African Development

African Development

  • Erik Aasland added an answer:
    What are some of the methodologies to be used in incorporating agricultural ideas in illiterate societies?
    Want to look at how to help them increase their farm size and yields
    Erik Aasland · Biola University

    You are looking to work with oral preference learners. Ghanese culture has a rich oral tradition. You can use stories and proverbs to help in the training. Develop the material so that it can be shared orally through stories, with repetition of content, and using folklore. Your learners gain most of their information and solutions for problems through communicating with friends and neighbors orally, so design your material to be shared in this way.

  • Joshua Sumankuuro added an answer:
    Can anyone provide information on the current statistics for maternal mortality rate in Africa and Kenya?

    In line with achieving the MDG 5.

    Joshua Sumankuuro · Youth Alive

    thisa link will also be useful to you:

  • Bright Chidugam Opara added an answer:
    Does anyone have any recommendations for resources on the progress, limitations, and challenges in achieving health-related MDGs in Nigeria?
    I'm writing an essay on the following topic and have to critically examine the policy or policies and programme(s) in place designed to address one or more of the health MDGs (identify progress made and ongoing shortcomings in meeting the MDGs and the reasons why).
    Bright Chidugam Opara · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    Some of the limitations and challenges of achieving health-related MGDs include: Corruption, ethnicity, political instability,  low level of education, poor funding, poor management of human and material resources,etc.   

  • Mahinda Henegedara added an answer:
    How can parallel development best be adopted in low cost urban housing development?
    It seems to me parallel development has never really worked well, which ever scenario it has been tried in Africa particularly. Well Parallel development is " Provision of services simultaneously with housing construction"
    Mahinda Henegedara · University of Kelaniya

    Social capital or the community participation is one of the effective methods in reducing cost, particularly labour cost. If you could save labour cost through community participation or mutual labour sharing methods, the total cost could be reduced at least by 30-40% . This mutual labour sharing methods are commonly used by local farmers in Sri Lanka.

  • Bikram Keshari Senapati added an answer:
    Can someone update me on the status of current strategies for managing diseases in genetic mixtures of staple crops in Africa and elsewhere?
    Traditionally farmers in many African nations (and elsewhere) still grow individual crops not only in inter- specific (different species), but also in intra-specific (same species) mixtures. However, the development ideology to improve production has been one promoting displacement of these with new 'improved' varieties or hybrids with often questionable medium to longer term results. We now know better the value of useful diversity to maintain crop robustness agains biotic and abiotic stress.
    Bikram Keshari Senapati · Sambalpur University

    Dear Peter,  Thank you for posing an intelligent question for all and for your interest for the low privileged and high innovative people. We the so called all knowledgeable people are actually be-fooling ourselves. The basis of my answer lies in the fact that "Environment is mightier than  the genetic pool"  and this is the cause and effect of  " Theory of Natural Selection" by Darwin.

    Selection of of cropping varieties for a particular bioclimatic zone is based on long term experience. This crop complex has the elements for growth in low input culture, self regulation of pest and diseases, nutrient storage, soil conservation etc. in synergy with the socio-cultural practices of the traditional systems. Please look into their local resources with minimum interference from external resources. An integrated system could maintain both quality and quantity, but it needs understanding of the complexity in togetherness and not in isolation.

    I am tempted to site two examples: (a) Local Government. officials tried to interfere in the cropping pattern of a shifting cultivation practicing tribal community with subsidies for fertilizer, pesticides etc., which only the head of the tribe accepted on lot of persuasion, but latter, the crop variety was discarded because of lack of taste and unsuitability for preparing local wine, pest attack, soil erosion etc., although the production was higher than local variety. (b)  Tea as a cash crop yield lot of profit and thus chemical management of the system was started since 1950. The system lost diversity, soil quality, tea quality and quantity ultimately.  Restoration of the system caring local resources have been very successful to develop an International 'FBO' patent.: (

    All the best,

    B. K. Senapati

  • David Darchiashvili added an answer:
    What is the yardstick for measuring the development of a state?

    I'm conducting research on the development and underdevelopment of third world countries.

    David Darchiashvili · Ilia State University

    All depends, whether state institutions deliver, what they promise officially, given their constitutional/regulatory status, or not. 

  • Asongu Simplice added an answer:
    Do we have data on capital formation in Nigeria from 1970 to 2013?

    I tried the data stream but could not get it.

    Asongu Simplice · African Governance and Development Institute

    Gross Fixed Capital Formation, formerly Gross Domestic Investment. 

  • Valentin Stefan added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend publications on assisted reproductive technology in South Africa, its development, acceptance and advancement?

    I am looking at development in South Africa, how well it has been accepted as compared to other African countries and if any stigmatization is attached to this form of reproduction if any? This is between the races in South Africa. Does culture affect the acceptance of this sort of advancement in technology?

    You may want to look up on Pub Med Dyer SJ, also Kruger TF.

    Other interesting papers: Taylor TN 2013, Chadwick RJ 2011. Good luck with your research.

  • Francesco Vignola added an answer:
    What agricultural market innovations in supply chains might increase market participation among smallholder producers?
    Market access among smallholder producers remains a great barrier to many individuals in developing world. Many studies have been conducted on factors that influence market participation by this category of farmers yet majority have remained "out" of the formal markets. As an intervention to promote food security in Sub-Sahara Africa, production of indigenous food crops are being promoted due to their ability to cope with harsh climate in the region. However, something remains untapped under the indigenous tuber crops and that is market benefits. SO, THE BIG QUESTION IS: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE FOR FARMERS IN SUCH ENTERPRISES TO PARTICIPATE IN FORMAL MARKETS BEARING IN MIND THAT THESE CROPS ARE REGARDED AS POOR-MAN'S CROPS?
    Francesco Vignola · Grains R&S S.r.L

    Among the reaserches of FAO the average surface per farm in Far East  Countries, plus  India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia is only 1 hectar, which gives a production of about 4 tons of paddy rice and the postharvest losses are 15-25%. So there is the possibility to ameliorate the farmers income minimizing these losses, through better drying, storing and insects controls. Same thing for all  the other crops .

  • Rob Collins added an answer:
    Are there any Relevant Similarities between Post-Colonial Africa and West-Europe after the Collapse of the West-Roman Empire?

    Approximately around the year 500 (A.D.), the West-Roman Empire collapsed. Thereafter it took about 300 years before, around the year 800 (A.D.), the Germanic-Franconian emperor Carolus Magnus had (alas not without armed violence) established a new social and political order in West-Europe of such sufficient stability that quite "rapid" cultural growth ---"rapid" by the standards of those olden days--- could follow soon: New towns and cities, courts and market-places (etc.) were built, and the first West-European universities were established around the end of the 11th Century (A.D.)

    Now my Questions to Expert Historians:

    1. Do you see ---yes or no--- any relevant structural-systematic similarities between between West-Europe immediately after the collapse of the West-Roman Empire, and Africa immediately after its Decolonization in the second half of the 20th Century?

    2. IF your answer to the first question was "yes", then: Do you believe that any "historic lessons" could possibly be learned from West-Europe's "intermediate years" (500-800) for the sake of Post-Colonial Africa's further development towards a prosperous future?

    Rob Collins · Newcastle University

    In archaeology, we often like to compare different periods and geographies to understand various processes better, too. But in archaeology, context (both its spatial/chronological and metaphorical) is always at the front of any reliable assessment.

    Stefan's original question and interests certainly bear further consideration, but I would restate the comparison, or perhaps qualify it:

    To what extent does 20th century post-colonial Africa demonstrate similar processes of collapse that have been demonstrated in the 5th-7th centuries in the post-Roman West?

    What are the comparative units of assessment?

    What data is used?

  • Katarzyna Lesniewska added an answer:
    Are there papers that comprehensively discuss the Nigeria's in modern African international relations with particular focus on OAU/AU?

    Any research expert on the contemporary African diplomacy and International Relations can answer my question

    Katarzyna Lesniewska · University of Lodz

    I can recomend,%20Focus%20Nigeria%20-%20the%20AU%20in%20the%20Light%20of%20the%20Arab%20Spring.pdf

  • DJ Sullivan added an answer:
    Does anyone know how much it matters if you are not an imperial-colonial power/actor in engaging with Africa?
    I am particularly looking at the Visegrad countries of Central Europe.
  • Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui added an answer:
    Have you been in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak(s)?
    I am looking for people who are in, or have recently returned from, the areas of West Africa affected by the current Ebola outbreak, as I would like to interview them regarding their health information requirements and the communications they received/looked for during the experience. If you'd be willing to be interviewed, please let me know.
    Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui · University of Malaya

    Thank GOD ,, not a witness, but was in Saudi Arabia during SARS....

  • Donald Ibama Hamilton added an answer:
    Is there a reason why Internationalization of Indigenous African (Nigerian) Firms is so low?

    Few indigenous Nigerian, or even African firms diversify their operations into international markets. Is this a coincidence? Or are there more generic reasons to explain this "fear", in spite of the fact that research suggests that there is a positive relationship between internationalization and firm performance.

    Donald Ibama Hamilton · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    As a result of the actions of a few we lack TRUST. By the way what product or service can we sell ? Boko Haram , witchcraft  or curruption ?

  • Prithvi Simha added an answer:
    What steps should be taken to have basic / improved sanitation facilities in developing and under developed countries?
    As per a WHO report, by the end of 2012, 64% of the global population used improved sanitation facilities which means almost 1 of every 3 person still have less / no access to proper sanitation. What steps should be taken to make it a near 100% of the same?
  • Titus ebenezer Kwofie added an answer:
    What are some of the sustainable issues that should be incorporated into an affordable housing program in a developing country?
    Housing programs in developing countries are believe to be unsustainable in terms of cost effectiveness and delivery. Do you see any work-around to bring affordable housing to the masses?
    Titus ebenezer Kwofie · Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology
    Materials selection, technology and CC aspect
  • Aklilu Nigussie added an answer:
    Africa is struggling when it is endowed with rich and diverse natural resources and professors, why?
    I have identified common errors for Africans as follows:
    •Afrikan politicians joined the political regimes of developed economy as underdogs. They remain forever followers not pacesetters.
    •Unconscious wealth black man (investor) who is missing the point and follow the white man’s foot in investment approach(blind followers)
    •The global surface disguise an African investor yet in actual fact the African is going nowhere. his/her efforts end up in the hands of developed economy
    •False comfort zone- that has been created for the middle income earner black person (the senior government officials, politicians, professionals, clergy etc)
    •Losers –a black man is forever a loser as long as he/she is tied to the current rhythm of politics, education, economy, and trade of the developed economy
    •Innovation –the black man economy has impediments for local initiatives/innovations maintained by the legacy of slavery and colonialism
    •Literacy centres- the black person is left suspended in the literacy centres in the wild paper chase. On the other hand the white child is at the literacy centre simply to be able to write and read. The actual education and learning starts at the family extending deep into invisible institutions/secret societies that shape their value driven system. A black child is in orphanage as long as these literacy centres have the greater influence of their lives.
    . Research and Development- as llong as the African governments do not meaningfully fund research and development for its cause, there will be no meaningful development for Africa.
    Aklilu Nigussie · Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
    I believe Africans has everything that nature blessing yet nature has created unfitted political leaders this could be because they arise to with guns so in such a condition they only opt for their existence jumping here and there for years yet there is also the western world influence on them to make them as pupate as possible for damping materials rather than creating import substitution industries while they all on their mother land. On the other direction look most African countries scientists they don't even get paid well rather one propagandist can have much salaries at hand ' I mean with corruption" so how will one African professor live Africa at the moment?

    The other thing if you look Rwanda, Libya, Nigeria, Ivory coast what is happening most of the resource investment is not owned by African which means it is creating a financial flit which affects the financial sector to create micro finance investment borrowing to the cottage industries.

    The most dangerous one is that the political leaders still not consulting an African professors for their economical, political, social, cultural development strategies this could be because of the capacity of lending or the so called NGOs or capitalist ideologies of the so called foreign investment which all have their invisible hand in the political system directly or indirectly that is still affecting Africans economic development.

    There are so many factors that are not still get solution look the Nigerians they are killing their brothers because of simple thoughts of religion which African haven't received it with peace in earlier history rather they make us believe with knives and guns yet it is putting its impact on destroying the mother land.
  • Srinivasan Rajamanickam added an answer:
    What do think of Ngugi wa Thiong'o's writings? Do they merit analysis in understanding Africa?
    In his 'A Grain of Wheat' (Heinemann, 1967), Ngugi says "People try to rub out things, but they cannot. Things are not so easy. What has passed between us is too much to be passed over in a sentence. We need to talk, to open our hearts to one another, examine them, and then together plan the future that we want". Do they merit contemplation in the context of Africa today? Was he talking of an Africa that needs to look into itself and discover its strengths? What do you think?
    Srinivasan Rajamanickam · Pondicherry University
    Ngugi and Fannon's voices have become part of the postcolonial discourses. Even as we look at Africa, a simple factor strikingly stands out:

    1. Uganda, known atrocities not investigated
    2. Rwanda - ICTR
    3. Sudan - Special Chamber investigations
    4. Sierra Leone - Special Chamber investigations
    5. Chad - Special chamber investigations
    6. Liberia - Part of Sierra Leone process
    7. Congo - not yet investigated
    8. Somalia - perhaps the world is too scared even to talk of investigating Somalia
    9. South Sudan - at the present rate, the Tribunal is just a call away
    10. Egypt - there are enough trials going on inside and peculiar precedences like death sentence for 683 persons for killing one man are being set. It may not be out of place to think of a tribunal at some point of time.
    11. South Africa - the role model for Africa managed the affairs with its own Truth and Reconciliation Commission - a kind of localised tribunal.
    12. Nigeria - with Boko Haram working over time, Au/UN Peacekeepers may actually bring in a Tribunal for parallel prosecution.

    I do apologise for the loose wording above. But the point that I am trying to make is about Africa - half the continent is either tried or about to be tried for genocide, mass violation of human rights, unspeakable atrocities on women and abuse of children as child soldiers. If collective African will is not exercised to look into all these and learn their lessons quickly, Africa may become dependent on IMF and WB to fund their Tribunals instead of developmental projects.

    The sane voices of AU are drowned in the noise behind all these occurrences in Africa. It does beg understanding.
  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    Can someone recommend literature for a write up on Politics, Money and Ethnicity in Ghana?
    Will have to look at all concepts of Politics, Money and ethnicity
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah · University of Ghana
    Thank you David you have rally helped me.
  • Bismark Cudjoe added an answer:
    How to measure the real impact of micro-finance institutions in poverty reduction and income generation?
    I am interested in empirical and econometric models that can be adopted to measure the real impact of microfinace institutions in poverty reduction.
    Bismark Cudjoe · Mendel University in Brno
    Thank you Mr. Dragos Cimpoies for your contribution to my topic. I will get back to you soon.
  • Uchendu E. Chigbu added an answer:
    Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Planning is generally viewed as an urban affair. Both novices and planning professionals are guilty of this - especially in developing countries. This means that rural areas are given little or no priority in the planning process. This has a lot of unproductive rural development implications. Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Uchendu E. Chigbu · Technische Universität München
    They can 'afford' planning almost by force." That's totally true and special way to put it.
  • Ahsen Maqsoom added an answer:
    Are extant internationalization theories suitable for explaining the expansion of foreign firms into the contemporary African market?
    Several theories including Dunning's eclectic paradigm, transaction cost theory, the Uppsala model, network approach, and more have, over the years, been used to explain the international expansion of firms.
    Ahsen Maqsoom · COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
    Agreed with Dr. Tiia Vissak, there is no marked comparison or explanation which of the mentioned theories is suitable for internationalization. Each theory has its own particular shortcomings; therefore the scholars support the integration of several theoretical approaches in order to get better understanding.
  • John Mabhegede added an answer:
    Can someone advise on coherence of my research aim and objectives?
    1. Research topic
    Systemic barriers to entrepreneurship in South Africa

    2. Statement of problem
    According to The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), blacks (almost 80 percent of the SA population) have a low participation rate in entrepreneurial activities.

    3. Overall aim
    The overall goal of this project is to improve the participation of Black Entrepreneurs in the South African economy

    4. Objectives

    5. Research question

    6. Sub-objectives:
    To solve the general objective of the research, the authors address the following specific objectives;

    6.1. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current global situation in promoting
    6.2. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding entrepreneurship development in South Africa
    6.3. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding the barriers or enablers to involvement of black entrepreneurs in the South African economy
    6.4. Identify principles/factors that might assist black entrepreneurs becoming more involved in the South African economy
    6.5. Provide recommendations for the development of black entrepreneurs in South Africa
    John Mabhegede · Anglia Ruskin University
    Many thanks Gene, I value your feedback and will make the changes. By any chance are you happy for me to have your email so I can send you a draft one pager I have developed to get your valued feedback as always?
  • David Mwanza asked a question:
    Does anyone have information on CDF monitoring systems/case studies in Africa and suggestions on the way forward vis-a-vis CDF?
    There has been an increase in the adoption and implementation of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) on the African continent. However,Ii am yet to know any country with a satisfactory CDF monitoring system and has yielded desired results. Leaders seems to be abusing it and it may actually work against the stable democracies that have emerged over the years. Any thoughts anyone?
  • Anthony Enoma asked a question:
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
  • Tarisayi Zvoma asked a question:
    Can the promotion of Science and Technology provide clear avenues for development in Africa?
    Science and Technology promotion is considered as the main area that should be addressed for any country to have a sustainable development. a lot has been said about science and technology promotion having provided the impetus for economic growth in the Asian tigers and now its the same is being said about the BRICS. What empirical evidence if any is available?
  • Usman Ahmed asked a question:
    Just coming on board
    Hi all,
    I am just joining the group and my interest is Imperialism and Neocolonialism in Africa.

  • Closed account asked a question:
    Taxes and pensions and corrruption
    We hear much about corruption, and those of us in Africa often run across it personally. I have lived on and off in E. Africa, mostly Uganda, for the past 50 years. Reading the discussions on corruption, in both the African and the European/American press, I am struck by how rarely the link is made between the corruption of government and local administration officials and the absence of viable pension schemes. If it takes a man or woman until the age of 40 to reach a responsible (though underpaid) post, and he /she has to retire at 50 or 55, knowing or at least suspecting with good cause that there will be no pension to support him/her, does it surprise anyone that they feel compelled to amass a "nest-egg" in the only way they can - by taking bribes?? And why is there no viable pension scheme? Because of the non-existent tax base to pay for it. Until African administrations grasp the nettle and start to tax their population, whatever the electoral consequences and administrative difficulties that this entails, corruption will continue or increase and infrastructure will remain undeveloped.

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