• Jason Breitmeyer added an answer:
    Does anyone have a idea for VOC Identification from agriculture products using wireless sensors?

    I am working WSN in Agriculture. VOCs chemical identification from agriculture products using WSN and how can we develop sensor for this and how can we deploy it? Which is available in available in market please suggest.

    Jason Breitmeyer · Lincoln University New Zealand

    Please find attached a brochure for a product called the Cyranose 320 that may be suitable to your needs.

    All the best!

    Jason :)

  • chems-eddine Benkhelil added an answer:
    What could be the significance of bringing together different enterprise GIS or enterprises?

     For example, bringing together or integrating Agriculture, Electric, Telecommunication, Postal, Police, Railways, Transport  and Airways enterprise GISs on a whole in a single UI or utility and its impact and effectiveness in modern India. Is it really required? 

    chems-eddine Benkhelil · École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique

    In other words yes !

  • Sainath Aher added an answer:
    What are the best techniques for Image processing in agriculture?

    What are best suitable techniques in image processing to identify the real time change in the region of farm and what are the best suitable techniques to identify the real time change in the leaf of a plant to identify the plant diseases?

  • Kuldeep Tiwari added an answer:
    What would be useful agricultural tools for GIS desktop application?

    I am developing an open source GIS desktop application for agricultural purposes, I want some ideas about useful tools that can serve the end users. For example NDVI tools may be useful for them to recognize vegetation status in a study area. 

    Kuldeep Tiwari · Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur

    tool for identifying growth stage of crop with time series datasat

  • chems-eddine Benkhelil added an answer:
    What the term "Galton's Fallacy" really means?

    Does "Galton's Fallacy" refer just the regression towards mean?  In context of convergence theory, do negative sign in regressing growth against initial income and a positive sign in regressing growth against terminal income refer Galton's Fallacy?

    chems-eddine Benkhelil · École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique

    A fallacy is an argument to the logical fallacy is an argument that seeks to seem harsh but in reality is not valid under the logic (and that even though his conclusion is "real ") . Unlike the fallacy is an error in reasoning , the fallacy is misleading : it is uttered with the intent to mislead the audience so , for example, to take the lead in a discussion. Often, the fallacies take the appearance of a syllogism (based on insufficient or irrelevant premises or proceeds by enthymeme , etc.). They may also rely on other psychological mechanisms eg playing with the emotions of the audience, the social ascendancy of the speaker ( argument from authority ) or cognitive biases ( such as forgetting the basic frequency ) .

  • Peter Griffiths added an answer:
    How can I accurately measure marketing efficiency of agricultural produce marketers?

    I want to know the data that I need to collect and the formular to use in other to determine whether my marketer respondents are efficiently performing expected marketing activities or otherwise

    Bowbrick discredited market margin analysis long ago, and it vanished from the literature for the next 20 years. Time to do it again. See

    Bowbrick, P., “Are price reporting systems of any use?”, British Food Journal. 90(2) 65-69 March/April. 1988. (This is credited with precipitating the abandonment of the first generation of Market Information Systems, leading to more useful ones

    “Some limitations of market-margin analysis”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. 4(2) 23-28. 1974. Click here

    “Retail mark-ups and distributive margins - a critical analysis of Professor Allen’s theory”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. 4(2) 1-23. 1973. Click Here
    Bowbrick, P., “Marketing Board inefficiency and farmers’ incomes”, Conference on African Marketing Boards. African Studies Centre, Leiden, Netherlands. 1983.
    Bowbrick, P., “Distributive margins - a rejoinder”, Oxford Agrarian Studies. 6 168-170. 1977.
    Bowbrick, P., “Price control and market margins for fruit and vegetables”, Acta Horticulturae. 55. 1976.
    Bowbrick, P., “Determining distributive margins”, Oxford Agrarian Studies. 5 124-129. 1976.
    Bowbrick, P., “Market-margin investigations and price control of fruit and vegetables”, Irish Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology.

    The problems have not miraculously vanished.

  • Denis Santiago da Costa added an answer:
    How can a higher plant leaf brix be achieved in the most agricultural arable lands?

    Perhaps any degree above a minimal of 12?

    Denis Santiago da Costa · University of São Paulo

    Hello Taurai,

    I don´t know if I understood well your question but I will try.

    It is complicate to answer it with  just one technique. You should know that many factors can influence on it but a good management in plant nutrition will help you for sure. For example, I know from my own experience and from some research ($FILE/Better%20Crops%202011-1%20p13-15.pdf) that potassium can improve the brix in some plants, but I am not  sure if it is enough to reach this level which you want. Maybe increase the potassium rate ou try to apply on leaves can help you.

    Best Regards

  • B. Swaminathan added an answer:
    What are the factors that transform a country from agriculture to industry?

    I need the most applicable indicators to analyze my topic.

    B. Swaminathan · Indian Institute of Management Bangalore

    Economic reasons are many right from the possibility of a payable proposition to the the role of peer pressure. As a educated mind seeks comfort in each and every aspect - it tries to withdraw from whatever that is drudgery relatively. But your question has led in to a totally differnt question: What are the major factors that could pave way for industrializing agriculture ?

  • Golam Kibria added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on the suitability of river water for agriculture?

    How I can identify the suitability of river water for agriculture exception SAR? Can anyone suggest me other method to identify suitability of river water for agriculture?

    Golam Kibria · RMIT University

    In Australia, river water to be supplied or to be used for irrigation, agriculture, livestock, aquaculture are monitored to assess the quality. These include for example, salinity/EC, pesticides, herbicides, trace metals and sometimes microbial pathogens, dissolved oxygen. There’s is a national water quality guideline for freshwater and marine water quality (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000) which provide trigger values for a range of water quality parameters to assess the suitability of river water for agriculture (chapter 4 focused on water quality for irrigation) (see the below reference)


    Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality (2000).

  • What natural factors can influence prices of farm lands?

    How can we differentiate between natural factors and other economic factors that determine the price of lands? there are a plenty of factors that determine land price not in cities. it seems difficult to distinguish them or measure the effects of variables. I want to know some methodologies to find and measure these natural factors without including human factors such as distance to facilities or urban areas.

    Sambhaji Dnyaneshwar Shinde · Shivaji University, Kolhapur

    location, richness of soil accessbility, water sustain capacity, water availability, slop rainfall climate etc are the major natural factors influencing farm land 

  • Alireza Ghasemi Arian added an answer:
    Does boron deficiency cause seeds of chili pepper to turn black?
    Does boron deficiency cause seeds of chili pepper to turn black? Or any other reason for this to happen?
    Alireza Ghasemi Arian · higher education center of Hashemi-Nejad


    I dont know, my studies is about seed dormancy.

  • Eddie Seva See added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of studies that have addressed the specific issue of knowledge transfer impact on productivity in agricultural in recent times?

    To see trends in world and EU countries in last 40-50 years, money amounts in R&D and knowlegde transfer according agriculture (crop and cereals particularly) and where can be proven positive impact on productivity growth rate. 

    Eddie Seva See · Bicol University

    Magdalena, please try or and search impact assessment, or

  • Andrew Mercer added an answer:
    How can I do analysis on tiff data when it only accepts bgd. format?

    my project of master is about developing an open source GIS for agriculture.
    I have problem with tiff data, I want to apply analysis on tiff data but i cant it only accept .bgd format have you any idea.
    thank you very much
    Maher Ibrahim

    Andrew Mercer · Stockholm University

    Sorry, I don't have any experience with .NET and next to none with VB but is it possible to call C libraries from VB? If so then GDAL is still open to you.

  • Vanessa Meloni Massara added an answer:
    Which would be an appropriate tool to calculate the cost of GHG emission in agriculture?
    To calculate the abatement cost of GHG emission, carbon pricing, GHG emission in terms of monetary terms etc.
    Vanessa Meloni Massara · University of São Paulo

    try to search at web the program:

    Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO)
    "Carbon and sustainability reporting within the renewable Transport Fuel Obligation .
    London, 2008.


  • Mohammad N. Elnesr added an answer:
    Why are Impact Factor journals related to agriculture very low? While most vital and the most advanced in the science world. What are the Impact Factors agricultural research?
    Mohammad N. Elnesr · King Saud University

    The answer in few points:

    1. While the impact factor's lifetime is 2 years, the agricultural experiments usually take more than 2 years to finish, and one extra year to publish. This results in fewer citation cycles that count in the impact factor algorithm.
    2. The field of agriculture is considered local for most of the journals, so when researchers send their works to international journals they are mostly rejected. This lower the citation count.
    3. Unlike medicine, the agriculture research world is almost closed especially in the developing countries where the research is limited to the universities not to the farm-level.
  • Gyan Kumar Shrestha added an answer:
    What could be planting techniques of kiwi fruit on hill slopes?

    Some farmers want to grow kiwi on sloping lands in Nepal, especially in hills around Kathmandu valley. The max. temp. during summer months are 25 to 30 deg Celsius while in winters it ranges from 2 to 10, but some years may go below zero. The fruit has a high market demand. There are a few farmers who have started growing kiwi in flat lands where irrigation facilities are available. But the technology suited for sloppy lands may be different from those used in flat lands.  

    Gyan Kumar Shrestha · Tribhuvan University

    Dear David,

    Thanks for your answer. It seems planting kiwi on hill slopes is not easy, but I am exploring for techniques that make easy and wise to follow.

    G.K. Shrestha. 

  • Prakash Mallappa Munnoli added an answer:
    What are some waste management options for sugar cane bagasse?
    I am doing my honours research in the management options of sugar cane bagasse. I'm still in the planning phases and would appreciate any help or input.
    Prakash Mallappa Munnoli · S D M College of Engineering and Technology

    Sugar cane bagasse, filter mud, trash are successfully utilized for vermicomposting

  • Abul Mansur M. Masih added an answer:
    Which one (urbanization and agriculture) is more important for development?
    Urbanization and agriculture have been recognized as the policy priorities for many developing countries in the world? However, during the local practices, urbanization and agriculture are generally mutually conflicted (e.g., land use, investing). What is your opinion on the contributions of these two conflicting topics on the development sustainability of an economy?
    Abul Mansur M. Masih · International Centre for Education of Islamic Finance, Global University of Islamic Finance

    I believe that for a sustained economic growth, there is a need for a balanced development of urbanization and agriculture since they are interdependent during the growth process.


    Mansur Masih

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Does the activity of producing Free Fatty Acid (FFA) generate heat in the fruits, in particular for the oil palm fresh fruit bunches?
    If so, what will be the magnitude of such heat?

    What will be the approximate change in the temperature value of the fruit?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Malaysia is the largest palm oil but the use of FTIR spectroscopy  for quality control is
    not prevalent in the industry which can reduce the chemical analysis time considerably and improve Productivity.

    The temperature range within the fruit is 30 - 36 deg C, ambient is 31.1deg C

    Attapon Choto et all (2014), Sterilization of Oil Palm Fruit Using Radio - Frequency Heating, Int’l Journal of Advances in Chemical Engg., & Biological Sciences (IJACEBS) Vol. 1, Issue 1(2014) ISSN 2349-1507 EISSN 2349-1515.

    FTIR - TG-IR (thermogravimetry-infrared spectrometry) IR spectra of the gases evolved during thermal decomposition are obtained as a function of temperature. Tiny samples with the aid of an infrared microscope can image the surface by scanning.

  • Dr. Shantappa Duttarganvi added an answer:
    How Redox potentional (Eh) changes in flooded paddy field and how to correlate with methane emission?
    Rice-ecosystem plays major contribution for ethane emission in agricultur
    Dr. Shantappa Duttarganvi · University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur

    Thank you Dr. Michel for your information..

  • M. Yaseen added an answer:
    Does anyone know how much biochar should be applied for dryland crop-Sorghum, finger millets etc (t/ha) or is any scientific field data available?

    What is the minimum quantity should apply?

    How many times should be added in the soil / year?

    M. Yaseen · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Please contact to Dr. Puja Khare, Senior Scientist, CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow

  • Golam Kibria added an answer:
    Do we need environmental water to protect biodiversity where dams have been built?

    Globally, there are more than 45,000 large dams in operation in over 150 countries and another 1500 or so are currently under construction according to World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Dams and weirs have been built on rivers (a barrier across a river) to achieve a number of benefits including water storage, irrigation supply, drinking water, preventing floods, navigation, hydroelectricity production, and recreation etc. In recent time, most dam construction is taking place in the developing world, such as in China and India. 46 new large dams being planned or under construction in the Yangtze River basin in China; 27 in the La Plata basin in South America; 26 in the Tigris and Euphrates Basin in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Dams are also planned on three other rivers: the Salween in China, Thailand and Myanmar, the Kizilirmak in Turkey, and the Ganges in China, Nepal, India and Bangladesh.

    The development of engineering infrastructure such as dams and weirs over rivers has modified rivers ecosystems threatening the water quality (e.g. salinity, cold water pollution) and water dependent biodiversity (e.g. native fish). Dams disconnect rivers from their flood plains and wetlands, reduce water flows in rivers, and affect the migratory patterns of fish. In general, water retention by dams eliminates or reduces spring runoff or flood pulses that often play a critical role in maintaining downstream riparian and wetland ecosystems including the lifecycle of fish. Older dams release water that is stored at the bottom of the dam, which is typically colder and adversely affects species adapted to warmer temperatures. Such an effect is sometime referred to as ‘cold water pollution’. The construction of a dam on a river can block or delay upstream fish migration between feeding and breeding zones and thus may contribute to the decline and even the extinction of species. As a consequence of dams, for example, some unique species and habitats are/will be threatened including freshwater native fish, river dolphins, porpoises and water birds. One estimate reveals that dams and associated uses of water have altered two-thirds of the world’s major rivers.

    In Australia, the Federal Government Department (Commonwealth Environmental Water Office) has acquired/is acquiring water with the goals/objectives to increase water flows in rivers and wetlands (commonwealth environmental water). Reduced flows in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) have already caused environmental problems (increased salinity, increased algal blooms/cyanobacterial blooms, decline in native fish and bird populations and poor wetland health). This environmental water has been/is being recovered through water saving infrastructure upgrades, water purchases (direct buybacks of water entitlements from irrigators) and other water recovery programmes in order to protect or restore the environmental assets of the MDB. The environmental water will help protect and restore the resilience of the MDB’s rivers, wetlands, floodplains, lakes and red gum forests, together with the plants and animals that depend on them. In a number of countries (e.g. third world countries), people may not be familiar with environmental water or environmental flows and a need for environmental water for biodiversity.

    Question: Do you agree that there is a need for environmental water/environmental flows to protect biodiversity where dams have been built or to be built? If so, how can we achieve a balance between water usages for consumptive purposes (drinking water, industry and irrigated agriculture) and meeting the demand for environmental flows for smooth functioning of river ecosystems and river biodiversity?

    Golam Kibria · RMIT University

    Hi Rebeca,

    Yes, some species requires frequent flooding and environmental water may not be sufficient. For example, many other prochilodontids, P. magdalenae has high fecundity and spawns all eggs at once in the open waters of the main river channel. Larvae drift passively towards flooded areas where they feed and remain until maturation. Their life cycle is reliant on the hydrological patterns of the Magdalena River basin, where the fish migrate to the main river in twice-yearly hydrological periods. In the first one when water levels begin to decrease (December-February), spawning migration to the upstream starts and fishes remain there during the dry season. Spawning begins with the onset of the first high-water period (March-June). The second one takes place when water levels start to decrease (July-September) and a second spawning migration occurs.

    Berdugo, Gilberto Orozco ; Narváez Barandica, Juan C. 2014. Genetic diversity and population structure of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) in the Magdalena River basin and its tributaries, Colombia. Genetics and molecular biology. Vol.37(1), pp.37-45 

  • Manvi Siwach added an answer:
    Is there any ontology for agriculture? Can you suggest your opinion on a question answering system in the agricultural domain?

    Not cross-lingual. I wish to do for English language only. Is agrotagger the only tagger which we can use for agricultural topics.

    Manvi Siwach · YMCA University of Science and Technology

    Yes type crop ontology with protege on google.

    you will get it,its an M.Tech thesis by some banasthali student if u couldn't find tell me will send u a link..

  • Sebataolo Rahlao added an answer:
    What are some of the indicators for long term monitoring and evaluation of agricultural responses to climate change?
    Understanding which indicators to monitor will help determine which responses (actions, strategies, policies, projects, programs) are effective for long term response to climate change in the agriculture sector. Examples of indicators I am thinking of include; soil quality, rate of soil loss.
    Sebataolo Rahlao · Department of Environmental Affairs

    Dear all, I have put together a four pager on these indicators and thought I should humbly ask if you can individually review/comment on? Please drop me an e-mail on and I will send you the draft document. 

  • K. M. Singh added an answer:
    How can we reduce the drudgery of women in the agricultural field operations?

    by providing comforts to the operator.

    K. M. Singh · Indian Council of Agricultural Research

    I agree with the views above, that gender friendly farm equipments are most important in reducing drudgery for farm women, particularly the hand held small equipments and tools must be developed, popularized and made available at reasonable cost to the women so that it can help reduce their drudgery.

  • Etienne Diserens added an answer:
    What method(s) can be used to easily measure iron concentration of soil water solution in a flooded rice field?
    Rapid method for measuring Fe(II) concentration in the soil, preferably in ppm
    Etienne Diserens · Agroscope

    Dear colleque,

    I purpose you the following simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron(II) in aqueous solutions from M. Jamaluddin AHMED, Uttam Kumer ROY (University of Chittagong, BANGLADESH).

    Note that Fe3+ is more soluble as Fe2+


    Etienne Diserens, Agroscope-Switzerland

  • Jolanda Jansen added an answer:
    Does anyone know of approved methods for measuring the possible pain during poultry slaughter?

    I am doing an evaluation study.

    Jolanda Jansen · St Anna Advies

    See this file of the Wageningen University in the Netherlands with all links to relevant publications on this topic: both in English and Dutch.

    Marien gerritzen currently works at Wageningen University and Research centre

  • I.R. Geijzendorffer added an answer:
    Where can I find a list of CAP indicators?
    I am looking for a list of the indicators which are currently being considered for the reporting of the CAP 2014-2020. Can anyone propose a reference?
    I.R. Geijzendorffer · Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d'Ecologie Marine et Continentale

    Merci Yann!

  • Léonide Celini added an answer:
    How can I store aphid samples?

    I want to save some turnip aphid samples temporarily, so I can send them for identification later. I want to know if I can use ethanol and at what percent and is there any other special way to store those insects.

    Léonide Celini · Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne - Université Paris 12

    You should use 70% ethanol  but their color will be disappeared after short period (1-4 days). After 1- 2 months specimens become fragile ( loose setae) and breakable ( legs).  You should  use 100% ethanol for molecular application.

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