African Development

African Development

  • Rob Collins added an answer:
    Are there any Relevant Similarities between Post-Colonial Africa and West-Europe after the Collapse of the West-Roman Empire?

    Approximately around the year 500 (A.D.), the West-Roman Empire collapsed. Thereafter it took about 300 years before, around the year 800 (A.D.), the Germanic-Franconian emperor Carolus Magnus had (alas not without armed violence) established a new social and political order in West-Europe of such sufficient stability that quite "rapid" cultural growth ---"rapid" by the standards of those olden days--- could follow soon: New towns and cities, courts and market-places (etc.) were built, and the first West-European universities were established around the end of the 11th Century (A.D.)

    Now my Questions to Expert Historians:

    1. Do you see ---yes or no--- any relevant structural-systematic similarities between between West-Europe immediately after the collapse of the West-Roman Empire, and Africa immediately after its Decolonization in the second half of the 20th Century?

    2. IF your answer to the first question was "yes", then: Do you believe that any "historic lessons" could possibly be learned from West-Europe's "intermediate years" (500-800) for the sake of Post-Colonial Africa's further development towards a prosperous future?

    Rob Collins · Newcastle University

    In archaeology, we often like to compare different periods and geographies to understand various processes better, too. But in archaeology, context (both its spatial/chronological and metaphorical) is always at the front of any reliable assessment.

    Stefan's original question and interests certainly bear further consideration, but I would restate the comparison, or perhaps qualify it:

    To what extent does 20th century post-colonial Africa demonstrate similar processes of collapse that have been demonstrated in the 5th-7th centuries in the post-Roman West?

    What are the comparative units of assessment?

    What data is used?

  • Artur Colom-Jaén added an answer:
    What is the yardstick for measuring the development of a state?

    I'm conducting research on the development and underdevelopment of third world countries.

    Artur Colom-Jaén · Autonomous University of Barcelona

    In my opinion:

    1. Welfare measured by HDI is quite telling (except perhaps for some outliers like oil-producing countries, which raises HDI through GDP pc without real developmental meaning for the common people).

    2. Structural change, measured by the process of change of labour force activities, shifting from agriculture to industry.

    3. Political liberties and personal security are as well desirable.

  • Katarzyna Lesniewska added an answer:
    Are there papers that comprehensively discuss the Nigeria's in modern African international relations with particular focus on OAU/AU?

    Any research expert on the contemporary African diplomacy and International Relations can answer my question

    Katarzyna Lesniewska · University of Lodz

    I can recomend,%20Focus%20Nigeria%20-%20the%20AU%20in%20the%20Light%20of%20the%20Arab%20Spring.pdf

  • DJ Sullivan added an answer:
    Does anyone know how much it matters if you are not an imperial-colonial power/actor in engaging with Africa?
    I am particularly looking at the Visegrad countries of Central Europe.
  • Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui added an answer:
    Have you been in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak(s)?
    I am looking for people who are in, or have recently returned from, the areas of West Africa affected by the current Ebola outbreak, as I would like to interview them regarding their health information requirements and the communications they received/looked for during the experience. If you'd be willing to be interviewed, please let me know.
    Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui · University of Malaya

    Thank GOD ,, not a witness, but was in Saudi Arabia during SARS....

  • Donald Ibama Hamilton added an answer:
    Is there a reason why Internationalization of Indigenous African (Nigerian) Firms is so low?

    Few indigenous Nigerian, or even African firms diversify their operations into international markets. Is this a coincidence? Or are there more generic reasons to explain this "fear", in spite of the fact that research suggests that there is a positive relationship between internationalization and firm performance.

    Donald Ibama Hamilton · Rivers State University of Science and Technology

    As a result of the actions of a few we lack TRUST. By the way what product or service can we sell ? Boko Haram , witchcraft  or curruption ?

  • Prithvi Simha added an answer:
    What steps should be taken to have basic / improved sanitation facilities in developing and under developed countries?
    As per a WHO report, by the end of 2012, 64% of the global population used improved sanitation facilities which means almost 1 of every 3 person still have less / no access to proper sanitation. What steps should be taken to make it a near 100% of the same?
  • Titus ebenezer Kwofie added an answer:
    What are some of the sustainable issues that should be incorporated into an affordable housing program in a developing country?
    Housing programs in developing countries are believe to be unsustainable in terms of cost effectiveness and delivery. Do you see any work-around to bring affordable housing to the masses?
    Titus ebenezer Kwofie · Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology
    Materials selection, technology and CC aspect
  • Aklilu Nigussie added an answer:
    Africa is struggling when it is endowed with rich and diverse natural resources and professors, why?
    I have identified common errors for Africans as follows:
    •Afrikan politicians joined the political regimes of developed economy as underdogs. They remain forever followers not pacesetters.
    •Unconscious wealth black man (investor) who is missing the point and follow the white man’s foot in investment approach(blind followers)
    •The global surface disguise an African investor yet in actual fact the African is going nowhere. his/her efforts end up in the hands of developed economy
    •False comfort zone- that has been created for the middle income earner black person (the senior government officials, politicians, professionals, clergy etc)
    •Losers –a black man is forever a loser as long as he/she is tied to the current rhythm of politics, education, economy, and trade of the developed economy
    •Innovation –the black man economy has impediments for local initiatives/innovations maintained by the legacy of slavery and colonialism
    •Literacy centres- the black person is left suspended in the literacy centres in the wild paper chase. On the other hand the white child is at the literacy centre simply to be able to write and read. The actual education and learning starts at the family extending deep into invisible institutions/secret societies that shape their value driven system. A black child is in orphanage as long as these literacy centres have the greater influence of their lives.
    . Research and Development- as llong as the African governments do not meaningfully fund research and development for its cause, there will be no meaningful development for Africa.
    Aklilu Nigussie · Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
    I believe Africans has everything that nature blessing yet nature has created unfitted political leaders this could be because they arise to with guns so in such a condition they only opt for their existence jumping here and there for years yet there is also the western world influence on them to make them as pupate as possible for damping materials rather than creating import substitution industries while they all on their mother land. On the other direction look most African countries scientists they don't even get paid well rather one propagandist can have much salaries at hand ' I mean with corruption" so how will one African professor live Africa at the moment?

    The other thing if you look Rwanda, Libya, Nigeria, Ivory coast what is happening most of the resource investment is not owned by African which means it is creating a financial flit which affects the financial sector to create micro finance investment borrowing to the cottage industries.

    The most dangerous one is that the political leaders still not consulting an African professors for their economical, political, social, cultural development strategies this could be because of the capacity of lending or the so called NGOs or capitalist ideologies of the so called foreign investment which all have their invisible hand in the political system directly or indirectly that is still affecting Africans economic development.

    There are so many factors that are not still get solution look the Nigerians they are killing their brothers because of simple thoughts of religion which African haven't received it with peace in earlier history rather they make us believe with knives and guns yet it is putting its impact on destroying the mother land.
  • Peter Trutmann asked a question:
    Can someone update me on the status of current strategies for managing diseases in genetic mixtures of staple crops in Africa and elsewhere?
    Traditionally farmers in many African nations (and elsewhere) still grow individual crops not only in inter- specific (different species), but also in intra-specific (same species) mixtures. However, the development ideology to improve production has been one promoting displacement of these with new 'improved' varieties or hybrids with often questionable medium to longer term results. We now know better the value of useful diversity to maintain crop robustness agains biotic and abiotic stress.
  • Srinivasan Rajamanickam added an answer:
    What do think of Ngugi wa Thiong'o's writings? Do they merit analysis in understanding Africa?
    In his 'A Grain of Wheat' (Heinemann, 1967), Ngugi says "People try to rub out things, but they cannot. Things are not so easy. What has passed between us is too much to be passed over in a sentence. We need to talk, to open our hearts to one another, examine them, and then together plan the future that we want". Do they merit contemplation in the context of Africa today? Was he talking of an Africa that needs to look into itself and discover its strengths? What do you think?
    Srinivasan Rajamanickam · Pondicherry University
    Ngugi and Fannon's voices have become part of the postcolonial discourses. Even as we look at Africa, a simple factor strikingly stands out:

    1. Uganda, known atrocities not investigated
    2. Rwanda - ICTR
    3. Sudan - Special Chamber investigations
    4. Sierra Leone - Special Chamber investigations
    5. Chad - Special chamber investigations
    6. Liberia - Part of Sierra Leone process
    7. Congo - not yet investigated
    8. Somalia - perhaps the world is too scared even to talk of investigating Somalia
    9. South Sudan - at the present rate, the Tribunal is just a call away
    10. Egypt - there are enough trials going on inside and peculiar precedences like death sentence for 683 persons for killing one man are being set. It may not be out of place to think of a tribunal at some point of time.
    11. South Africa - the role model for Africa managed the affairs with its own Truth and Reconciliation Commission - a kind of localised tribunal.
    12. Nigeria - with Boko Haram working over time, Au/UN Peacekeepers may actually bring in a Tribunal for parallel prosecution.

    I do apologise for the loose wording above. But the point that I am trying to make is about Africa - half the continent is either tried or about to be tried for genocide, mass violation of human rights, unspeakable atrocities on women and abuse of children as child soldiers. If collective African will is not exercised to look into all these and learn their lessons quickly, Africa may become dependent on IMF and WB to fund their Tribunals instead of developmental projects.

    The sane voices of AU are drowned in the noise behind all these occurrences in Africa. It does beg understanding.
  • Luleseged Ayele asked a question:
    How will Ethiopia’s grand renaissance dam boost East African ICT infrastructure development?
    Ethiopia’s grand renaissance dam will generate 6,000MW in the coming two years, and the country has a plan to sell excess electricity for the East Africa power market. Thus, what will be the effect on ICT infrastructure development in the region? Do you think that big IT companies could use the East Africa ICT production?
  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    Can someone recommend literature for a write up on Politics, Money and Ethnicity in Ghana?
    Will have to look at all concepts of Politics, Money and ethnicity
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah · University of Ghana
    Thank you David you have rally helped me.
  • Reka Kovacs asked a question:
    Does anyone have any recommendations for resources on the progress, limitations, and challenges in achieving health-related MDGs in Nigeria?
    I'm writing an essay on the following topic and have to critically examine the policy or policies and programme(s) in place designed to address one or more of the health MDGs (identify progress made and ongoing shortcomings in meeting the MDGs and the reasons why).
  • Tamara Pianos added an answer:
    Does research exist on "perceived discrimination" among Sub-Saharan communities differing in the degree of receiving financial aid?
    There is abundant research on "perceived discrimination" in terms of racial and sexist discrimination. However, has there been any investigation done on the form of discrimination that occurs when certain communities are financially assisted by donor agencies and other close-by communities are not? What kind of effects may have a potential "perceived discrimination" on the behavior and attitudes of community members?
    Tamara Pianos · German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, Kiel Germany

    Sorry, I cannot answer this question directly, but the free EconDesk reference service (mail or chat etc.)  might be able to help:

  • Bismark Cudjoe added an answer:
    How to measure the real impact of micro-finance institutions in poverty reduction and income generation?
    I am interested in empirical and econometric models that can be adopted to measure the real impact of microfinace institutions in poverty reduction.
    Bismark Cudjoe · Mendel University in Brno
    Thank you Mr. Dragos Cimpoies for your contribution to my topic. I will get back to you soon.
  • Uchendu E. Chigbu added an answer:
    Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Planning is generally viewed as an urban affair. Both novices and planning professionals are guilty of this - especially in developing countries. This means that rural areas are given little or no priority in the planning process. This has a lot of unproductive rural development implications. Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Uchendu E. Chigbu · Technische Universität München
    They can 'afford' planning almost by force." That's totally true and special way to put it.
  • Kasper Kok added an answer:
    What are some of the methodologies to be used in incorporating agricultural ideas in illiterate societies?
    Want to look at how to help them increase their farm size and yields
    Kasper Kok · Wageningen University
    We used something methods related to "collages" and "rich-pictures". In simple terms, use paper and scissors and magazines for people to collect pictures that express their ideas and stick them on a big paper. Let them then tell the story that goes with it. In general any method that involved other means than words (clay also works very well; as do other types of drawings) will work, either them telling you, or you telling them.
    The most important to keep in mind is that you should be able to use the exact same methods to tell them something as what you expect back from them.

    As a sidenote, I agree with the previous comment: make sure that you have them express their ideas, and do not force your ideas onto them. This will certainly not work..
  • Ahsen Maqsoom added an answer:
    Are extant internationalization theories suitable for explaining the expansion of foreign firms into the contemporary African market?
    Several theories including Dunning's eclectic paradigm, transaction cost theory, the Uppsala model, network approach, and more have, over the years, been used to explain the international expansion of firms.
    Ahsen Maqsoom · Asian Institute of Technology
    Agreed with Dr. Tiia Vissak, there is no marked comparison or explanation which of the mentioned theories is suitable for internationalization. Each theory has its own particular shortcomings; therefore the scholars support the integration of several theoretical approaches in order to get better understanding.
  • Judith Musasa asked a question:
    How can parallel development best be adopted in low cost urban housing development?
    It seems to me parallel development has never really worked well, which ever scenario it has been tried in Africa particularly. Well Parallel development is " Provision of services simultaneously with housing construction"
  • John Mabhegede added an answer:
    Can someone advise on coherence of my research aim and objectives?
    1. Research topic
    Systemic barriers to entrepreneurship in South Africa

    2. Statement of problem
    According to The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), blacks (almost 80 percent of the SA population) have a low participation rate in entrepreneurial activities.

    3. Overall aim
    The overall goal of this project is to improve the participation of Black Entrepreneurs in the South African economy

    4. Objectives

    5. Research question

    6. Sub-objectives:
    To solve the general objective of the research, the authors address the following specific objectives;

    6.1. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current global situation in promoting
    6.2. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding entrepreneurship development in South Africa
    6.3. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding the barriers or enablers to involvement of black entrepreneurs in the South African economy
    6.4. Identify principles/factors that might assist black entrepreneurs becoming more involved in the South African economy
    6.5. Provide recommendations for the development of black entrepreneurs in South Africa
    John Mabhegede · Anglia Ruskin University
    Many thanks Gene, I value your feedback and will make the changes. By any chance are you happy for me to have your email so I can send you a draft one pager I have developed to get your valued feedback as always?
  • David Mwanza asked a question:
    Does anyone have information on CDF monitoring systems/case studies in Africa and suggestions on the way forward vis-a-vis CDF?
    There has been an increase in the adoption and implementation of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) on the African continent. However,Ii am yet to know any country with a satisfactory CDF monitoring system and has yielded desired results. Leaders seems to be abusing it and it may actually work against the stable democracies that have emerged over the years. Any thoughts anyone?
  • Anthony Enoma asked a question:
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
  • Eric Mukundi asked a question:
    What agricultural market innovations in supply chains might increase market participation among smallholder producers?
    Market access among smallholder producers remains a great barrier to many individuals in developing world. Many studies have been conducted on factors that influence market participation by this category of farmers yet majority have remained "out" of the formal markets. As an intervention to promote food security in Sub-Sahara Africa, production of indigenous food crops are being promoted due to their ability to cope with harsh climate in the region. However, something remains untapped under the indigenous tuber crops and that is market benefits. SO, THE BIG QUESTION IS: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE FOR FARMERS IN SUCH ENTERPRISES TO PARTICIPATE IN FORMAL MARKETS BEARING IN MIND THAT THESE CROPS ARE REGARDED AS POOR-MAN'S CROPS?
  • Tarisayi Zvoma asked a question:
    Can the promotion of Science and Technology provide clear avenues for development in Africa?
    Science and Technology promotion is considered as the main area that should be addressed for any country to have a sustainable development. a lot has been said about science and technology promotion having provided the impetus for economic growth in the Asian tigers and now its the same is being said about the BRICS. What empirical evidence if any is available?
  • Usman Ahmed asked a question:
    Just coming on board
    Hi all,
    I am just joining the group and my interest is Imperialism and Neocolonialism in Africa.

  • Closed account asked a question:
    Taxes and pensions and corrruption
    We hear much about corruption, and those of us in Africa often run across it personally. I have lived on and off in E. Africa, mostly Uganda, for the past 50 years. Reading the discussions on corruption, in both the African and the European/American press, I am struck by how rarely the link is made between the corruption of government and local administration officials and the absence of viable pension schemes. If it takes a man or woman until the age of 40 to reach a responsible (though underpaid) post, and he /she has to retire at 50 or 55, knowing or at least suspecting with good cause that there will be no pension to support him/her, does it surprise anyone that they feel compelled to amass a "nest-egg" in the only way they can - by taking bribes?? And why is there no viable pension scheme? Because of the non-existent tax base to pay for it. Until African administrations grasp the nettle and start to tax their population, whatever the electoral consequences and administrative difficulties that this entails, corruption will continue or increase and infrastructure will remain undeveloped.

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