• Ting Fa Margherita Chang added an answer:
    What were the impacts of the Green Revolution on the poor farmers versus rich farmers and what were the effects of the introduction of GMOs?

    I'd like to know if it is true that the Green Revolution in India has favored only the rich peasants damaging instead the poorest. Also I would like to have news about the "Double Green Revolution" (based on the introduction of GMOs).  Did the GMOs in India have a positive or negative reception among the poorest farmers versus the relatively richer ones?

    Ting Fa Margherita Chang · University of Udine

    Many thanks to all of you for bringing elements of an international debate that is still active. Awesome movie that I found on YouTube in full size.
    It 'a fact that the poorest farmers have suffered greatly as a result of their impossibility or inability to access modern inputs. I did not know that there were/are, as the film shows, real forms of extortion to acquire the lands of these poor farmers in the event of their death and suicide in particular.
    Now the debate has been revived with the introduction of OGMs. It 's true as you wrote me that their use prevents or reduces the use of chemicals with positive externalities for the ecological footprint. But you have not explained to me what are the products on which the interest of geneticists focused (in India or abroad). We know that cotton is one of the species, but I'm interested to know if the studies were continued also in favor of indigenous crops, typical of India (I know that in Africa this happened through Rockfeller Bill Gate Foundation in order to fight a pest of corn called striga). For example, what about the species that are the basis of the Indian diet and which are typical of that diet. I ask this because it is easy that studies on seed widespread in the world are funded by corporations or large research centers, but it is more difficult to find financing that concern indigenous seeds. Equally difficult is that programs for research centers are funded locally in close contact with the farmers for specific crops.

  • Ana M. Fonseca added an answer:
    Which satellite images is good to assess changes from agriculture to residential?

    See above

    Ana M. Fonseca · National Laboratory for Civil Engineering

    Optical Images with visible and infrared bands, and depending of the resolution you need, you can have Landsat (for low resolution - 30/15m) SPOT, MODIS/Terra, .. (for medium resolution) or IKONOS, QuickBird, Worlview (for very high resolution - 0,5 m)

  • Didier Bazile added an answer:
    Does anyone have any information or publications on the status of the cultivation of domesticated Chenopodium album in the Himalayas?

    Chenopodium album is one of the more common Chenopods in Eurasia. It's considered as a weed in Europe but there are some studies that confirm its domestication in the Himalayas. This species, very diverse and unknown (2x, 4x and 6x), was cultivated in China, India, Nepal and Bhutan. But today it's very difficult to know the real superficie covered by C album as a crop. Where are the farmers, in which agroecological conditions, for what kind of uses (grains, leaves, etc.)?

    One reason for the lack of documented information on chenopods is that many past reports misidentified Chenopodium album as a variety of Amaranth (Amaranthus anardana).

    Didier Bazile · Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Thank you very much Dear J. Beltrao for sharing with me this important publication on C. album. I have some questions for you about this experimentation. You say that "Chenopodium album can be used for salt removing on the salt-affected soils and can also be incorporated into crop rotation programme." From where do you find seeds of Chenopodium album ? Did you have any problems of germination rate due to high dormancy of wild species? and in that case, wouldn't you expect problems as invasive species in the cropping system with the introduction of C. album? How can you manage the dissemination of the seeds of C. album in the future? Is there any risks? And a last question about yields and products? If farmers can produce biomass of C. album, what's the destination of the production? to feed animals, human? other uses or only residues but to put where? Thank you very much again to share with me this research. Best regards, Didier

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Can you suggest any marketing tools for agricultural products?
    The educated community has taken over farming and brings in a judicial usage into farming through the following, 1. Infusion of technology and expertise in agriculture practices. 2. Intervention in food processing and storage practices. 3. Establishing national and international market linkages.
    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Yes @ Sadagopan, In addition the Agri Global value chains are characterized by falling barriers on international trade due to decreasing tariffs and the lowering of price support and export subsidies in the last decades. At the same time we see increasing concentration and consolidation in all links of these chains.

  • Maria Davi added an answer:
    Which model is most suitable for calculating the degree of industrialization?

    I'm doing a research on the application of machinery in area of agriculture in Sandzak from 1918 - 2008 and why I need advice on what is the best way to express the degree of industrialization

    Maria Davi · Università degli studi di Palermo

    I think you can also consider  the trend in the elasticity of substitution adopting a production function VES (Variable Elasticity of Substitution) to the disposable time series data of  agricultural production in Sandzak.

  • Barbara Sawicka added an answer:
    What are the main indicators of a sustainable supply chain network in agriculture?

    There are some components come together to produce and distribute a certain crop. Which one of them are considered significant?

    Barbara Sawicka · University of Life Sciences in Lublin

    Indicators of crop production management chain are:
    the use of new, innovative methods of livestock production, in order to extend the use of time and efficiency, maintain health and fertility, animal welfare, conservation of biodiversity, and of the protection of agricultural environment, including:
    intelligent application of precision farming techniques in sustainable crop production;
    application of new technology of natural and mineral fertilizers and their zero-emission application methods;
    reducing the negative impact of (production and environmental) the use of simplifications in the cultivation and crop rotation plants;
    Comprehensive food safety control;
    Comprehensive security control of the food chain: ryteriów limits, methods of identification and analysis of chemical, toxicological, pesticide residues, pharmaceutical and veterinary drugs, microbiological contaminants, naturally occurring anti-nutritional substances and the presence of genetically modified organisms;
    implementation of new methods related to the diagnosis and monitoring of zoonoses and their etiological factors with particular emphasis on molecular methods;
    the use of reliable systems for tracking and finding the raw material / product in the production and distribution chain to ensure its security and guaranteed origin;
    implementation of safe production methods and technologies, and traditional food control and food produced by organic farming methods the use of new methods and technologies for acquisition and processing of non-nutritive;
    raw materials and agricultural waste products;
    application of innovative technology and food production on the planned functions of healthy (foods for food for selected groups of consumers, functional foods, etc.).

  • How is the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) in your countries?

    IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.

    Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).

    In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.

    The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.



    Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6.

    Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
    Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
    Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
    Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.

    Hi András, I send you two links about IPM in Colombia associated with coffee and banana crops. It is a similar in other crops in Colombia, although IPM fails in implementation and most of crops have a chemical management only.



  • Mohammed mahgoub Hassan asked a question:
    Does someone known role of Allechemical in the growth promotion of plants as well as microorganisms?

    How can allelopathy crop play an important role in minimizing serious hazards of the modern agriculture such as environmental pollution unsafe products anddecline of crop yield?

  • James R Knaub added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me some applications of simple random sampling with replacement in real life scenarios?

    To be more specific in agriculture where this design is used? 

    James R Knaub · Energy Information Administration

    Hi Jane -

    I'm afraid you aren't really going to see simple random sampling with replacement in a real life scenario in just about any field, including agriculture. First, a simple random sample is only going to cover a relatively narrow category before you should stratify. Second, it is inefficient to select the same respondent multiple times, so 'with replacement' is not generally used either. And in agriculture, there is a history of some rather complex designs.

    Sorry, but if it is real life that you want, it won't be simple random sampling with replacement. I cannot say that that has never been used in some very narrow application somewhere, and I might have suggested it for a very narrow problem for a small part of an electric power survey once, that I don't think we used, but it just generally is not practical.
    If you are interested in designs, a relatively available, and well-written classic would be Cochran, W.G.(1977), Sampling Techniques, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons.

    Cheers - Jim

  • Manohar Sehgal added an answer:
    How can I modify fly ash for agriculture?
    Manohar Sehgal · DAV College Jalandhar

    Humic Modified Fly Ash
    [I]Fly ash[FA] showing high sorption efficiency towards humic substances* , is modified with humic substances and then evaluated for biofunctional agricultural uses. Humic-loaded FA is prepared in various humic to FA ratios. The Greek peaty lignite** of the Megalopolis Basin is used as raw material for obtaining both FA and humates.
    [II] The reaction is studied at different temperatures 291, 308, 323, 338, and 353 K and at several pH values.The adsorption capacity is found to increase at neutral pH and, also, with rise of temperature, that is, from 760 to 1300 mg humics/g FA at 291 K and 353 K, respectively.
    [III] The adsorption proceed stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between the two materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models are employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption to shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system.
    [IV]Both the slow release of adsorbed humic substances during washing and the existence of microbial populations are considered advantageous for employing humic-loaded FA in biological cultivations substituting traditional soil-conditioning materials.
    (V) Lastly,the humic modified FA is also very important from an economic point as power plant wastes of the coal reserves worldwide can well be utilized.

    *Humic substance( HS) exist as Humic acids(HA), Fulvic acids(FA) and Humin( Hu) Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil, peat, coal, many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water. It is produced by biodegradation of dead organic matter. It is not a single acid; rather, it is a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups so that the mixture behaves functionally as a dibasic acid or, occasionally, as a tribasic acid. Humic and fulvic acids{which invariably accompany Humic acids} are commonly used as a soil supplement in agriculture, and less commonly as a human nutritional supplement. Fulvic acids are poly-electrolytes and are unique colloids that diffuse easily through membranes whereas all other colloids do not.
    ** Greece boasts lignite resources of 4.7 billion tonnes and 3.0 billion tonnes of economically workable reserves.
    Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
    Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 457964, 8 pages .

  • Malek Alkasrawi added an answer:
    How can I do ethanol determination by chemical methods?

    I work on ethanol production from agricultural wastes. I need to determine the content of ethanol production in media content more carbohydrates by chemical method I not use Gas chromotgrphy  method or GC

    Malek Alkasrawi · University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point

    If you have the ethanol the only compoenet in your solution you may use refractive index for it

  • Mohammad A. Jabbar added an answer:
    Does someone have information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension?

    I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.

    Mohammad A. Jabbar · International Livestock Research Institute

    Not sure if I understand the question properly. Training and Visit was once publicized as an innovation in extension, same has been done with respect Farmer Field schools and similar other approaches. The problem, something that worked in a given situation has often been scaled up for wide dissemination without regard to the specific needs and circumstances. Consequently which was once an innovation turned out to be no good for another situation. Detailed objective evaluations of the concepts, processes and impact of innovations should be reviewed before trying to test or adapt any innovation in another situation.

    Let me draw the attention to a simple gap in extension theory and application. The issue is the process of learning and adoption- the lag between acquisition of knowledge and final adoption and then continue or discontinue and relearn and readopt  and so on. Understanding this process will help to design targeted extension and make extension more need and demand driven and effective. A paper is attached for ref, others are available in the literature.

  • Is there a clear distinction of Urban Agriculture from the conventional agriculture?

    What are the basic features for an agricultural scheme to be called as Urban Agriculture?

    Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri · Agril. Research Station.Dharwad (Karnataka:India)

    There is no concept like like urban agriculture. Conventional agriculture refers to traditional practices or age old practices that still prevails. It is away  from mainly mechanization /computation etc advanced tools. Urban agriculture is characterized by high input intensive agriculture mainly growing vegetables etc short duration  crops. It is influence of peri-urban/ city/urban output on agriculture practices.

  • Marcel Dicke added an answer:
    Does anybody have information/papers on how studies about mixed culture/intercropping affect modern agriculture?

    For my master thesis I am searching for present movements in the intercropping trend. I want to find out who finances studies about intercropping and who takes results into account for actual improving of production.

    Marcel Dicke · Wageningen University

    check and go to publications in the top bar - plenty of information.

  • José António M Macedo added an answer:
    How does climate change-N deposition affect agriculture crops? I couldn't find relative studies. Thanks!

    Researchers in N deposition, Agriculture and Global climate change 

  • Anyone know of any recent studies on the adopter perception model for agricultural technologies?
    Has anybody recently used or come across the adopter perception model to study adoption of agricultural technologies? Kivlin and Fliegel had used farmers' perception of attributes of the technology to explain their adoption behaviour. This model was later used by Adesina and others in their work in the mid 1990s. I am looking for some recent work on the same topics. If someone has worked on it or has seen any recent papers on this, please reply.
    Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero · Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura

    Dear Varsha please download this recent paper

  • Debashis Mandal added an answer:
    Why is Jhum cultivation still prevalent in the north eastern region of india?
    As above.
    Debashis Mandal · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    I completely agree with Gibji Nimasow that Jhum cultivation(Shifting cultivation) is practiced in North Eastern Hilly region by ethnic societies which has direct link with their socio-cultural and religious belief. They derive economic, ecological and socio-cultural benefits in terms of tangible and intangible from natural resources. The traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) generated by community through an experimental process and which is centered around manipulation of biodiversity to a large degree still determines land use dynamics in the mountains of this region.

  • John Ireland added an answer:
    How do I perform a conjoint analysis for agriculture input services delivery?

    Conjoint analysis is being widely used in market research.

    In regard to the agriculture service delivery sector where limited work has been attempted, can you please provide any methodology or questionnaires on how to perform it?


    John Ireland · Canadian University of Dubai

    Dear Subhash:

    Your questions are far too broad to answer. You need to do some reading on conjoint analysis to prepare yourself to ask good questions. Read Understanding Conjoint Analysis in 15 Minutes by sawtooth software then you will know the questions to ask.

    Good Luck

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer:
    Is there any evidence from field scale studies that conversion of natural vegetation to croplands increase SOC content?

    See above. 

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    Hi Kamaljit Banger; I did not come across any reference on increase in SOC content by conversing natural vegetation to crop land. I completely agree with the remarks of Dr Frank Veroustraete that the hypothesis may be otherwise.  However following links may be helpful for you.


  • Raymond K De Young added an answer:
    Could anyone provide some examples of community gardens developed within university campus green areas by using design competences?
    I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
    Raymond K De Young · University of Michigan

    The University of Michigan has a campus farm and satellite gardens. This is not the land-grant university in the state, so the focus is unique.  They are at:

  • Thomas G Measham added an answer:
    What is the governance process for climate change in the coastal area?

    Agriculture and environment

    Thomas G Measham · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    In densely settled areas, there will demand for defensive responses (e.g. Thames barrier in London). However in more sparsely settled areas defensive options will not be viable. In these areas managed retreat is an option but the governance implications are complicated: e.g. who decides when it is time to retreat and who is responsible for it?

  • Is Pseudomonas Ice minus causing droughts?

    Pseudomonas Ice- is a genetically modified bacteria used in agriculture to protect crops from frost damage. Is there a possibility that by adding these GMOs to the environment we are creating long term droughts in countries where they are being used, like California, Texas or Australia?

    Peter William Edward Kearns · Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

    I repeat my question. Is this the ice-minus Pseudomonas from the late 1980s/ early 1990s? Dr Lindow's work? Apart from that, unless I am missing something, there are no ice-minus bacteria (except those that may occur naturally) that currently exist in clouds or anywhere else. This is suely an old story.  

  • Samir K. Mondal added an answer:
    What does the agricultural development entails and how well to execute it if we are to realize its benefits?

    A number of key elements have been offered in the economic development literature, especially agricultural development most of which are either pro-smallholders or otherwise. But holistically, whether it is to advocate for inclusion or exclusion of smallholder farmers, what needs to be done to transform the agricultural sector of any country taking into account the differences in local conditions of those countries?

    Samir K. Mondal · National Council of Applied Economic Research

    The best to transform agriculture to harvest best results is to introduce the concept of

    collective farming by consolidating small and marginal cultivators.  

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer:
    What is the application of actinomycetes in agriculture and allied sectors?

    I found one isolate of actinomycetes which is able to produce high amount of blue color media diffusible pigment. After one week the agar plate turned in to dark blue. I want to know that what the application of this particular isolate in agriculture and allied sectors is.

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    After its synthesis most of the dyes biodegrade and convert in to simple metabolites mostly secondary metabolites.These contain pyragallols or any other ring structures and also have relationship with mitochondrial cytoshrome proteins. in shade loving plants these could be able to convert in other compounds of high therapeutic value. In horizontal evolution plant pigments or dyes, its genes are basically related to phytochemical index mainly stomatal and respiratory index that is equivalent to yield per hectare in agriculture crop. 

  • Ruth J. Eastwood added an answer:
    Do you have contributions for an international treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture?
    I need your contribution for compiling project proposal for Balochistan province having below three themes:

    Information exchange
    Technology transfer

    Your valuable comments will highly be appreciated
  • Arshad Yaseen added an answer:
    Centaurium erythraea - threatened or endangered species in your country? Field cultivation?
    Can someone provide me (official) information on vulnerability status of Centaurium erythraea Rafn in your country? Is it protected by law?
    Additionally, is there some data about field cultivation of this species. I couldn't find it on the internet.
    Arshad Yaseen · Writtle College

    In my country 'Kurdistan' Centaurium erythraea is quite common you can easily find them in nature mainly in low temperature zones (places close to mountains and some valley areas) however they haven't been protected by law. In spring time you can see a wide area with a pink flower which is this plant. Unfortunately, there isn't any study on it so it is hard to find data in here.  all the best

  • Richard Lasker added an answer:
    Does anyone know a method to quantify nitrogen release from surface applied controlled release urea in field experiment?

    I intend to measure N release rate from broadcast applied controlled release fertilizers. I expect to explain other plant and soil variables according to different release rates. All methods I could find are based in fertilizers incorporation or small pots laboratory incubation. I would like to do that directly in the field. Has someone seen or done a paper with such evaluation?

    Richard Lasker · Brabant Research, Inc.

    leachate analyses combined with headspace GC.

  • Katheem Kiyasudeen added an answer:
    What are the conventional quality parameters for the cattle manure?

    Conventional quality parameters that are usually used in expressing the quality of the solid manure. Any advanced techniques available? What are the conventional categories which are taken into consideration and the reasons behind it? What are the optimum range of results that can be interpreted as valuable? Could you put up your suggestions and experiences in answers as well as with the references?

    Katheem Kiyasudeen · Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malayisa

    Thank you. Really helpful.

  • Rajendra Zolekar asked a question:
    Which methods are appropriate for land suitability analysis for agriculture in hilly zones and why?

    land managment

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