• Neetu Mall added an answer:
    What are the factors that transform a country from agriculture to industry?

    I need the most applicable indicators to analyze my topic.

    Neetu Mall · G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar

    Dear Ariful, i would like to say India is land of Agriculture so industries itself involving agriculture,it give so much scope to export of materials also but with the involvement of agri businesss.

  • Zhonghua Gou added an answer:
    Could anyone provide some examples of community gardens developed within university campus green areas by using design competences?
    I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
    Zhonghua Gou · University of New South Wales

    You can find HKU as an example.

  • Ayman Alrehaili added an answer:
    What are the best techniques for Image processing in agriculture?

    What are best suitable techniques in image processing to identify the real time change in the region of farm and what are the best suitable techniques to identify the real time change in the leaf of a plant to identify the plant diseases?

    Ayman Alrehaili · Washington State University

    I'd suggest using change detection technique.

  • Why is Jhum cultivation still prevalent in the north eastern region of india?
    As above.
    Dnyaneshwar Shivaji Suryawanshi · V.W.S.College,Dhule,(M.S.) INDIA


  • Paulo Eduardo Cardoso added an answer:
    Developing open source GIS for agriculture?

    my project of master is about developing an open source GIS for agriculture.
    I have problem with tiff data, I want to apply analysis on tiff data but i cant it only accept .bgd format have you any idea.
    thank you very much
    Maher Ibrahim

    Isn't mapwindow bgd a binary ascii file? Could you provide an example of a bgd header?

    If you have any programming skills, you'll find examples of code to read/write bgd files.

    I'd say that R raster package can "writeRaster" a file to a native grd binary (integer) file and that they are easily interchangeable.

  • Ramadan Gad added an answer:
    Journal Name Vs Scope

    Hi dears;

    in some case journal name is different with its scope for example journal name is " international Journal of  Agriculture" but in journals scope, the journal also accept computer science paper and Agriculture paper. this  journal indexed in Elsevier. 

    are this journals creditable? 

    Ramadan Gad · Minoufiya University

    Based on up links, The Computer Sc. papers is not included in agriculture journal.

    if you have a link send it to help search.

  • B Swami Nathan added an answer:
    What the term "Galton's Fallacy" really means?

    Does "Galton's Fallacy" refer just the regression towards mean?  In context of convergence theory, do negative sign in regressing growth against initial income and a positive sign in regressing growth against terminal income refer Galton's Fallacy?

    B Swami Nathan · Indian Institute of Management Bangalore

    Well this is a beautiful piece on Galton's fallacy and the tests on convergence hypothesis. Hope this may offer some light.

  • Vanessa Meloni Massara added an answer:
    Which would be an appropriate tool to calculate the cost of GHG emission in agriculture?
    To calculate the abatement cost of GHG emission, carbon pricing, GHG emission in terms of monetary terms etc.
  • G. K. Shrestha added an answer:
    What could be planting techniques of kiwi fruit on hill slopes?

    Some farmers want to grow kiwi on sloping lands in Nepal, especially in hills around Kathmandu valley. The max. temp. during summer months are 25 to 30 deg Celsius while in winters it ranges from 2 to 10, but some years may go below zero. The fruit has a high market demand. There are a few farmers who have started growing kiwi in flat lands where irrigation facilities are available. But the technology suited for sloppy lands may be different from those used in flat lands.  

    G. K. Shrestha · Tribhuvan University

    Dear David,

    Thanks for your answer. It seems planting kiwi on hill slopes is not easy, but I am exploring for techniques that make easy and wise to follow.

    G.K. Shrestha. 

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    How can teachers and university staff improve the practical knowledge and abilities of students?

    Dear All,

    Theory and practice are going parallel with each other but often their working together is difficult to attain. This is an old phenomenon and regarding university education where often the theoretical side is predominated and so the right application of theoretic backgrounds is hampered.
    Obviously, this relationship is not the same regarding various scientific fields, professions  and production areas.

    What do you think how is it possible to surmount reliably over his gap between theory and practice?

    Ljubomir Jacić · Technical College Požarevac

    Thanks to You dear @Andras for posting very fine thread which gave us many fine responses and different experiences about this issue You have raised!

  • Philipp Schulze added an answer:
    What are effective types of biomass to extract glucose from (readily available to a regular student)?

    I've got a project in which I need to extract the glucose out of a sort of biomass (looking for multiple ones to compare results). Looking for protocols to do so. i.e. a protocol that describes what chemical or enzymatic processes are used to extract the starch out of maize and convert it to glucose.

    Some help would be appreciated, thanks!

    Philipp Schulze · Avans Hogeschool

    Thanks for the quick response.

    It seems like I have to put up with a non-enzymatic hydrolysis, because others within my project group urged to do the enzymatic one..

    Now i have to cope with another fun problem.. What would be the best way to extract the starch (convert it to glucose) from the maize (corn) by using a hydrolysis method. I've looked around the interwebs, but the requested studies take so long to be sent to me..  [Selective hydrolysis of cellulose into glucose over solid acid catalysts]

  • Mohammad Amin Nayebi asked a question:
    Can sombody suggest a recent review article on entrepreneurship in olive?

    today agribusiness is on of important  strategies to develop countries. in some area olive is a strategic product. if governments plan about developing agriculture, olive is best product to entrepreneur. i studied on entrepreneurship in olive and need to guide. please guide me some paper or studies that worked on this field.



  • Is agriculture development inducing post conflict resettlement processes in countries like Sri Lanka?
    Prior to the conflict, the North East Province had been producing nearly 33% of the rice, 40% of the dried chilies, 85% of the red onions and 30% of the grain legumes in the country. More than 30% of the livestock production in the country originated in this province. Around 55% of the total fish production have been from the North East Province. The present conflict that started in 1983 has had disastrous effects on the agricultural sector due to extensive damage to public and private assets, exodus of farmers and fishermen, decline in investment, and shrinkage of supporting services. This has led to a serious decline in productivity, increased losses, and neglection of existing assets, growing unemployment, poverty and social unrest. An estimate of the losses in agricultural output and damage to public and private assets is bound to run into several billions of rupees.
    Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar · University of Jaffna

    Immediately after the resettlement process of post war resettlement in Sri Lanka, Livelihoods of the IDPs were critically poor and Cash for Work (CfW) is the element facilitates the community for their short term employment; it also creates a community ownership through the direct participation of community in the reconstruction of their own village. This facilitated the community strengthening with livelihood development. This study area confines in Northern Provence of Sri Lanka. Continuous review was carried out since the begging of the CfW programme up to the final stage of CfW programme. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Impact assessment survey was carried out to find out the strength, weakness of implementation and visualize the livelihood development. Monitoring and Evaluation process facilitated to modification of the programme. Finally, Generalized Model for Implementation of CfW for post emergency situation was developed. The common recommendation for CfW were; carrying out baseline data collection, developing overall objective, setting target for CfW program, determine the wage rate for CfW program, recruitment and motivation of staffs, decide whether to collaborate with local NGOs, select community based existing committee or new CfW committee, strengthening the community groups, baseline profile of beneficiaries, selection of subproject, design & implement the selected project, chose a reliable method for payment, set up monitoring & evaluation system and develop a phasing out strategy to meet the sustainability of the CfW programme. By implementing the proposed structure of CfW program will help to uplift the community’s socio economic status with sustainable manner in the future CfW programme.
    Key Words: Cash for Work, Community Resource Person and ENReP

    The link below will give more on this

  • Mohammod Hossain asked a question:
    How do you feel when your answer in RG is down-voted

    Sometimes we get down-vote to our answer. We do not get reply (without disagreement) of our answer to a question from down voter. I like to get criticism of my answer instead of down vote. What do you think?

  • A. Nicholas E Birch added an answer:
    How is the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) in your countries?

    IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.

    Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).

    In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.

    The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.



    Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6.

    Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
    Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
    Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
    Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.

    A. Nicholas E Birch · James Hutton Institute

    I would welcome more interaction between organic and IPM fact, more organic research. To me, organic production seems best suited for small scale production and for high value crops like fresh  fruit and vineyards. If you yield less  due to crop damage the residual value is generally high enough to sustain production. Pesticide residues are closely monitored and generally very low (ppm or less) in conventional agriculture. Maybe long term exposure of such miniscule pesticide doses (below agreed MRLs)  might have adverse effects on humans - but is  there convincing evidence? Organic food can contain natural toxins produced by plants or  by invading pathogens (eg Fusarium in maize), so organic food needs to be carefully checked too. It's not a black and white case for me.

  • Modesto Chaves added an answer:
    Invitation to join Editorial Board of Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences

    Editorial Advisory Board
    Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences (JEAS)

    JEAS invites applications for Editorial Advisory Board members. The JEAS relies on its peer reviewers to maintain high quality publications. Members of Editorial Advisory Board will have a strategic role in assessing and guiding the current and future goals of the JEAS.

    Review Board
    The Review Board is a flexible way for individuals to become involved in the review process of JEAS. Members of the Review Board will help to ensure that the journal makes an expeditious response to all journal submissions and assessing their quality. It is open to both senior researchers/academics and junior/ early career scientists with a PhD in any of the avenues of environmental and agricultural sciences
    Applicants should submit their CVs with complete list of peer reviewed publications.

    The Review Board will consists of scholars willing to reviewing around 4-5 papers a year for the JEAS. We are recruiting 20 members this year, for a period of three years.

    JEAS will annually announce Outstanding Reviewer Award.

    For further information and submission of your request (along with your CV) contact The Science Publishers by no later than 31 October 2014.

    Modesto Chaves · South-West University "Neofit Rilski"

    It will be my pleasure to help

  • Satyendra Pratap Singh added an answer:
    What is the application of actinomycetes in agriculture and allied sectors?

    I found one isolate of actinomycetes which is able to produce high amount of blue color media diffusible pigment. After one week the agar plate turned in to dark blue. I want to know that what the application of this particular isolate in agriculture and allied sectors is.

    Satyendra Pratap Singh · National Botanical Research Institute - India

    Actinomycetes isolation agar...

  • Abul Mansur M. Masih added an answer:
    Which one (urbanization and agriculture) is more important for development?
    Urbanization and agriculture have been recognized as the policy priorities for many developing countries in the world? However, during the local practices, urbanization and agriculture are generally mutually conflicted (e.g., land use, investing). What is your opinion on the contributions of these two conflicting topics on the development sustainability of an economy?
    Abul Mansur M. Masih · International Centre for Education of Islamic Finance, Global University of Islamic Finance

    I believe that for a sustained economic growth, there is a need for a balanced development of urbanization and agriculture since they are interdependent during the growth process.


    Mansur Masih

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Does the activity of producing Free Fatty Acid (FFA) generate heat in the fruits, in particular for the oil palm fresh fruit bunches?
    If so, what will be the magnitude of such heat?

    What will be the approximate change in the temperature value of the fruit?
    Krishnan Umachandran · Nelcast Ltd.,

    Malaysia is the largest palm oil but the use of FTIR spectroscopy  for quality control is
    not prevalent in the industry which can reduce the chemical analysis time considerably and improve Productivity.

    The temperature range within the fruit is 30 - 36 deg C, ambient is 31.1deg C

    Attapon Choto et all (2014), Sterilization of Oil Palm Fruit Using Radio - Frequency Heating, Int’l Journal of Advances in Chemical Engg., & Biological Sciences (IJACEBS) Vol. 1, Issue 1(2014) ISSN 2349-1507 EISSN 2349-1515.

    FTIR - TG-IR (thermogravimetry-infrared spectrometry) IR spectra of the gases evolved during thermal decomposition are obtained as a function of temperature. Tiny samples with the aid of an infrared microscope can image the surface by scanning.

  • Pierre Guy Marnet added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on the suitability of river water for agriculture?

    How I can identify the suitability of river water for agriculture exception SAR? Can anyone suggest me other method to identify suitability of river water for agriculture?

    Pierre Guy Marnet · Agrocampus Ouest

    There is no most important factor to measure. It always depend on the river you want to test and origin, and history of water. It seems to me impossible to give more precise answer as already answered by sam. Additionally, sodium absorption ratio, sodium percentage are only  one of the multiple dimension you have to control about mineral equilibrium. Be careful to have only partial quality evaluation that could induce false conclusion about water quality suitability.,

  • M. Yaseen added an answer:
    Does anyone know how much biochar should be applied for dryland crop-Sorghum, finger millets etc (t/ha) or is any scientific field data available?

    What is the minimum quantity should apply?

    How many times should be added in the soil / year?

    M. Yaseen · Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Please contact to Dr. Puja Khare, Senior Scientist, CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow

  • Manvi Siwach added an answer:
    Is there any ontology for agriculture? Can you suggest your opinion on a question answering system in the agricultural domain?

    Not cross-lingual. I wish to do for English language only. Is agrotagger the only tagger which we can use for agricultural topics.

    Manvi Siwach · YMCA University of Science and Technology

    Yes type crop ontology with protege on google.

    you will get it,its an M.Tech thesis by some banasthali student if u couldn't find tell me will send u a link..

  • Sebataolo Rahlao added an answer:
    What are some of the indicators for long term monitoring and evaluation of agricultural responses to climate change?
    Understanding which indicators to monitor will help determine which responses (actions, strategies, policies, projects, programs) are effective for long term response to climate change in the agriculture sector. Examples of indicators I am thinking of include; soil quality, rate of soil loss.
    Sebataolo Rahlao · Department of Environmental Affairs

    Dear all, I have put together a four pager on these indicators and thought I should humbly ask if you can individually review/comment on? Please drop me an e-mail on and I will send you the draft document. 

  • What could be the significance of bringing together different enterprise GIS or enterprises?

     For example, bringing together or integrating Agriculture, Electric, Telecommunication, Postal, Police, Railways, Transport  and Airways enterprise GISs on a whole and its impact and effectiveness in modern India. Is it really required? 

  • Etienne Diserens added an answer:
    What method(s) can be used to easily measure iron concentration of soil water solution in a flooded rice field?
    Rapid method for measuring Fe(II) concentration in the soil, preferably in ppm
    Etienne Diserens · Agroscope

    Dear colleque,

    I purpose you the following simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron(II) in aqueous solutions from M. Jamaluddin AHMED, Uttam Kumer ROY (University of Chittagong, BANGLADESH).

    Note that Fe3+ is more soluble as Fe2+


    Etienne Diserens, Agroscope-Switzerland

  • Gordon Couger added an answer:
    What natural factors can influence prices of farm lands?

    How can we differentiate between natural factors and other economic factors that determine the price of lands? there are a plenty of factors that determine land price not in cities. it seems difficult to distinguish them or measure the effects of variables. I want to know some methodologies to find and measure these natural factors without including human factors such as distance to facilities or urban areas.

    Gordon Couger · Oklahoma State University - Stillwater

    Today the main factor in farmland prices are the farm's productivity and how much the people bidding against you are wiling to spend.

    Right now in the USA low interest rates and lenders hunger for someone with good credit willing to borrow money competing with those with cash looking for some place they hope inflation won't devour it are pushing up the price of farm land in Oklahoma well past the break even point.

    I also see some money moving from more conventional  investment into farm land. The situation on farmland is not a lot different for farm lane than the 1970 other than there are fewer player on the field. Only this time its the fear of the short burst of inflation  and higher interest rate yet to come not the inflation that had been and and the fear of more at decent interest rate as it was in the 1970's.

    Best Wishes


  • Alaa Kareem Niamah added an answer:
    How can I do ethanol determination by chemical methods?

    I work on ethanol production from agricultural wastes. I need to determine the content of ethanol production in media content more carbohydrates by chemical method I not use Gas chromotgrphy  method or GC

    Alaa Kareem Niamah · University of Basrah

    thanks Mr. Pandey

  • Arun K Sharma added an answer:
    Are hybrid varieties of crop plants really so problematic especially with respect to organic agriculture?

    Hybrid crop varieties are often criticized by environmental NGOs (e.g. Navdanya in India; Arche Noah in Austria) for various reasons: seed to seed propagation is problematic; hybrids have high yields and are homogenous in pehnotype but require much input (fertilizers, pesticides etc.). According to these NGOs hybrid varieties are also threatening agrobiodiversity because a few hybrid varieties outcompte a broad range of seed-to-seed varieties. My current understanding is that hybrids are good for an industrialized (organic) agriculture but that non-industrial production conditions require different varieies growing under suboptimal/low input conditions. Likely you have some good supllemental or contradicting knowledge on that issue.

    Arun K Sharma · Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI)

    PS : One more aspect that disturbed the whole recycling system of  agriculture .The sink part  diverted to grain in most of the hybrids and in that case the fodder generation in agriculture reduced drastically due to hybrids or fodder quality deteriorated and this gradually excluded animals form the agriculture , the major recycler and  regular income source of the majority of the farmers in tropical countries.  In another word the risk to natural extreams e.g. drought,  high or low temp. increased  and this is being practically realised in many parts of rainfed areas where farmers are promoted to use hybrids and if there is disruption in rainfall a pattern the farmer not only loose the grain but also not get fodder. Therefore the technology is good but how it is to be used considering the social  and ecological environment for sustainability that is the major concern.

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