[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The induction of a humoral response depends upon efficient cross-linking by antigen of surface immunoglobulin on primary B lymphocytes. We demonstrate here the presence of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked isoform of membrane IgD (mIgD) receptors on murine resting B cells. This subset was constitutively localized to cell membrane raft microdomains. Its stimulation resulted in the activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways, which integrated with signals derived from the transmembrane mIgD receptors. This, in turn, provided a mechanism by which the activation status of the target cells could be variably regulated. Thus, by partitioning receptor activity, preimmune B cells can moderate the extent to which they are activated, depending upon the strength of the antigenic stimulus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, germline Abs were used to select clones from a random dodecapeptide phage-display library. This revealed a much greater heterogeneity of binders than could be obtained with mutated daughter Abs that presumably had been selected in vivo by nominal Ag during active immune responses. We demonstrate that the pluripotency of germline Abs can subsequently be optimized by binding interactions that correlate with thermodynamic changes indicative of structural adaptations at the interface. This singular feature confers on each Ab a distinct window of Ag specificities, where the entropic space explored constitutes a thermodynamic signature of that particular Ab. Combining site plasticity may facilitate overlaps in such windows, with independent Abs converging onto common determinants with near identical binding affinities. In addition to providing for an amplified recognition potential, this networking of individual spectra of Ag specificities simultaneously facilitates the rapid recognition of Ag. Importantly, it also ensures that the primary response is composed of Abs with a high degree of "evolvability."
The Journal of Immunology 08/2002; 169(2):888-97. · 5.52 Impact Factor