• Debasis Mitra added an answer:
    Quality index of agricultural soils?

    I need literature to build soil quality index, intregando physicochemical and microbiological indicators.

    Thank you

    Debasis Mitra$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/aesa8681/$FILE/sqi_review_final.pdf

  • Honar Safar Doski added an answer:
    Has anyone investigated the relationship between fertilizer (synthetic NPK vs manure) and the %N in crop plant tissues?

    For some reason I am having trouble finding studies that have tested differences in plant nutrient uptake, specifically %N, in response to NPK versus manure.  All of the literature I have uncovered so far tests soil nutrient response but not plant nutrients.  I am particularly interested if leguminous plants may accumulate excess %N when raised in fields that have been historically fertilized with synthetic fertilizers.  Does anyone know if a study like this has been published?

    Honar Safar Doski

    Nitrogen (N)
    Converts to amino acids in plant
    »Building blocks for proteins
    »Essential for cell division & plant growth
    Necessary for enzyme reactions
    Constituent of chlorophyll (photosynthesis)
    Promotes vigorous vegetative growth

    Roles of Phosphorus (P)

    Plays role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage & transfer, cell division & enlargement
    Stimulates early growth & root formation
    Promotes flower and fruit development
    Promotes seedling root growth
    Contributes to disease resistance
    Does not easily leach

    Roles of Potassium (K)
    Essential for photosynthesis
    Used for protein synthesis &
    sugar translocation
    Important in membrane permeability
    Opening & closing of stomates
    Helps plant use water more
    efficiently by promoting turgidity
    Increases disease resistance

    Tells what plant actually took up
    Standards only available for crop plants
    Best timing
    »Annual crops – during active growth
    »Tree crops – July
    »Grapes – at bloom (petioles)
    Include 30+ leaves/sample  into small paper bag, refrigerate, take to lab ASAP
    Include: N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, salts(?)
    Nutrient Analysis Plant Tissue Sampling

  • Vera Malsia added an answer:
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis. Is this also a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe?
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis, and I think that it could mean a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe. What is your opinion?
    Vera Malsia

    Day by day and step by step in our globe have a lot problems in every sector of our life ... ! Political and Econimocal crisis are giving the impcts with negeative effects in eduaction, industry, agriculture, forestry, etc.

  • Ntandoyenkosi Buthelezi added an answer:
    Does anyone knows what kind of water licencing method do municipalities use to supply water to users such as industry and agriculture?

    I am conducting a research on socio- economic impacts of drought on water users of uMhlathuze, an area in KZN,

    My question in short is, what licences do the sectors have and how will the restrictions due to drought conditions affect them (Industry and Agriculture)?

    Ntandoyenkosi Buthelezi

    Thank you for your responses.

    Sir Mohammad I don't know any.

  • Michael Brückner added an answer:
    Are there any metadata set to describe the agriculture early warnings?

    Are there any metadata set to describe the early warnings related to agriculture disease and disaster?

    The metadata focus is the observation of the early warnings.

    Michael Brückner

    Frederic, just as a remark: I'm sure you have looked for metadata regarding weather forecasts and hindcasts, which may be used as a basis for early warnings.

  • Denis Bocquet added an answer:
    Could you suggest literature about architectural integration of agriculture into the building envelope?

    I am just starting a research about building-related urban agriculture, and in particular farming practices taking place against/on/within the building envelope (rooftop and facades). Is there any literature about architectural and spatial integration of the farming rooms into building or, even better, about buildings' architectural requirements for a proper integration ?

    Thank you in advance!

    Denis Bocquet

    Dear Silvia

    I think this book: Carrot City: Creating Places for Urban Agriculture by Mark Gorgolewski, June Komisar and Joe Nasr provides good contextual information. It might help you in the definition of the technical approach you wish to develop

    Best regards


  • Sakthivel Mani added an answer:
    How to prepare hydrogel with simple technique and from simple salts?
    Hydro-gels are super water absorption capability so beneficial for agro activities.
    Sakthivel Mani

    material which posses cellulose from which we can easily prepare hydrogels

  • Shrikant Mukate added an answer:
    How can I plot the results of permeability index in a Dooneen plot?

    i am unable get this reference regarding the above question if anybody have it please forward me.

    Doneen LD (1964) Notes on water quality in agriculture. Davis: Water Science and
    Engineering, University of California

    Thank you in advance.

    Shrikant Mukate

    Ashwani, i am little bit confused let me know which variables should i plot on X  and Y axis. 

  • Noureddine Abdelkrim added an answer:
    Any paper on artichocke water requirement calculation ?

    Artichocke's irrigation performance need a comparison with theoretical requirements. What kind of data are necessary for this ?

    Noureddine Abdelkrim

  • Habib Yazdanshenas added an answer:
    What is the best method of measuring the carrying capacity of a protected area?

    A protected area in an arid environment with herds of herbivores are free roaming with some livestock exist. How do I measure the carrying capacity of this nature reserve?

    Habib Yazdanshenas


    Any practices in range-lands and specially in arid range-lands require to a long time period of data which gather by monitoring. however the best way to calculate carrying capacity is to use the average production Which is is obtained from a specified time interval. there for you should to consider some less than average that is suitable for the long term and does not harm the basic resources such as soil, plants and ecosystem services. Notice, we can not write a similar prescription for all regions of the world  

  • Parthasarathi Theivasigamani added an answer:
    What is the use or application of Phyton, Pearl language, relevant to Agriculture or plant science study?
    Programming language usage in plant biology?
    Parthasarathi Theivasigamani

    Thank you SAMARTH GUPTA

  • Prabhat K. Nema added an answer:
    Modified atmosphere drying?

    One day I learned about browning and how to dry fresh bamboo shoots. I was surprised by an idea to dry fresh bamboo in modified air. Is there any further information about modified atmosphere drying? Thank you in advance

    Prabhat K. Nema

    all the best

  • Md. Julfiker Rahman added an answer:
    How dietary pattern of farmers/fish farmers of coastal area can be enriched so that nutritional security can be achieved?

    Farming communities in coastal areas of India are in a vulnerable condition and nutritional security in India is a issue. So enrichment of the dietary pattern of the people with low-cost available protein or micronutrients can help in gaining nutritional security. I want to intervene a suitable design for nutria-smart village in coastal India.

    Md. Julfiker Rahman

    Hellow Roy

    I think Integrated fish-vegetable-rice-fruit culture will be helpful to improve their nutritional status. This type of culture in coastal area also very profitable with low cost. Some model we already practiced in Bangladesh coastal are and succeed are given below.

    Best wishes


    + 2 more attachments

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    What method of extracting apoplastic and Symplast sap of root cell, suggest me?

    which method is better for extract sap of symplast and apoplast ?

    Abhishek Raj

    Its my pleasure Elham mam...

    Best Wishes

  • Paul Mcguinness added an answer:
    How can we use hydrogel for improving water use efficiency of agricultural and horticultural crops under limited irrigation and rainfed conditions?

    Hydrogel applications in improving water use efficiency

    Paul Mcguinness

    Commercially available from the Achiltibuie Garden

  • Chandana Jayathilake added an answer:
    Anybody out there who has worked on the outreach strategies of a mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas?

     What are the basic techniques used to convenience the marginal people to adopt a cost involving technology which will enhance their agriculture production and livelihoods ?. I need information on the marketing or outreach strategies for the implementation of mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas,

    Case studies on different Mobile and Tab based technologies for agriculture and rural development, its implementation techniques can also be shared.

    Thank you

    Chandana Jayathilake

    Kiran, This reference is not exactly the outreach activities in marginalized people or 'base of the pyramid' community but this will help you in understanding the concept in 'base of the pyramid',' inclusive innovations'.


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The potential role and significance of mobilization of scientific and indigenous knowledge to promote sustainable agriculture is well recognized. Yet, the inherent features associated with traditional agricultural extension methods and the high costs of information provision act as the major barriers to improving the livelihood of farmers, especially those from developing countries characterize by subsistence agricultural systems. On this rationale, this study examined empirically the potential use of low cost information communication technologies (ICTs) for knowledge mobilization in rural agricultural communities in Sri Lanka. A series of pilot-tested field experiments, termed as “campaigns” and each was programmed to run within 2 to 3 months in a selected agricultural community, were carried out in the Batticaloa, Kurunagala and Matale districts during April to September 2014 to collect data from 210 households. Three identified low cost user-friendly Free and Open Source (FOSS) ICTs, namely: (1) FrontlineSMS for text messaging; (2) Ushahidi for crowd mapping, and (3) Freedom Fone for interactive voice response were practiced in order to evaluate the use and relative effectiveness of ICTs for agricultural knowledge mobilization. The outcome of study shows that ICTs interventions increase the information provided to the stakeholders in agriculture sector by about 40% and, more importantly, diminish the transaction costs incurred in the process of knowledge mobilization (i.e. cost of searching, negotiating and verification of information) markedly; thereby, can act as a drive for positive changes in the livelihood of agriculture-based rural communities. Keywords: Agricultural communities, Information Communication Technology (ICT), Knowledge mobilization
      8th International Research Conference, General Sir John Kothalawala Defence University, General Sir John Kothalawala Defence University, Rathmalana, Sri Lanka; 08/2015

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  • Rein Andre Roos added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me about success story of climate smart agriculture for mitigating negative impact of climate change on agro-ecosystem ?

    I am planning to collect some success story regarding role of climate smart agriculture in mitigating negative impact on agro-ecosystem. It will help me for making review article. 

    Waiting for your good suggestion and valuable information..

    Rein Andre Roos

    The answer of Dr. A. Subba Rao is very interesting because he points at the problems related to drought. In this context it is interesting that also here electrical field manipulation is able to give a helping hand concerning Climate Change

    This was shown by the rain making specialist Bernard Vonnegut who decided to investigate the influence of negative charges on precipitation and thus the climate. He did this by using a 10 km long corona wire at 7 m height on a site near Jacksboro Texas (.us)

    The results were very interesting because he indeed was able to change the rain pattern in that area considerably. A problem related to drought on a certain part on Cyprus is now under discussion. It concerns a small river deviating rain clouds.

    This deviation is such that certain parts of the land do not receive the rain. The idea in now to “hide” the riverbed for the clouds so that they will pass the river and that rain will start to fall on the arid river bank and its adjacent territory after a form of Vonnegut stimulation.

    Those interested in this matter could take up contact with:Roberto Sciffo at

    + 1 more attachment

  • Hom Nath Gartaula added an answer:
    Is there any literature on women drudgery reducing technologies in agriculture?

    We are writing a review article on the drudgery reducing technologies for women in terrace agriculture. The work in this area seems scanty. Your suggestion for any sort of materials are greatly appreciated.

    Hom Nath Gartaula

    Thanks all for your informative answers. I will look into your suggestions and will share if I find more. 

  • Vyanaktesh Balajirao Yannawar added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome
    Vyanaktesh Balajirao Yannawar

    I dont face such problem from publishers. infect is a good source for free eBook publishing and making good platform for young researchers

  • Stephen Warren added an answer:
    Was agriculture a benign or malign invention?
    The conventional view is that the discovery of agriculture about 7000 years ago in N.Europe (as the last ice age came to an end) by concentrating the production of food in one place released man for other activities. It catalyzed the development of trading which led to the development of written records and mathematics.
    On the other hand Bryan Sykes, in "Adam's Curse" (A book which charts the decline of the Y chromosome and forecasts its eventual demise [recent studies have refuted this] and has had mixed, and sometimes contradictory, reviews in Amazon) presents some interesting (I think) arguments that agriculture has had some more malign influences.
    1) Nutritional status declined as the diet was then dominated by carbohydrates
    2) More sedentary lifestyles led to decline in physical condition
    3) Whereas the hunter gatherer lifestyle was compatible only with monogamy, a man could plant enough grain to support two or more families. Land therefore acquired value and strong, ruthless individuals could buy, extort or simply take land from weaker individuals. Ownership of land therefore became linked to wealth, power and fecundity. Women married to such men would have more children and women who were attracted by power increased as a proportion of the female population. Sexual selection therefore led to men who were increasingly aggressive and power seeking and women who tended to be attracted to such men (I realize that this is an over-simplification and exaggeration but it contains an idea which, if valid, accounts for the nature of the alpha-male and why they are nearly always promiscuous. Of course all men are not like this; some remain with a hunter-gatherer personality and others have elements of both. Women likewise, mutatis mutandis. It also accounts for the absence of drive for success in many women but not, interestingly, for male attitudes towards women).
    From this we can break down the big question into smaller subsets:
    a) Was this form of agriculture always inevitable or were there alternatives (at least theoretically)?
    b) If there were alternatives what were/are they and what are their benefits and disadvantages?
    c) Is Sykes right in his analysis and conclusions?
    d) If not, why not?
    e) Are there any reasons to believe that any of the alternative societies that might have evolved would have been an improvement on the one in which we now find ourselves?
    Stephen Warren       

    argues that the existential decline of the Y chromosome has been overstated and that it has several functions that are too important to disappear.  If the authors are right this removes the central plank, but not the subsidiary ones, from Sykes's book.  Nevertheless there are counter-arguments to these too.

    At best I believe Sykes has over-simplified an issue that is much more complex than he thinks.

  • Naeem Fiaz added an answer:
    Identification of sugarcane varieties?
    I am preparing a comprehensive book for sugarcane varieties identification. Most of our local farmers and sugarcane procurement staff of sugar mill get confused. Can anybody share experience, or suggest literature?
    Naeem Fiaz

     Thanks dears...

  • Anoop Kumar Srivastava added an answer:
    How do different N combination ratios influence other nutrients uptake?
    In my work, we supply the same amount of N,P, and K fertilizer but different organic and inorganic combination ratio.The more the organic manure used, the higher the P concentration had, and meanwhile the N concentration was lower, why is this so? How does N influence P and K uptake?
    Anoop Kumar Srivastava

    Sorry , based on such nutrient ratios , diagnosis and recommended integrated system has  been developed , which is so successful in many perennial fruit crops. The method also precludes the impact of leaf sampling age , you can test leaf analysis at any crop developmental stage. You can also streamline the order of nutrient deficiencies  in decreasing or increasing order. so nutrient ratios have far reaching implications in the context  of better understanding on nutritional characterization of perennial fruits.

  • Narayan Sharma Rimal added an answer:
    Is there any way to increase the rate of Adoption of ready -to use agricultural technologies ?

    Adoption of already and proven agricultural technologies in West Asia and North Africa is a real problem. How we can improve and increase the adoption rate.


    Narayan Sharma Rimal

    This is a complex issue basically in least developed countries with wider and varied geographical settings. However in my view Participatory Approach like Farmer Field School, Participatory Technology Development will be the best approach to increase the adoption rate of improved technology.

    In addition to this, engagement of Local Social Organization (Cooperatives, Farmers Groups) in planning process and dissemination of the improved technologies will be very much helpful in reducing reluctance within the farmers associated with technologies and motivate them to adopt new and ready to use technologies together at their own farms. Thus, i believe development of technologies should be WITH FARMER, BY FARMER AND FOR FARMER so that dissemination of technologies will be much easier and hence motivate farmers to adopt those rapidly at their level. 

  • Wellington Wagner Ferreira Sarmento added an answer:
    Which is the best simulator for WSN applications in agriculture?
    My research area is WSN in agriculture "Data issues and aggregation analysis in WSNs ", So for this what is the best simulator and where i can download it?
    Wellington Wagner Ferreira Sarmento

    Ns2, ns3, Omnet++ and optnet are well-knew and excelent simulador. But thay are to simulations of protocols and interactions among nodes. There are in Agricuture weather  variables and plants behavior those extremily dificult to sensoring. Maybe If you create the data from a Agricutural Simulator like and put these in node enter you have a better simulation. Thais paper perheps help you:

  • Gunda Mohanakrishna added an answer:
    Is it possible to remove pesticides from water-logged soils using microbial assemblages?

    Looking for viable options for remediation of pesticide-contaminated water-logged soils.

    Gunda Mohanakrishna

    Here I can suggest bioelectrochemical system (BES) for the treatment of the recalcitrant and toxic compounds. This is the novel system where the complex mechanisms works for the degradation of organic molecules. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), one of the applications of BES that treats organic pollutants and simultaneusly generates bioelectricity. Many recalcitrant organic pollutants including, chemical wastewater, distillery wastewater, dye wastewater, pesticide wastewater, phenol related wastewaters were stuided for the suitability to use as substrates. A large array of articles can be find in literature. 

    As the MFCs were found to perform very good in sediments and water-logged soils, MFCs is best option to work for the pesticides degradation. 

    Even though, the energy/bioelectricity produced is less, when the major aim is pollutant degradation, MFCs perform good. The energy input for MFC operation is minimum. 

    Few articles that cited below can give youbasic information

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have been employed for various applications in recent years including energy production, wastewater treatment, electrosynthesis and desalination. The present chapter emphasizes the advantages and potential applications of BES for the remediation of recalcitrant pollutants present in various types of wastewaters. Bioelectricity generated from the treatment of these wastewaters is an additional energy output from the process along with the possible environmental solution. Since, the treatment mechanism of BES is combination of both microbial and electrochemical reactions, the process can be termed as microbial electroremediation. The current chapter depicts the principles of bioelectrochemical remediation, possible mechanisms at anode and cathode. Further, a comprehensive overview on different types of wastewater as well as nutrients, pollutants and toxic substances, utilized as electron donors or acceptors for their treatment, is discussed in detail under different categories. Microbial electroremediation is still an emerging field of science aimed at harnessing energy from wastewater treatment and it has a potential to boon the waste remediation with net positive energy gain.
      Applied Environmental Biotechnology: Present Scenario and Future Trends, 1 edited by Garima Koushik, 03/2015: chapter 10: pages 145; Springer., ISBN: 978-81-322-2122-7

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  • Rabar Fatah Salih added an answer:
    Is there any relationship between effect of nutrients and soil enzymatic activities in Bt cotton?
    I need related articles
    Rabar Fatah Salih

    Dear Manjunatha,

    I believed that you can get answer by following these attachments bellow.

    Actually, my articles about effects of potassium, boron and zinc of kenaf. I hope that it is useful for you. 

    + 2 more attachments

  • Bernhard Meier zu Biesen added an answer:
    Can vertical farming be used in tropical forests as an alternative to conventional (horizontal) farming?

    Farming is considered to be the first cause of deforestation in the tropics. Our research team is currently looking for farming solutions that may replace conventional small- and large-scale farming in Brazilian rainforests. Our current assumption is that vertical farming, mainly conceived for urban areas, may be an alternative that has a much smaller impact on the forest because of their small footprint and diffuse spatial distribution (vertical farms scattered around the forest, instead of being clustered), thus drastically reducing deforestation. We are confronted with the following questions:

    - Is there any knowledge on how productive vertical farms are in tropical forests?

    - What kind of new problems would vertical farms bring for farmers?

    - Can current farming products be stacked vertically?

    - Can vertical farming be realised with low-tech solutions?

    We would highly appreciate any feedback on these questions.

    Bernhard Meier zu Biesen

    These orientations from my side:

    1. Question has to be answered simply by "No", but VF can be --- in probably all agro-eco-systems --- a fantastic and trial-worthy supplement to conv. farming, also in view of the future high needs of food, industrial raw-materials, crops of biogas-units, etc..

    2. I have tested this year how much I can produce in a vertical-setting on 1 square-meter; it is breath-taking, but not easily possible on large land-areas.

    3. I suggest to focus on a few very practical and pragmatic part-options and test further (the 3,000 or so potential crops offer a wide spectrum of options):

    -----a. Growing crops like zucchini or eggplant in mixture with maize-like plants. These offer an enormous yield-intensity.

    -----b. Searching / checking / using the benefits of allelopathy-effects of plants in perma-culture-settings for VF.

    -----c. Applying drip-irrigation-systems for easy irrigation and little water-consumption.

    -----d. Priorizing climbing / creaping plants and letting them go-up on trees, stakes, palls, etc.

    -----e. Checking the option of a potatoe-box principle: start growing on ground, then filling gradually continuously in the 1 or 2 or 3 or10 cubic-meter-box; after end of growth (period) just tearing the soil apart and picking the potaties. Many tuber-crops might offer this option for VF. The famous potatoe-box is usually 1 cub.m.

    4. The systems and chances for VF depend largely on the a) technical material for erecting / constructing durable vertical levels. Best is looking for some sec.hand-material from construction-sites or factories, etc. b) irrigation demands the cheap systems of drip / trickle irrigation in case the tropical forest is not rainy enough. c) Mulching, mixed crop-stands, perma-culture or systems like that need to ensure highest yields per squaremeter.

    5. With adequate agronomical creativity and good www-search you could even find solutions for a "Yes" to the question.

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    Is a PhD a PhD?
    PhD = philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy)

    The medieval university made possible the study of arts, law, medicine and theology.
    Philosophy was only an introductory study for theology. „Philosophia est ancilla theologiae.” The degree of philosophiae doctor was developed in Germany in the 18th- and 19th-centuries and now it is acknowledged all over the world.

    Scientists were often distinguished philosophers like Aristotle, Plato, Avicenna, Francis Bacon, René Descartes, David Hume, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz.
    Philosophers studied and formulated ethics, logic, metaphysics which play a central role in scientific theories and methodology. Philosophy has been always attached to the theoretical solving of humanistic and general troubles during the history of mankind.

    Can one say scientia est ancilla philosophiae or philosophia est ancilla scientiae?

    These days some scientists work on tiny scientific fields and are specialists of micro areas. Are they able to see the whole field or determining parts of human needs? Or are they able to contribute to the true human welfare?


    What is the main objective in writing a manuscript, to distribute new knowledge or to have one more publication?

    Does determine credibility of scientific achievements the credibility in scientific degrees?
    There are still many kinds of frauds and other “manoeuvres”.
    Look at:

    How to measure scientific merit?

    Some examples: Some influential “scholars” requested (commanded) potential contributors before a conference to cite their, the influential “scholars’, publications in public circulars. Of course, they, these scholars, controlled meticulously the list of the submitted references but not the merit of the manuscripts. 15 researchers write individually one article a year. They make a deal and became co-authors of the other articles, thus every author has 15 articles a year. The examples may be infinite.

    It would be interesting also to compare the opportunity of a native speaker submitting a manuscript in his/her mother tongue with that of a son/daughter of other nations.
    András Bozsik

    Dear Mario,

    Yes, it depends on the urgency of the job to be fulfilled. However, in case of university careers as you put it, the PhD degree is obligatory for senior jobs.

  • Ahmed Awny Farag added an answer:
    Any better methods to remove carbonate from soils?

    Hi All:

    I am working on some alkaline soils which have high inorganic carbonates. Yet I need to analyze the soil C content, microbial biomass C, and the 13C isotopic signature of both. Are there any classical methods for removing those inorganic carbonates? In doing so I can get clear results after the carbonate removal.

    Thanks very much.

    Ahmed Awny Farag

    Read this papper

    Fernandes M, Krull E. 2008. How does acid treatment to remove carbonates affect the isotopic and elemental composition of soils and sediments? Environ. Chem. 5: 33-39 .

    Harris D, Horwath W R, van Kessel C. 2001. Acid fumigation of soils to remove carbonates prior to total organic carbon or carbon-13 isotopic analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65: 1853-1856 CrossRef

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