Agriculture

Agriculture

  • Mourad DOUH added an answer:
    Does anybody know a (free) paper on precision farming/agriculture? especially about problems of adopting this technique?

    searching information for my master thesis

    Mourad DOUH · Le Centre de Recherche en Biotechnologie

    Rentable sur les zones a potentielle productif ( Richesse, texture et structure pluviométrie, et humidité )Basée sur une utilisation non optimale des produits phytosanitaires entraine un important surcoût pour les producteurs et un impact environnemental considérable. Une gestion optimisée des intrants et des ressources en eau superficielle ou souterraine sont les deux principales problématiques de l’agriculture de précision. Elle est basée sur l’exploitation intensive des sols et l’agriculture biologique, plus qualitative mais peu efficace en termes de rendement.
    L’utilisation d’intrants est souvent nécessaire mais ils peuvent nuire à la production et à la qualité des sols s’ils sont utilisés en excessive trop abondamment. L’agriculture de précision vise à apporter des outils de diagnostic aux agriculteurs pour qu’ils adaptent, localement, leurs apports en intrant en fonction des besoins réels des cultures.

  • Islam Hamim asked a question:
    Can anyone explain dual culture for virus isolation?

    virus, plant pathology, biology, botany, agriculture

  • Inga Wawrzynowicz added an answer:
    Does anybody have information/papers on how studies about mixed culture/intercropping affect modern agriculture?

    For my master thesis I am searching for present movements in the intercropping trend. I want to find out who finances studies about intercropping and who takes results into account for actual improving of production.

    Inga Wawrzynowicz · University of Hamburg

    thanks a lot for all the help! really appreciate it! :)

  • What is the bio-energetic cost-benefit to a system by using non-native species of organism/s?

    There are number of cases for waste management, land restoration, wasteland development, agroforestry and agriculture where non native species of organisms and external organic input are applied that might be detrimental to the system in the long run.

    Juan-Rodrigo Bastidas-Oyanedel · Masdar Institute of Science and Technology

    From my point of view, regarding the organic waste treatment, or treatment of organic residues from human activities. I personally prefer the methods that use reactors where the non native microorganisms are confined (isolated) from the surrounding  environment. Regarding land restoration, I also pro using local resources rather than use non native species. There cases (not sure if they are documented) of reforestation in SouthAmerica using European Trees. That has cause severe drought since the new species consume more water that the native ones... 

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Will food contamination be enhanced due to climate change?
    Food (Agriculture and fisheries and aquaculture produce) is the lifeblood of every country as it contributes to national food security, national social stability and environmental protection. Climate change is projected to cause a rise in global air temperature, sea surface temperature, atmospheric CO2, sea-level and an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events (storms, cyclones, floods, droughts, heat waves and bush fires). Whether warming will enhance bioaccumulation of contaminants (such as uptake of toxicants) in food? The food chain (water-soil-plant-human) pathway is recognised as one of the major pathways for human exposure to contaminants. The warmer climates are known to be favourable for the proliferation of insect pests and microbial pathogens. There are reports that there will be proliferation of algal blooms in aquatic environment (freshwater and marine) which produce toxins. Climate change (intense rainfall, flooding) will increase runoff of contaminants into waterways. Some of these contaminants (e.g. pesticide, trace metals, dioxins) are very harmful (i.e. carcinogenic) and many of them have properties of bioaccumulation (accumulate in a living organism). Where there will be water scarcity due to droughts, people will be forced to use contaminated water for irrigating food crops or growing fish.

    Question: Whether contamination in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture products will be enhanced due to climate change?
  • Edward Harwood added an answer:
    How can a higher plant leaf brix be achieved in the most agricultural arable lands?

    Perhaps any degree above a minimal of 12?

    Edward Harwood · Just Greens, LLC

    Try harvesting earlier and using only those plants with first true leaves

  • Peter Smetacek added an answer:
    What were the impacts of the Green Revolution on the poor farmers versus rich farmers and what were the effects of the introduction of GMOs?

    I'd like to know if it is true that the Green Revolution in India has favored only the rich peasants damaging instead the poorest. Also I would like to have news about the "Double Green Revolution" (based on the introduction of GMOs).  Did the GMOs in India have a positive or negative reception among the poorest farmers versus the relatively richer ones?

    Peter Smetacek · Butterfly Research Center, Bhimtal

    There was an attempt to introduce GM brinjal to India some years ago, but that was loudly opposed by environmental groups. That is about all at the moment, I think. The exploitation of the poorest farmers is historical, the Green Revolution may have changed traditional agriculture but did little to break the land grabbing networks. That, in any case, was not part of its mandate. The introduction of mechanised agriculture was opposed in many parts of the world (eg. the Dustbowl in Oklahoma) in different ways, that sort of thing did not happen in India.

  • Kwamina Ewur Banson added an answer:
    Is there any relationship between effect of nutrients and soil enzymatic activities in Bt cotton?
    I need related articles
    Kwamina Ewur Banson · University of Adelaide

    Attached is for your perusal

  • Amelia Delgado added an answer:
    What type of mold fungi growing in the glucose solution?

    I got glucose solution growing some fuzzy things and likely they are mold fungi. If apply the glucose solution to the soil to examine soil bacteria and fungi, how would the molds in solution affect the native bacteria and fungi in soil? Would they compete the nutrients and C (Literature says molds rely on water diffusion to get nutrients, and this means mold will not get nutrients in soil, right )? Or any other interaction? and how to differentiate them from DNA extraction, or it's impossible to identify their difference? Thank you.  

    you should also document yourself about the molecular biology methods that suits your purposes. You will get a picture of what is present within your target groups (but not necessarily active). Then you may use that information to devise experiments with selective media to verify the growth of the bacteria that you interested in (please be aware of non- culturable bacteria); good luck!

  • Stéphane Bellon added an answer:
    Is there any source of getting Chinese organic agriculture practices information?

    I'm interested about the Chinese organic agriculture: total land ares, production, labels, certification etc. What are , in China,  the organisms for inspection, certifications and accreditation? 

    Stéphane Bellon · French National Institute for Agricultural Research

    Dear Colleague,

    You'll probably be interested in reading the following PhD 

    Best regards.

    SB

    The making of organic agriculture in China: Boundaries, standards, and controversies

    by Li, Xueshi, Ph.D., MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY, 2014, 159 pages; 3633918


    Abstract:


    The controversy over whether there is authentic organic food in China has emerged as a response to the rising concerns over health, environmental deterioration, and food safety. This study examines how organic agriculture is defined, debated, and contested among various state and non-state actors, based on ten months of fieldwork in Beijing. Specifically, the chapters examine the following questions: What actors and institutions are involved in developing discourses of organic agriculture? What knowledge (scientific, traditional, or local etc.) is referred to in defining the "authenticity" of organic agriculture? What discourse(s) is (are) used in discussing boundaries between organic agriculture and conventional agriculture?

    This study uses a number of conceptual frameworks to address the questions, such as "boundary object", "boundary work", "boundary and arena analysis" and "boundary organization". It analyzes organic agriculture food governance through the boundary literature to show how social actors mobilize knowledge to govern. Based on fieldwork materials, the study shows that, at the current stage, Chinese organic agriculture is a boundary object in terms that it is allows interpretive flexibility of social actors; thus different groups are able to work together without consensus. While it is intertwined with the interpretive flexibility of social actors, the authenticity of Chinese organic agriculture will always remain problematic as the result of a lack of concrete formal and informal standards that define authenticity.

  • Which model is most suitable for calculating the degree of industrialization?

    I'm doing a research on the application of machinery in area of agriculture in Sandzak from 1918 - 2008 and why I need advice on what is the best way to express the degree of industrialization

    Francisco Javier Meléndez Hernández · University of Veracruz

    Perhaps you could use Chenery and Taylor's Development Patterns among Countries abd over Time, (RES, Nov.,1968) in which they show how  the size of an economy determines the path and the type of industrialization; as well as another study by Leamer, Maul, Rodríguez and Schott; Does Natural Resource Abundance Increase Latin American Income Inequality?; (JDE, 1999) for a description of the path and degree of industrialization based on different resource endowments.

  • Didier Bazile added an answer:
    Does anyone have any information or publications on the status of the cultivation of domesticated Chenopodium album in the Himalayas?

    Chenopodium album is one of the more common Chenopods in Eurasia. It's considered as a weed in Europe but there are some studies that confirm its domestication in the Himalayas. This species, very diverse and unknown (2x, 4x and 6x), was cultivated in China, India, Nepal and Bhutan. But today it's very difficult to know the real superficie covered by C album as a crop. Where are the farmers, in which agroecological conditions, for what kind of uses (grains, leaves, etc.)?

    One reason for the lack of documented information on chenopods is that many past reports misidentified Chenopodium album as a variety of Amaranth (Amaranthus anardana).

    Didier Bazile · Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    I received also messages saying that there are breeders that are improving C album in India and Taiwan with white seeded domesticated types from the himalayas.

  • Selvaraju Sivamani added an answer:
    How can I do ethanol determination by chemical methods?

    I work on ethanol production from agricultural wastes. I need to determine the content of ethanol production in media content more carbohydrates by chemical method I not use Gas chromotgrphy  method or GC

    Selvaraju Sivamani · Kumaraguru College of Technology

    Lucas test is used to identify/estimate secondary and tertiary alcohols. But, the question is about ethanol, which is a primary alcohol. Lucas test gives negative result for primary alcohols. Hence, Lucas test cannot be used for estimation of ethanol.

  • Ram Awadh Ram added an answer:
    Is there any source of getting Indian agriculture practices information?

    We know that there are regional variation in seasons onset and termination, crop pattern, requirement of water supply throughout the country. Where can we get information about all these?

    Ram Awadh Ram · Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture

    An Agricultural Testament – written by Sir Albert Howard may be the source for traditional Indian farming practices.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    How is the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) in your countries?

    IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.

    Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).

    In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.

    The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.

    HOW HAVE YOU IMPLEMENTED IPM, ET AND EIL IN YOUR COUNTRIES?

    References:

    Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6. http://www.issues.org/16.3/ehler.htm

    Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
    Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
    Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
    Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.

    András Bozsik · University of Debrecen

    Dear Eric,

    Thanks for an example of strategic IPM.

  • Manas Mukhopadhyay added an answer:
    How can scientific understanding of beneficial soil microorganisms be utilized to increase agricultural production?

    I have read that researchers have noticed significant differences in soil microorganism community structure / ratios of fungus:bacteria in samples of grassland compared to agricultural fields.

    Soil microbiology is a (relatively) young discipline. Are we at the point where we can utilize what we have learned about soil microorganisms to agricultural applications?

    Manas Mukhopadhyay · Government of West Bengal

    Thanks  Bhupendra

    Most probably you have mentioned about vermicomposting. Definitely it is a good option, if the farmers can produce vermicompost on their own in their own field and apply in their field because it contains different beneficial micro-organisms, enzymes, hormones, humic acids.... etc. But , commercially is it viable for the farmers to use vermicompost maintaining profitability? For an example one acre of paddy field require minimum 5 qtls of vermicompost. Considering the production cost, 1 Kg of vermicompost costing minimum about Rs. 5 . So only for applying vermicompost in one acre of paddy field a farmer have to spend about Rs. 2500. In the initial phases vermicompost can only substantiate a part of chemical fertilizer......So, Considering all the in-put cost, will it be viable for the farmers to use vermicompost in large scale?  

    In case of bio-fertilizer containing nitrogen accumulating ( Azototobacter/ Rhyzobium etc) or PSB costing of one Kg of bio-fertilizer is maximum about Rs. 80. Maximum dose of bio-fertilizer ( considering crop, way and place of application, strain, climate ........ etc) maximum about 5 kg. So, costing for application of bio-fertilizer in one acre of land  maximum is about Rs. 400. Bio-fertilizer can also substantiate a part of chemical fertilizer and has a long term beneficial effect.

     So, paying full respect to your ideas, I am requesting you as well as all my friends to promote use of bio-fertilizer among the farmers to increase productivity of different crops maintaining harmony with the ever increasing population as well as soil fertility status.

    with regards

  • Marcelo Negri Soares added an answer:
    Capital and labor intensive in agriculture
    What is the total factor productivity in agriculture commodity?
    Marcelo Negri Soares · Universidade Nove de Julho

    Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices necessarily bring changes in demands on resources. This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive.

  • Mayank Pandey added an answer:
    How can we efficiently utilize the fly ash in agriculture?
    Fly ash contains heavy metals. Studies reported the use of fly ash in agriculture but no study reveals how much fly ash can be used as a fertilizer in the next crop season. How can one estimate the residual fly as in soil? If we use fly ash in one crop season, is it not necessary that all the fly ash can be used up? If we use the same concentration of fly ash in the next cropping season the concentration of fly ash may be increased and that may negatively affect the crop growth and germination.

    Please comment on this and clear my query. Thanks.
    Mayank Pandey · Banaras Hindu University

    Fly ash can be added to the mineral deficient soils in agriculture fields as nutrient supplement. But before the application, metals quanitification (characterization) is must as to assess the concentration of metals in the ash. Long term treatment (exposure) may cause bioaccumulation.   

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    Are the products of greenhouse cultivation are perceived as inferior for taste and quality?

    Please compare greenhouse to open-field cultivation. Some consumers equate the phrase “open-field” cultivation (OFC) with natural products. What is your preference and perception on the final product quality of greenhouse (protected) cultivation verses OFC? What are the determinants of the perception of quality for a typical production (e.g., tomato) grown inside the greenhouse or grown outside in the open-field?

    Krishnan Umachandran · Professor

    Pp7

    The warm, humid conditions and abundant food in the greenhouse are ideal for pest buildup. Problems can be chronic unless recognized and corrected. Many insecticides used on vegetables in the field are prohibited in the greenhouse

    Source - ID-36 Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers, 2014-15, UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546;

  • Carijn Beumer added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome

    http://chrisnf.blogspot.ca/2010/06/lambert-academic-publishing-continues.html
    Carijn Beumer · Maastricht University

    Hi all, I think it would not be wise to publish with LAP. Especially not when you are a beginning researcher. I think it might affect your CV negatively instead of positively to have a publication there.

    I was also annoyed by the multilple friendly requests to publish my dissertation there and finally decided to write a reply. I don't know if that was wise of me to do, but I felt  like doing it and I will see if I get any more spam mails by LAP. If you like, you can use it as an example if you feel like sending a reply to end the spamming. Here it comes:

    "Dear Mrs. Olsen,

    In reply to your mail, a few answers to your questions:

    1.Yes, I received your earlier emails.

    2. No, I don't wish to publish my dissertation via your services and I don't want to hand over my copyrights to your company for the following reason: although LAP is a registered company, it is infamous on the web for its dubious publication practices, see for example: 


    https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_it_worth_publishing_with_Lambert_Academic_publishers

    or: http://accrispin.blogspot.se/2009/09/victoria-strauss-vdm-verlag-dr-mueller.html

    3. I hope for you that you can find another and a better job soon. One that respects your professional capacities and your value as a person better that LAP publishing does.

    4. I am not Mr. Beumer, but a female person. It would be practical and polite that -- if you decide to keep working for your boss -- you do a little research before addressing your 'potential' customers. At the other side, perhaps I should not tell you this, because most researchers who are a bit cautious and annoyed by the many spam mails they receive are even more cautious and annoyed when they are not addressed properly. And that would be good in the case of being 'invited' by LAP. Because then my colleagues would surely not walk into the trap of publishing their work with you without researching the web about the way you operate.

    5. Please never contact me again, except when you have a new job and work for a high profile publisher like Springer, Elsevier, or Earthscan or any other well-known and respected University Press.

    Thank you,

    Kind Regards and a happy new year to you, (with hopefully a new job),

    Carijn Beumer"

  • Mustapha yusif ahmad added an answer:
    What governs the speed of food production?
    Food production around the world does not seem to be in proportion with the population size. For example africa, a resource rich continent deals with hunger and subsidy based agriculture while developed countries flourish beyond their need. What governs the speed of food production. What is the rationale behind it?
    Mustapha yusif ahmad · Federal College Of Education

    Hi, among the reasons that govern food production with reference to Africa is policy making, in Africa most countries doesn't have have a good policy (e.g subsidy and ready made market). this is largely not because we Africans are not wise enough to make good decisions, but the leaders are not ready to do so. another reason is that African is made to be the market place for the commodities of the developed world such as USA, England etc. so if Africa is to produce to its demands, then there will be no market for them.

  • Valberto Feitosa added an answer:
    What are the possible areas for application of Fractal dimension in agricultural engineering?

    I would like to know the possibilities of application of fractal dimension in agriculture or agricultural engineering.

    Some examples are like spray pattern, shape of soil grain, cracking pattern of soil etc. 

    Valberto Feitosa · Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará


    Dear friend I am still in the first year of doctorate in agricultural engineering, still do not have this knowledge, however'll talk to my teachers about it. The friend could send me or indicate some work on what do you say?

  • Shanker Lal Shrivastava added an answer:
    What is the best air distribution system for a cold storage chamber (for horticultural produce)?
    Let us consider a chamber with L x B x H of 18 m x 16 m x 4 m storing apples. What type of air distribution system (including locations of air inlet and outlet) should be used?
    Shanker Lal Shrivastava · IIT Kharagpur

    Thanks Soran.

  • Peyman Falsafi added an answer:
    How do you describe the current status (and future) of agricultural extension system in your country?
    There are many different arrangements for delivery of agricultural extension services currently in place in different countries (i.e., public, private, contract, pluralistic extension system ). At first, please share how you evaluate the effectiveness of the system in the 21st century, generally speaking. I am curious to know also how do you see the trend towards the governance of the system. Is it towards private type delivery and funding systems? How do you see the future of the system in your country?
    Peyman Falsafi · Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization

    Dear Mr. Hashemi

    Salam

    I suggest you have a look to me and Dr. Shahpasand's  country report in the recent Philippines workshop.

    Regards

    Peyman Falsafi

  • Francis Macary added an answer:
    Is Agricultural extensification or Agricultural Intensification best for farmers living around the watershed areas?

    Both agricultural extensification and intensification are employed by some farmers around my study area for my research, there seems to be some variation in productivity, so which is best for them on the long run?

    Francis Macary · National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture - France

    Dear Olaolu,

    Firstly, sorry for the delay of my answer, because I read your question some weeks ago, but I am very busy at this period to find a little time.

    I am agronomist and PhD in environmental sciences. In our team, we assess consequencxes of intensive agricultural production in some watersheds with environmental issues.

    In our team, we assess consequences of intensive agricultural production in some watersheds with environmental issues, like surface water quality to be used in drinking water process. Also our investigations concern the uses of fertilisers (nitrogen), pesticides and their contamination risk of streams and rivers at different spatial scale of watersheds.

    Now the européen and national developed policies are applied to protect groundwater and surface water because they received lot of contaminants. For instance in France, the presence of pesticides is widespread in surface water (91% of data points contain) and groundwater (55% of points) and we can do quite the same constatation in Western Europe.
    Intensive agriculture has reached its limits in crop yields and cannot move; instead they tend to decrease with increase in costs, as the economic result fall. Also very perceptible climate change increases this phenomenon and a production mode change is necessary. The policies tried to promote organic farming system, but they are poorly developed. Now in France, the Ministry of agriculture launched since December 2012 a program concerning agroecology: a concept for integrating ecosystems into agricultural systems: this is the scientific, technological and political answer for achieve an efficient agriculture that respects the environment and the social character of rural territories. But, on the African continent, you know for a long time practice of agroecology and it is in my opinion the only way forward to be considered in the context of global change.

    Best regards

  • Alec Thornton added an answer:
    Could anyone provide some examples of community gardens developed within university campus green areas by using design competences?
    I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
    Alec Thornton · University of New South Wales

    I'm finishing up a study on UA and social movements. In a questionnaire, one respondent mentioned roof gardens at the University of Sydney...their Facebook site states "All are welcome"

    http://srcusyd.net.au/amelie-vanderstock-updates-us-on-the-usyd-community-garden-project/

    https://www.facebook.com/pages/USYD-Community-Garden/546500095418512?sk=info&tab=page_info

  • Yuan-Yeu Yau added an answer:
    Are hybrid varieties of crop plants really so problematic especially with respect to organic agriculture?

    Hybrid crop varieties are often criticized by environmental NGOs (e.g. Navdanya in India; Arche Noah in Austria) for various reasons: seed to seed propagation is problematic; hybrids have high yields and are homogenous in pehnotype but require much input (fertilizers, pesticides etc.). According to these NGOs hybrid varieties are also threatening agrobiodiversity because a few hybrid varieties outcompte a broad range of seed-to-seed varieties. My current understanding is that hybrids are good for an industrialized (organic) agriculture but that non-industrial production conditions require different varieies growing under suboptimal/low input conditions. Likely you have some good supllemental or contradicting knowledge on that issue.

    Yuan-Yeu Yau · Northeastern State University

    @Kulasekaran,

    The concept of 'hybrids' (such as interspecific hybrids) you mentioned is a little bit different from that of the 'hybrids' bred for hybrid seed production. For hybrid seed production, two inbred lines (high homozygosity) are developed and used for crossing to create F1 hybrids. This also triggers 'hybrid vigor or heterosis' in the F1 hybrid.

  • Syed Umar Hayat Shah added an answer:
    What are the economic and environmental costs of trees when they can also have a negative impact on human health?

    What are the economic and environmental costs of trees when they can also have a negative impact on human health? (e.g a tree which creates pollen)

    Secondly, what is the cost of the removal of these kinds of trees? 

    Syed Umar Hayat Shah · Pakistan Institute of Development Economics

    thanks Sir ... Sharom ...

  • Pedram Shoa added an answer:
    In hydroponics: What is the best way to monitor varying nutrient levels in plants in "real time"?

    I have read in Howard Resh's Hydroponic Food Production that ideally the researcher would "take tissue analyses of the plant once a week, and in conjunction with these tests, nutrient solution analyses. The level of each essential element in the plant tissue and nutrient solution must be determined and correlated so that if needed, adjustments can be made in the nutrient solution."

    He mentioned that this method is not economically feasible for most commercial growers. My question is, today, is this method of taking tissue analyses the best way to truly optimize plant health in a hydroponics system, and has anyone been using this method and can comment on it?

    Pedram Shoa · Isfahan University of Technology

    SPAD and leaf sample methods stated above are very good but they could not provide real time measurement. you should try non destructive and non contact methods, which could provide real time data acquisitions. do a research on non destructive topics such as optical reflectance or florescence methods. i think you can find beautiful approaches.

  • Suneel K KUMAR Goyal added an answer:
    Is there any recent data available indicating agricultural losses due to weeds?

    There are lots of weeds may be perennial or annual occur in tropical parts of India.

    Cyperus rotundus is one of them causing huge economical loss to Indian agriculture.

    Suneel K KUMAR Goyal · Banaras Hindu University

    Dear Sanjeet, Today, there are many website available, you should visit and get solution of your question. SEDA, FAO, USAD, ICAR and many more.

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