modern human society uses many risky chemical compounds in everyday life and production. Many of them have serious side-effects on environment and human health. Among the synthetic chemicals used in industry and agriculture there are some influencing human and animal fertility. These are the so called endocrine disruptors. One of them is a weed killer (herbicide), the atrazine of which was proven to be able to transform male frogs into females.

    Unfortunately, there is a tendency that human fertility at population level decreases continually.

    Here you can find some publications on this subject:

    What is your opinion about this issue which may impact the life of new generations and the future of many living beings?
    Asmat Ali · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University
    It is really genius question as I did not see similar to this. Of course, every one should be worried but don't you think, can we meet food needs of the rapidly growing population.
  • Asmat Ali added an answer:
    What do you think on the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture and economy?
    Dear All,

    Here you can see the Standard & Poor's brief assessment on the economic consequences of climate change

    They prepared two interesting pictures on vulnerability of countries and that of prosperity:
    Asmat Ali · PMAS - Arid Agriculture University
    Sure, both will decline. However, interesting would be to identify and locate such region where it would have +ve impact.
  • Stephen Warren added an answer:
    Was agriculture a benign or malign invention?
    The conventional view is that the discovery of agriculture about 7000 years ago in N.Europe (as the last ice age came to an end) by concentrating the production of food in one place released man for other activities. It catalyzed the development of trading which led to the development of written records and mathematics.
    On the other hand Bryan Sykes, in "Adam's Curse" (A book which charts the decline of the Y chromosome and forecasts its eventual demise [recent studies have refuted this] and has had mixed, and sometimes contradictory, reviews in Amazon) presents some interesting (I think) arguments that agriculture has had some more malign influences.
    1) Nutritional status declined as the diet was then dominated by carbohydrates
    2) More sedentary lifestyles led to decline in physical condition
    3) Whereas the hunter gatherer lifestyle was compatible only with monogamy, a man could plant enough grain to support two or more families. Land therefore acquired value and strong, ruthless individuals could buy, extort or simply take land from weaker individuals. Ownership of land therefore became linked to wealth, power and fecundity. Women married to such men would have more children and women who were attracted by power increased as a proportion of the female population. Sexual selection therefore led to men who were increasingly aggressive and power seeking and women who tended to be attracted to such men (I realize that this is an over-simplification and exaggeration but it contains an idea which, if valid, accounts for the nature of the alpha-male and why they are nearly always promiscuous. Of course all men are not like this; some remain with a hunter-gatherer personality and others have elements of both. Women likewise, mutatis mutandis. It also accounts for the absence of drive for success in many women but not, interestingly, for male attitudes towards women).
    From this we can break down the big question into smaller subsets:
    a) Was this form of agriculture always inevitable or were there alternatives (at least theoretically)?
    b) If there were alternatives what were/are they and what are their benefits and disadvantages?
    c) Is Sykes right in his analysis and conclusions?
    d) If not, why not?
    e) Are there any reasons to believe that any of the alternative societies that might have evolved would have been an improvement on the one in which we now find ourselves?
    Stephen Warren · Marlow
    I am not seeking something or someone to blame for obesity and overpopulation but only for insights into the influence (if any) of different factors. I suspect it's mostly down to genetics and the speed with which civilisation evolved, overtaking our capacity to adapt to a change in diet at the same time as our life expectancy has doubled.
  • Jamshaid Ahmad added an answer:
    I am working on Lucerne/ Alfalfa crop. Can anyone tell me about the best row spacing and seed rate for seed yild of alfalfa?
    Mostly farmers in Pakistan take seed after 2-3 forage cuts. When will we leave crop for seed yield?
    Jamshaid Ahmad · University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
    Dear Godinet
    you are right. I have same experience. weather conditions of Morocco and pakistan is similar where Alfalfa grown. Hopefully in future we will exchange working experience on alfalfa and different forage crop
  • Najim M.M.M. added an answer:
    With 25x25cm and 20x15 cm spacing rice, where we will find maximum ET?
    SRI (25x25cm) and conventional planting (20x15cm) with same level of irrigation (Ex:Flooding), where will be maximum ET throught out crop cycle?
    Najim M.M.M. · University of Kelaniya
    I also agree with others. Sthe SRI planting will have higer ET at the beginning compared to the conventional planting due to higher evaporation. If the variety used in the SRI case will have more tillering and covering the ground quickly, the transpiration part could be more that the evaporation.
  • Jochen Wilhelm added an answer:
    Can one character be non significant in pooled analysis?
    Can anyone tell me if one character of a crop is showing significant (at both 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance) each of two consecutive years? But if we do pooled analysis the same character showing non significant? What does it mean? Why it is not showing significant in pooled analysis?
    Jochen Wilhelm · Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
    I am guessing: the "year" seems to be a relevant predictor that is not appropriately considered in the pooled analysis.
  • Ahmed Mansour Alzohairy added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest magazines?
    I would like to publish work from the influence of fertilization on the technological parameters (quality) of grain and flour Triticum aestivum and Triticum spelta. Where are the opportunities (the journal of the Impact Factor) for the adoption of such work?
    Ahmed Mansour Alzohairy · Zagazig University
    You welcome. Good luck
  • Peter Trutmann added an answer:
    Can someone inform me on what information is available on multiple pathogen interactions in genetically diverse agricultural systems?
    I've been away from the field of pathology and crop biodiversity for a few years and am curious about advances in understanding of host-pathogen interactions in genetically diverse cropping systems, especially in crops with great intra -specific diversity. Thanks in advance.
    Peter Trutmann · Global Mountain Action
    Thanks Didier, that's very helpful!
  • Prakash Mallappa Munnoli added an answer:
    What share of the population would be required for agriculture if we shifted to 100% organic?
    Agriculture without using pest-/herbicides and fertilizers (organic) is said to be more labour intensive. So if we would feed the world with purely organic, we likely needed a bigger share of the population involved in cultivation; assuming you consider the world to be fed organic as possible. Is there any study investigating this effect?
    Prakash Mallappa Munnoli · S D M College of Engineering and Technology
    100 % is ideal
    but the shift should be gradual
    A tough task for rural development people to handle the mind set of people with chemical fertlizers
  • Prakash Mallappa Munnoli added an answer:
    Do you think organic agriculture alone will sustain the food demand of growing population?
    We have seen that high input agriculture systems have improved the agricultural productivity of land, but at the same time drastically hinder the natural health of soil. Now many ecologists and agricultural scientists suggest adopting the organic form of agriculture. Do you think organic agriculture alone will sustain the food demand of growing population?
    Prakash Mallappa Munnoli · S D M College of Engineering and Technology
    Organic agriculture (OA) or Sustainable agriculture will enhance the quality of the food products; OA alone will not be able to sustain the food demand of population.
    it is the integrated approach of rural areas and community development in developing countries, which includes water.fodder.pasture land development /hill management society/aquaculture/micro finance/marketing/ animal husbandry and more taken together will bring sustainable development
  • Ng`wigulu Charles added an answer:
    How can I create a map for arable lands?
    My district contains water towers (land with elevation above 1400m, a.s.l) and arable lands suitable for crop production (land of 1000 to 1400m a.s.l). Arable lands have easily erodible volcanic soils; therefore arable lands with steep slopes (30-60%) require terraces to be farmed and moderately steep slopes (15-30%) require contour farming. Given the district area DEM and landsat satellite image: (a) I want to create a map that shows Arumeru Rivers, water sheds and water sources.
    Ng`wigulu Charles · The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology
    Thanks shashikant for your input.
  • Kolawole Ogundari added an answer:
    Can anyone answer a question relating to Engel's law and economic growth?
    Increase in income per capita over time associated with welfare gains of economic growth is believed to cause an economy to shift its dietary pattern towards high value agricultural commodities from staple crops. But, even when growth in sluggish, along with exploding population, if the same shift is obvious, as observed Indian case in 1950s and early 1960s, what could be the probable causes?
    Kolawole Ogundari · Kyushu University
    I subscribe to the explanation given by Krishnaveni as this is the fundamental definition of Engel's law. So you need to be very careful what you are asking because linking Engel's law to economic growth is not a straight forward answer. I guess what you referred to as economic growth is per capita income. If this is the case, then we could carefully construct response to your question but based on macro perspective. In this regards, I will say, when per capita income increases, society's tend to shift away from the consumption of food rich in calories but with food rich in protein while devoting less money on food in general and in the process increase the consumption of non-food items. Even in the time of slow down in growth that does not mean per capita income is not increasing, it increase but not as high as previous period, the society could still continue to devote less on food while bulk of the money on food is spent on food rich in protein and vitamins etc compared to food rich in calories. Based on this, increase in per capita income give rise to less share of the income allocated to food as dietary pattern shift towards food rich in protein and vitamins. The summary is that in the course of Engel law two things happen: First, income allocated to food decrease relative to increase in income and second, households tend to allocate most of the money for food on food rich in protein and vitamins.
  • Golam Kibria added an answer:
    Should commercial trial on GM crops be continued?
    We do not know exactly the effects of GM crops on human being. Commercial trial may contaminate the natural organic species. Under these circumstances is it advisable to make such experiments?
    Golam Kibria · RMIT University
    The question carries a yes or no answer. It is always preferable to have a pilot trial before embarking on commercial trial. There must be very strict regulations and safety evaluations for example even on any pilot trial. The concerned authorities/regulators must satisfy that any risks posed from GM crops can be managed to protect the health and safety of people and the environment. Since GMW food crops are relatively new, regulators take a cautious approach when assessing their safety for human consumption.
  • Shanker Lal Shrivastava asked a question:
    What is the best air distribution system for a cold storage chamber (for horticultural produce)?
    Let us consider a chamber with L x B x H of 18 m x 16 m x 4 m storing apples. What type of air distribution system (including locations of air inlet and outlet) should be used?
  • Jeffrey Darryl Hoffmann added an answer:
    Has anyone done any research on knowledge sharing behavior and employed self-efficacy as mediator in agriculture context?
    I am currently looking for articles regarding knowledge sharing behavior among farmers with the mediator role of self efficacy. Has anyone stumble upon the related articles or similar study on this area? Need more information on this issue.
    Jeffrey Darryl Hoffmann · Charles Sturt University
    I am not clear what you mean by the term mediator role of self efficacy. Can you expand or explain please?
  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    How to model adoption of Agricultural Technologies?
    There has been a lot that has been done on Adoption of Agricultural technologies using Tobit and now the double hurdle models. Any ideas how I can model (ex-ante) the probability of adopting a particular and its impact on poverty reduction?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,
    Model adoption of Agricultural Technologies for poverty alleviation.... depends on the impact the model upon implementation would affect in positive the following
    1. Productivity
    2. Yield
    3. Quality of Produce
    4. Better realization on the Cost & Capital deployed
    5. Size of Population benefited.
    6. Peripheral activity development... etc...

    However there is an Opportunity Cost associated with the Technology being implemented... namely
    1. Investment
    2. Lead time to deliver returns
    3. Sustenance Support

    On the current technologies impacting agriculture... Please refer...
  • Gaetano Tirrò asked a question:
    Where can I find papers on the creation of dust during the mechanical pruning?
    I'm working on the dust in agriculture and the possible risks for the workers. Right now, I'm focusing on the mechanical pruning and the dust creation. I have not found any interesting papers or articles. Can somebody help me?
  • Saurabh Singh added an answer:
    What is the possibility of having greenhouse farming in Ireland?
    Thanet farm in UK is the good example of self sufficiency in terms of crop production
    Saurabh Singh · Dublin Business School
    But there are no such large scale farming project adopted here as it is massively needed to bridge the gap export and import and make this self sufficient.
    Is there a possibility of having such big farm ??
  • Dennis Edem added an answer:
    How can be the amount of irrigation water supplied to a paddy field during a season be quantified?
    I am working on nutrient budgeting in soil and my research trial consists of a total number of 48 plots. How can I quantify the total amount of irrigation water entering each plot during the season? Kindly help and also send the relevant literature.
    Dennis Edem · University of Uyo
    I appreciate the contributions of all. But it is important to know the water management allow deficit of the field. secondly, the volume of water required by the field depend so much on the delivery efficiency of irrigation device, putting the distance from the water source into consideration.
  • Prudence Lugendo asked a question:
    I am not clear with the methodology - any thoughts?
    First did you use Cobb - Douglas or its generalized form which is translog production function?
    Second how did you measure the decreasing return to scale with frontier model
  • Suresh chandra Babu added an answer:
    Which factors could contribute to changes in land use and cropping pattern in a country ?
    Which macroeconomic variables could/would best explain the changes in land use and cropping pattern in agriculture? Factors like nearness to market, access to credit, family income are microeconomic variables that could be obtained by survey. If instead, one wishes to model the whole economy, which factors could be included?
    Suresh chandra Babu · International Food Policy Research Institute
    I have not looked at NSS data recently. it may have the variables you are looking for. but the labor data is also not that highly dis aggregated. this is a problem in most data sets.
  • Pavel V. Komarov added an answer:
    How to prepare hydrogel with simple technique and from simple salts?
    Hydro-gels are super water absorption capability so beneficial for agro activities.
  • Pedro Correia added an answer:
    What is the use or application of Phyton, Pearl language, relevant to Agriculture or plant science study?
    Programming language usage in plant biology?
    Pedro Correia · Technical University of Lisbon
    Never worked with Pearl, but I use Python all the time for geosciences. I've actually done some work in precision agriculture using geostatistics.

    From the previous answers I take it that this is probably not your intended field, but if by any chance you'll want to study crop scattering over large fields or exploring spatial behaviour for plant growing you should consider the following tools:

    Scipy (python library) has a few interpolation methods (deterministic):

    Also there is a geostatistics library called HPGL:

    For visualization purposes I use for 2D plots (matplotlib):

    And for 3D (mayavi):
    (VTK based, that also exists in Python: )

    I've used all of the above and those libraries are quite functional (altougth with different learning curves and some have some minor bugs).

    Also some software use Python as scripting language:
    a) SGeMS (free and open-source):
    b) ArcGIS (commercial)
    c) QGIS (free and open-source):

    Best of luck!
  • Salman Ahmed added an answer:
    Have you had similar experience? I did an experiment with Bhringraj. Like it can grow back human hair, it can also revive a dead plant. It rejuvenated one of my potted leafless vine i.e. a climber.
    Salman Ahmed · University of Karachi
    Dear Nidhi,
    I think for the above mentioned purpose (grow back human hairs) you
    *have to search ethnomedicinal information for the plants using against baldness
    *have to meet with the traditional experts of Ayurveda in your locality and may ask questions to find out more and more for the natural treatment of baldness.
    *You have Hamdard University in India, if you have any link about the said field. You can use this link
    * There are a number of books entitled as Indian Medicinal Plants. You can search your query in these books.
    These are some of suggestion for you. I you have any more question please feel free to ask.
    If you get what you want PLEASE UPVOTE MY ANSWER.

  • Golam Kibria added an answer:
    Will food contamination be enhanced due to climate change?
    Food (Agriculture and fisheries and aquaculture produce) is the lifeblood of every country as it contributes to national food security, national social stability and environmental protection. Climate change is projected to cause a rise in global air temperature, sea surface temperature, atmospheric CO2, sea-level and an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events (storms, cyclones, floods, droughts, heat waves and bush fires). Whether warming will enhance bioaccumulation of contaminants (such as uptake of toxicants) in food? The food chain (water-soil-plant-human) pathway is recognised as one of the major pathways for human exposure to contaminants. The warmer climates are known to be favourable for the proliferation of insect pests and microbial pathogens. There are reports that there will be proliferation of algal blooms in aquatic environment (freshwater and marine) which produce toxins. Climate change (intense rainfall, flooding) will increase runoff of contaminants into waterways. Some of these contaminants (e.g. pesticide, trace metals, dioxins) are very harmful (i.e. carcinogenic) and many of them have properties of bioaccumulation (accumulate in a living organism). Where there will be water scarcity due to droughts, people will be forced to use contaminated water for irrigating food crops or growing fish.

    Question: Whether contamination in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture products will be enhanced due to climate change?
    Golam Kibria · RMIT University
    Thank you Prof. Fernando. Yes predictions for another 1-3 billion population rise by 2050. Similarly, there would be proliferation of insect pests, parasites and pathogens in a changing climate that would require more chemicals to be applied
  • Charlene Hilarion added an answer:
    Is there any established castor fruit maturity index for postharvest handling recommendation?
    I'm doing a research on castor maturity stages and I need to know if there is an established castor fruit maturity index for my literature review. So far, in literature, I've only read about seed maturity stages regarding the fatty acid synthesis and most harvesting recommendations stated only in regards to harvest when fruit turned brown. Glad if someone can share any information.
    Charlene Hilarion · Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
    Thank you for the helpful info
  • Mohammad Yahya Musakhel asked a question:
    Do you have contributions for an international treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture?
    I need your contribution for compiling project proposal for Balochistan province having below three themes:

    Information exchange
    Technology transfer

    Your valuable comments will highly be appreciated

About Agriculture

The science of soil cultivation, crop production, and livestock raising.

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