• Mohammad A. Jabbar added an answer:
    Does someone have information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension?

    I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.

    Mohammad A. Jabbar · International Livestock Research Institute

    Not sure if I understand the question properly. Training and Visit was once publicized as an innovation in extension, same has been done with respect Farmer Field schools and similar other approaches. The problem, something that worked in a given situation has often been scaled up for wide dissemination without regard to the specific needs and circumstances. Consequently which was once an innovation turned out to be no good for another situation. Detailed objective evaluations of the concepts, processes and impact of innovations should be reviewed before trying to test or adapt any innovation in another situation.

    Let me draw the attention to a simple gap in extension theory and application. The issue is the process of learning and adoption- the lag between acquisition of knowledge and final adoption and then continue or discontinue and relearn and readopt  and so on. Understanding this process will help to design targeted extension and make extension more need and demand driven and effective. A paper is attached for ref, others are available in the literature.

  • Mohammod Hossain added an answer:
    How do you feel when your answer in RG is down-voted

    Sometimes we get down-vote to our answer. We do not get reply (without disagreement) of our answer to a question from down voter. I like to get criticism of my answer instead of down vote. What do you think?

    Mohammod Hossain · Bangladesh Rice Research Institute

    Dear Yuan-Yeu Yau, thank you for your response. I agree with you. We are here to learn from everybody even from down-voter. Your suggestion is nice.

  • Is there a clear distinction of Urban Agriculture from the conventional agriculture?

    What are the basic features for an agricultural scheme to be called as Urban Agriculture?

    Prof. Shashikant S. Udikeri · Agril. Research Station.Dharwad (Karnataka:India)

    There is no concept like like urban agriculture. Conventional agriculture refers to traditional practices or age old practices that still prevails. It is away  from mainly mechanization /computation etc advanced tools. Urban agriculture is characterized by high input intensive agriculture mainly growing vegetables etc short duration  crops. It is influence of peri-urban/ city/urban output on agriculture practices.

  • Marcel Dicke added an answer:
    Does anybody have information/papers on how studies about mixed culture/intercropping affect modern agriculture?

    For my master thesis I am searching for present movements in the intercropping trend. I want to find out who finances studies about intercropping and who takes results into account for actual improving of production.

    Marcel Dicke · Wageningen University

    check and go to publications in the top bar - plenty of information.

  • José António M Macedo added an answer:
    How does climate change-N deposition affect agriculture crops? I couldn't find relative studies. Thanks!

    Researchers in N deposition, Agriculture and Global climate change 

  • Anyone know of any recent studies on the adopter perception model for agricultural technologies?
    Has anybody recently used or come across the adopter perception model to study adoption of agricultural technologies? Kivlin and Fliegel had used farmers' perception of attributes of the technology to explain their adoption behaviour. This model was later used by Adesina and others in their work in the mid 1990s. I am looking for some recent work on the same topics. If someone has worked on it or has seen any recent papers on this, please reply.
    Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero · Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura

    Dear Varsha please download this recent paper

  • Debashis Mandal added an answer:
    Why is Jhum cultivation still prevalent in the north eastern region of india?
    As above.
    Debashis Mandal · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    I completely agree with Gibji Nimasow that Jhum cultivation(Shifting cultivation) is practiced in North Eastern Hilly region by ethnic societies which has direct link with their socio-cultural and religious belief. They derive economic, ecological and socio-cultural benefits in terms of tangible and intangible from natural resources. The traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) generated by community through an experimental process and which is centered around manipulation of biodiversity to a large degree still determines land use dynamics in the mountains of this region.

  • John Ireland added an answer:
    How do I perform a conjoint analysis for agriculture input services delivery?

    Conjoint analysis is being widely used in market research.

    In regard to the agriculture service delivery sector where limited work has been attempted, can you please provide any methodology or questionnaires on how to perform it?


    John Ireland · Canadian University of Dubai

    Dear Subhash:

    Your questions are far too broad to answer. You need to do some reading on conjoint analysis to prepare yourself to ask good questions. Read Understanding Conjoint Analysis in 15 Minutes by sawtooth software then you will know the questions to ask.

    Good Luck

  • Sarwan Kumar Dubey added an answer:
    Is there any evidence from field scale studies that conversion of natural vegetation to croplands increase SOC content?

    See above. 

    Sarwan Kumar Dubey · Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute

    Hi Kamaljit Banger; I did not come across any reference on increase in SOC content by conversing natural vegetation to crop land. I completely agree with the remarks of Dr Frank Veroustraete that the hypothesis may be otherwise.  However following links may be helpful for you.


  • Raymond K De Young added an answer:
    Could anyone provide some examples of community gardens developed within university campus green areas by using design competences?
    I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
    Raymond K De Young · University of Michigan

    The University of Michigan has a campus farm and satellite gardens. This is not the land-grant university in the state, so the focus is unique.  They are at:

  • Thomas G Measham added an answer:
    What is the governance process for climate change in the coastal area?

    Agriculture and environment

    Thomas G Measham · The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    In densely settled areas, there will demand for defensive responses (e.g. Thames barrier in London). However in more sparsely settled areas defensive options will not be viable. In these areas managed retreat is an option but the governance implications are complicated: e.g. who decides when it is time to retreat and who is responsible for it?

  • Is Pseudomonas Ice minus causing droughts?

    Pseudomonas Ice- is a genetically modified bacteria used in agriculture to protect crops from frost damage. Is there a possibility that by adding these GMOs to the environment we are creating long term droughts in countries where they are being used, like California, Texas or Australia?

    Peter William Edward Kearns · Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

    I repeat my question. Is this the ice-minus Pseudomonas from the late 1980s/ early 1990s? Dr Lindow's work? Apart from that, unless I am missing something, there are no ice-minus bacteria (except those that may occur naturally) that currently exist in clouds or anywhere else. This is suely an old story.  

  • Samir K. Mondal added an answer:
    What does the agricultural development entails and how well to execute it if we are to realize its benefits?

    A number of key elements have been offered in the economic development literature, especially agricultural development most of which are either pro-smallholders or otherwise. But holistically, whether it is to advocate for inclusion or exclusion of smallholder farmers, what needs to be done to transform the agricultural sector of any country taking into account the differences in local conditions of those countries?

    Samir K. Mondal · National Council of Applied Economic Research

    The best to transform agriculture to harvest best results is to introduce the concept of

    collective farming by consolidating small and marginal cultivators.  

  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay added an answer:
    What is the application of actinomycetes in agriculture and allied sectors?

    I found one isolate of actinomycetes which is able to produce high amount of blue color media diffusible pigment. After one week the agar plate turned in to dark blue. I want to know that what the application of this particular isolate in agriculture and allied sectors is.

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay · Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University

    After its synthesis most of the dyes biodegrade and convert in to simple metabolites mostly secondary metabolites.These contain pyragallols or any other ring structures and also have relationship with mitochondrial cytoshrome proteins. in shade loving plants these could be able to convert in other compounds of high therapeutic value. In horizontal evolution plant pigments or dyes, its genes are basically related to phytochemical index mainly stomatal and respiratory index that is equivalent to yield per hectare in agriculture crop. 

  • Noa Lincoln added an answer:
    GM crops - where is the science?

    Iʻm looking for good, peer reviewed studies examining GM crops and their associated chemical usage.  I am particularly interested in the following:

    - GM yields compared to non-GM yields

    - GM chemical usage compared to non-GM crops

    - GM water usage compared to non-GM crops

    - Any studies related to health effects from GM crops
    - Any studies related to health/environmental effects of chemical usage associated with GM crops

    Noa Lincoln · University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

    People must have some suggestions?  It is a 100 billion dollar industry worldwide every year.  

  • Ruth J. Eastwood added an answer:
    Do you have contributions for an international treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture?
    I need your contribution for compiling project proposal for Balochistan province having below three themes:

    Information exchange
    Technology transfer

    Your valuable comments will highly be appreciated
  • Arshad Yaseen added an answer:
    Centaurium erythraea - threatened or endangered species in your country? Field cultivation?
    Can someone provide me (official) information on vulnerability status of Centaurium erythraea Rafn in your country? Is it protected by law?
    Additionally, is there some data about field cultivation of this species. I couldn't find it on the internet.
    Arshad Yaseen · Writtle College

    In my country 'Kurdistan' Centaurium erythraea is quite common you can easily find them in nature mainly in low temperature zones (places close to mountains and some valley areas) however they haven't been protected by law. In spring time you can see a wide area with a pink flower which is this plant. Unfortunately, there isn't any study on it so it is hard to find data in here.  all the best

  • Richard Lasker added an answer:
    Does anyone know a method to quantify nitrogen release from surface applied controlled release urea in field experiment?

    I intend to measure N release rate from broadcast applied controlled release fertilizers. I expect to explain other plant and soil variables according to different release rates. All methods I could find are based in fertilizers incorporation or small pots laboratory incubation. I would like to do that directly in the field. Has someone seen or done a paper with such evaluation?

    Richard Lasker · Brabant Research, Inc.

    leachate analyses combined with headspace GC.

  • Katheem Kiyasudeen added an answer:
    What are the conventional quality parameters for the cattle manure?

    Conventional quality parameters that are usually used in expressing the quality of the solid manure. Any advanced techniques available? What are the conventional categories which are taken into consideration and the reasons behind it? What are the optimum range of results that can be interpreted as valuable? Could you put up your suggestions and experiences in answers as well as with the references?

    Katheem Kiyasudeen · Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malayisa

    Thank you. Really helpful.

  • Rajendra Zolekar asked a question:
    Which methods are appropriate for land suitability analysis for agriculture in hilly zones and why?

    land managment

  • Paul Richard Watson added an answer:
    Can one character be non significant in pooled analysis?
    Can anyone tell me if one character of a crop is showing significant (at both 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance) each of two consecutive years? But if we do pooled analysis the same character showing non significant? What does it mean? Why it is not showing significant in pooled analysis?
    Paul Richard Watson · Tiaosan Research and Consulting

    What kind of analytical approach are you taking?   YIs the trait difference found through ANOVA or are you using a regression approach? 

    If ANOVA, what model are you using (Mixed, GLM, other?).  If you are using a Mixed Model, are you considering Year as a Fixed or Random effect. 

    Do you have multiple sites per year?

  • How do you describe the current status (and future) of agricultural extension system in your country?
    There are many different arrangements for delivery of agricultural extension services currently in place in different countries (i.e., public, private, contract, pluralistic extension system ). At first, please share how you evaluate the effectiveness of the system in the 21st century, generally speaking. I am curious to know also how do you see the trend towards the governance of the system. Is it towards private type delivery and funding systems? How do you see the future of the system in your country?
    Lourenzo Fernández Prieto · University of Santiago de Compostela

    After 40 years of find work theese services in fact desappeared in Spain, arround ten years ago

    Please check this link too find some papers about the ítem, for Spain.  Any way afe

  • Jason Breitmeyer added an answer:
    Does anyone have a idea for VOC Identification from agriculture products using wireless sensors?

    I am working WSN in Agriculture. VOCs chemical identification from agriculture products using WSN and how can we develop sensor for this and how can we deploy it? Which is available in available in market please suggest.

    Jason Breitmeyer · Lincoln University New Zealand

    Please find attached a brochure for a product called the Cyranose 320 that may be suitable to your needs.

    All the best!

    Jason :)

  • A. Nicholas E Birch added an answer:
    How is the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) in your countries?

    IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.

    Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).

    In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.

    The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.



    Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6.

    Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
    Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
    Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
    Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.

    A. Nicholas E Birch · James Hutton Institute

    For protected crops (glasshouse and polytunnel grown) fruit and vegetables IPM is implementated using multiple tools for 100% of the area. For open field (arable) crops I would estimate the area under full IPM (multiple tools) is much less in area (c. 10%) and sophistication (eg use of field margins to promote natural enemies), but is slowly increasing. 

  • chems-eddine Benkhelil added an answer:
    What could be the significance of bringing together different enterprise GIS or enterprises?

     For example, bringing together or integrating Agriculture, Electric, Telecommunication, Postal, Police, Railways, Transport  and Airways enterprise GISs on a whole in a single UI or utility and its impact and effectiveness in modern India. Is it really required? 

    chems-eddine Benkhelil · École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique

    In other words yes !

  • Sainath Aher added an answer:
    What are the best techniques for Image processing in agriculture?

    What are best suitable techniques in image processing to identify the real time change in the region of farm and what are the best suitable techniques to identify the real time change in the leaf of a plant to identify the plant diseases?

  • Luiz Faria added an answer:
    What governs the speed of food production?
    Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?
    Luiz Faria · Universidade Federal de São Carlos

    Dear colleagues

    I believe this issue is more influenced by the market of such products, some local cases other world, that defines what, how and for whom food is produced. Best Regards, Luiz Faria

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Can you suggest any marketing tools for agricultural products?
    The educated community has taken over farming and brings in a judicial usage into farming through the following, 1. Infusion of technology and expertise in agriculture practices. 2. Intervention in food processing and storage practices. 3. Establishing national and international market linkages.
    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Direct marketing enables to become a price maker in the market, It’s about networking and relationship building that requires:

    1. A business planideal grocery store
    2. A brand
    3. Printed materials providing information about your farm and products.
    4. Understanding of the direct marketing avenue you want to use
    5. Honest communication
    6. Reliability of service
    7. Risk taking outlook
    8. Pride in your product

    University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Marketing Tips, Options, Opportunities - Marketing Options for Local Produce

  • What are the major factors that could pave way for industrializing agriculture ?

    With farming no longer considered to be a payable proposition, not a single day passes without thousands of farmers quitting or limiting agriculture in developed and developing economies alike.  I find industrializing agriculture as one of the most presented options in the academic world - but it is still to see the light, that too countries with longer gestation period of the Indian sub-continent.

    Pozhamkandath Karthiayani Viswanathan · Gujarat Institute of Development Research

    To me, industrialialization of agriculture in its real sense, is not acceptable, in view of the emerging concerns that we already face the world over from the kind agriculture got promoted under the green revolution era. To a greater extent, this agriculture was industrialized in the developed, if not the developing world. What we could probably think of 'further industrializing this agriculture' is in terms of making it less hazardous in terms of application of critical inputs, like water, agro-chemicals and labour to a greater extent.. As many countries are facing labour as a major constraint as already stated above, and farming getting more and more feminized in many contexts, what we need is more innovative technologies/ practices that reduces the burden of labourers, esp. women.. Attracting the rural youth is a major challenge, where we may try with introducing the processing technologies of the kind noted by Suresh Chandra Babu.. To me, more needs to be done in the supply chain, so that the farmer gets duly rewarded for his (her) efforts. In India, we still see the super malls/ retail outlets selling the farm produce at huge prices (where farmer gets about 20-25% or even less of the retail prices).. the options suggested by Suresh Chandra Babu are welcome in the Indian context, but, it is important to see if the water saved by the sprinkler/ drip irrigation systems really help save the water for ecosystem functions? 

  • James Asu Nandi asked a question:
    Which Journal can I publish an article on fish farming and poverty free of charge to the author?

    Agriculture, Agricultural Economics, Poverty, Fisheries and fish farming journals

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