[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a bulk flow-driven process. Its properties permit direct, homogeneous, targeted perfusion of CNS regions with putative therapeutics while bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Development of surrogate imaging tracers that are co-infused during drug delivery now permit accurate, noninvasive real-time tracking of convective infusate flow in nervous system tissues. The potential advantages of CED in the CNS over other currently available drug delivery techniques, including systemic delivery, intrathecal and/or intraventricular distribution, and polymer implantation, have led to its application in research studies and clinical trials. The authors review the biophysical principles of convective flow and the technology, properties, and clinical applications of convective delivery in the CNS.
Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2014; 122(3):1-10. DOI:10.3171/2014.10.JNS14229 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent evidence showing that convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of viruses and virus-sized particles to the central nervous system (CNS) is possible, little is known about the factors influencing distribution of these vectors with convection. To better define the delivery of viruses and virus-sized particles in the CNS, and to determine optimal parameters for infusion, the authors coinfused adeno-associated virus ([AAV], 24-nm diameter) and/or ferumoxtran-10 (24 nm) by using CED during real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
Sixteen rats underwent intrastriatal convective coinfusion with 4 microl of 35S-AAV capsids (0.5-1.0 x 10(14) viral particles/ml) and increasing concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/ml) of a similar sized iron oxide MR imaging agent (ferumoxtran-10). Five nonhuman primates underwent either convective coinfusion of 35S-AAV capsids and 1 mg/ml ferumoxtran-10 (striatum, one animal) or infusion of 1 mg/ml ferumoxtran-10 alone (striatum in two animals; frontal white matter in two). Clinical effects, MR imaging studies, quantitative autoradiography, and histological data were analyzed.
Real-time, T2-weighted MR imaging of ferumoxtran-10 during infusion revealed a clearly defined hypointense region of perfusion. Quantitative autoradiography confirmed that MR imaging of ferumoxtran-10 at a concentration of 1 mg/ml accurately tracked viral capsid distribution in the rat and primate brain (the mean difference in volume of distribution [Vd] was 7 and 15% in rats and primates, respectively). The Vd increased linearly with increasing volume of infusion (Vi) (R2 = 0.98). The mean Vd/Vi ratio was 4.1 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in gray and 2.3 +/- 0.1 in white matter (p < 0.01). The distribution of infusate was homogeneous. Postinfusion MR imaging revealed leakback along the cannula track at infusion rates greater than 1.5 microl/minute in primate gray and white matter. No animal had clinical or histological evidence of toxicity.
The CED method can be used to deliver AAV capsids and similar sized particles to the CNS safely and effectively over clinically relevant volumes. Moreover, real-time MR imaging of ferumoxtran-10 during infusion reveals that AAV capsids and similar sized particles have different convective delivery properties than smaller proteins and other compounds.
Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2007; 107(3):560-7. DOI:10.3171/JNS-07/09/0560 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors conducted an analysis of the distribution of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the human striatum following convection-enhanced delivery.
Computational examinations of the effects of differing catheters, infusion rates, infusate concentrations, and target placement on distribution were completed based on the protocols of three recent clinical trials.
Similar drug distributions around on-target end-hole catheters were predicted in two of the trials (AmgenUT study and Bristol study), although there was slightly deeper penetration for one of the trials (Bristol) due to a higher infusate concentration. However, when positioning uncertainly located catheter tips close to gray-white matter interfaces, backflow could diminish delivery, shunting infusate across the interfaces. For delivery via a multiport catheter at a constant base infusion rate plus a periodic bolus inflow rate (Kentucky study), base inflow alone generated a somewhat smaller distribution volume relative to those in the other trials, was positioned more anteriorly in the putamen, and was somewhat elongated axially; the bolus component extended this putaminal distribution to a larger relative volume but may have been reduced by backflow loss.
Results of these computations indicated that for catheters placed exactly on the intended target, ideal drug distributions were similar for two of the trials (AmgenUT and Bristol) and different in terms of location and extent in the third study (Kentucky); yet the pattern of trial outcomes did not reflect these same groupings. This finding suggests that other factors are at play, widely varying statistical power and the possible effects of not excluding data from patients who experienced large drug losses across gray tissue boundaries due to variation in catheter placement.
Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2007; 107(1):74-83. DOI:10.3171/JNS-07/07/0074 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECT: To determine if the potent antiglioma chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine could be delivered to the brainstem safely at therapeutic doses while monitoring its distribution using a surrogate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging tracer, the authors used convection-enhanced delivery to perfuse the primate brainstem with gemcitabine and Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). METHODS: Six primates underwent convective brainstem perfusion with gemcitabine (0.4 mg/ml; two animals), Gd-DTPA (5 mM; two animals), or a coinfusion of gemcitabine (0.4 mg/ml) and Gd-DTPA (5 mM; two animals), and were killed 28 days afterward. These primates were observed over time clinically (six animals), and with MR imaging (five animals), quantitative autoradiography (one animal), and histological analysis (all animals). In an additional primate, 3H-gemcitabine and Gd-DTPA were coinfused and the animal was killed immediately afterward. In the primates there was no histological evidence of infusate-related tissue toxicity. Magnetic resonance images obtained during infusate delivery demonstrated that the anatomical region infused with Gd-DTPA was clearly distinguishable from surrounding noninfused tissue. Quantitative autoradiography confirmed that Gd-DTPA tracked the distribution of 3H-gemcitabine and closely approximated its volume of distribution (mean volume of distribution difference 13.5%). Conclusions. Gemcitabine can be delivered safely and effectively to the primate brainstem at therapeutic concentrations and at volumes that are higher than those considered clinically relevant. Moreover, MR imaging can be used to track the distribution of gemcitabine by adding Gd-DTPA to the infusate. This delivery paradigm should allow for direct therapeutic application of gemcitabine to brainstem gliomas while monitoring its distribution to ensure effective tumor coverage and to maximize safety.
Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2007; 106(2):351-6. DOI:10.3171/jns.2007.106.2.351 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of glucocerebrosidase could be used to treat targeted sites of disease progression in the brain and brainstem of a patient with neuronopathic Gaucher disease while monitoring enzyme distribution using MRI.
A CED paradigm in rodents (n = 8) and primates (n = 5) that employs co-infusion of a surrogate MRI tracer (gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid [Gd-DTPA]) with glucocerebrosidase to permit real-time monitoring of distribution was developed. The safety and feasibility of this delivery and monitoring paradigm were evaluated in a patient with type 2 Gaucher disease.
Animal studies revealed that real-time, T1-weighted, MRI of Gd-DTPA accurately tracked enzyme distribution during CED. Targeted perfusion of clinically affected anatomic sites in a patient with neuronopathic Gaucher disease (frontal lobe and brainstem) with glucocerebrosidase was successfully performed. Real-time MRI revealed progressive and complete filling of the targeted region with enzyme and Gd-DTPA infusate. The patient tolerated the infusions without evidence of toxicity.
Convection-enhanced delivery can be used to safely perfuse large regions of the brain and brainstem with therapeutic levels of glucocerebrosidase. Co-infused imaging surrogate tracers can be used to monitor and control the distribution of therapeutic agents in vivo. Patients with neuronopathic Gaucher disease and other intrinsic CNS disorders may benefit from a similar treatment paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if the tumor-targeted cytotoxin interleukin 13 bound to Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL13-PE) could be delivered to the brainstem safely at therapeutic doses while monitoring its distribution in real-time using a surrogate magnetic resonance imaging tracer, we used convection-enhanced delivery to perfuse rat and primate brainstems with IL13-PE and gadolinium-bound albumin (Gd-albumin).
Thirty rats underwent convective brainstem perfusion of IL13-PE (0.25, 0.5, or 10 microg/mL) or vehicle. Twelve primates underwent convective brainstem perfusion of either IL13-PE (0.25, 0.5, or 10 microg/mL; n = 8), co-infusion of 125I-IL13-PE and Gd-albumin (n = 2), or co-infusion of IL13-PE (0.5 microg/mL) and Gd-albumin (n = 2). The animals were permitted to survive for up to 28 days before sacrifice and histologic assessment.
Rats showed no evidence of toxicity at all doses. Primates showed no toxicity at 0.25 or 0.5 microg/mL but showed clinical and histologic toxicity at 10 microg/mL. Quantitative autoradiography confirmed that Gd-albumin precisely tracked IL13-PE anatomic distribution and accurately showed the volume of distribution.
IL13-PE can be delivered safely and effectively to the primate brainstem at therapeutic concentrations and over clinically relevant volumes using convection-enhanced delivery. Moreover, the distribution of IL13-PE can be accurately tracked by co-infusion of Gd-albumin using real-time magnetic resonance imaging.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2006; 12(10):3145-51. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2583 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, is reduced in the hippocampus in patients with complex partial seizures from mesial temporal sclerosis. To provide preliminary safety and distribution data on using convection-enhanced delivery of agents to treat complex partial seizures and to test the efficacy and safety of regional selective neuronal suppression, the authors infused muscimol, a GABA-A receptor agonist, directly into the hippocampus of nonhuman primates using an integrated catheter electrode.
Ten rhesus monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) use of catheter electrode alone (four monkeys); 2) infusion of escalating concentrations of muscimol followed by vehicle (three monkeys); and 3) infusion of vehicle and subsequent muscimol mixed with muscimol tracer (three monkeys). Infusions were begun 5 days after catheter electrode placement and continued for 5.6 days before switching to the other agent. Head magnetic resonance (MR) images and electroencephalography recordings were obtained before and during the infusions. Brain histological studies and quantitative autoradiography were performed. Neurological function was normal in controls and when muscimol concentrations were 0.125 mM or less, whereas higher concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) produced reversible apathy and somnolence. Fluid distribution was demonstrated on MR images and muscimol distribution was demonstrated on autoradiographs throughout the hippocampus and adjacent white matter.
Targeted modulation of neuronal activity is a reasonable research strategy for the investigation and treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.
Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2006; 103(6):1035-45. DOI:10.3171/jns.2005.103.6.1035 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo microdialysis relies principally on diffusion as the mechanism for solute exchange between the tissue and the probe perfusate. Mathematical models for describing microdialysis have been formulated based on known concepts of diffusion through tissue and the membranes with which probes are currently constructed. The models predict that the rate of exchange is strongly influenced by processes that remove the analyte from the tissue interstitium. This presents an opportunity to derive additional information about the clearance processes from microdialysis measurements. Experimental and mathematical approaches that have been developed to date for exploiting this possibility are presented in a revised framework suitable for both hydrophilic and lipophilic analytes.
Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2006; 16:131-167. DOI:10.1016/S1569-7339(06)16008-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achieving distribution of gene-carrying vectors is a major barrier to the clinical application of gene therapy. Because of the blood-brain barrier, the distribution of genetic vectors to the central nervous system (CNS) is even more challenging than delivery to other tissues. Direct intraparenchymal microinfusion, a minimally invasive technique, uses bulk flow (convection) to distribute suspensions of macromolecules widely through the extracellular space (convection-enhanced delivery [CED]). Although acute injection into solid tissue is often used for delivery of oligonucleotides, viruses, and liposomes, and there is preliminary evidence that certain of these large particles can spread through the interstitial space of the brain by the use of convection, the use of CED for distribution of viruses in the brain has not been systematically examined. That is the goal of this study.
Investigators used a rodent model to examine the influence of size, osmolarity of buffering solutions, and surface coating on the volumetric distribution of virus-sized nanoparticles and viruses (adeno-associated viruses and adenoviruses) in the gray matter of the brain. The results demonstrate that channels in the extracellular space of gray matter in the brain are large enough to accommodate virus-sized particles and that the surface characteristics are critical determinants for distribution of viruses in the brain by convection.
These results indicate that convective distribution can be used to distribute therapeutic viral vectors in the CNS.
Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2005; 103(2):311-9. DOI:10.3171/jns.2005.103.2.0311 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is increasingly used to distribute therapeutic agents to locations in the central nervous system. The optimal application of convective distribution of various agents requires the development of imaging tracers to monitor CED in vivo in real time. The authors examined the safety and utility of an iodine-based low-molecular-weight surrogate tracer for computerized tomography (CT) scanning during CED.
Various volumes (total volume range 90-150 microl) of iopamidol (MW 777 D) were delivered to the cerebral white matter of four primates (Macaca mulatta) by using CED. The distribution of this imaging tracer was determined by in vivo real-time and postinfusion CT scanning (< or = 5 days after infusion [one animal]) as well as by quantitative autoradiography (14C-sucrose [all animals] and 14C-dextran [one animal]), and compared with a mathematical model. Clinical observation (- 5 months) and histopathological analyses were used to evaluate the safety and toxicity of the tracer delivery. Real-time CT scanning of the tracer during infusion revealed a clearly definable region of perfusion. The volume of distribution (Vd) increased linearly (r2 = 0.97) with an increasing volume of infusion (V.). The overall Vd/Vi ratio was 4.1+/-0.7 (mean+/-standard deviation) and the distribution of infusate was homogeneous. Quantitative autoradiography confirmed the accuracy of the imaged distribution for a small (sucrose, MW 359 D) and a large (dextran, MW 70 kD) molecule. The distribution of the infusate was identifiable up to 72 hours after infusion. There was no clinical or histopathological evidence of toxicity in any animal.
Real-time in vivo CT scanning of CED of iopamidol appears to be safe, feasible, and suitable for monitoring convective delivery of drugs with certain features and low infusion volumes.
Journal of Neurosurgery 02/2005; 102(1):90-7. DOI:10.1227/00006123-200408000-00050 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For stability, the replication of unit-copy plasmids ought to occur by a highly controlled process. We have characterized the replication dynamics of a unit-copy plasmid F by a replication rate function defined as the probability per unit age interval of the cell cycle that a plasmid will initiate replication. Analysis of baby-machine data [J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 1380; J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 1393] by stochastics that make no detailed reference to underlying mechanism revealed that this rate function increased monotonically over the cell cycle with rapid increase near cell division. This feature is highly suggestive of a replication control mechanism that is designed to force most plasmids to replicate before cells undergo division. The replication rate function is developed anew from a mechanistic model incorporating the hypotheses that initiators are limiting and that steric hindrance of origins by handcuffing control initiation of replication. The model is based on correctly folded initiator protein monomers arising from an inactive dimer pool via chaperones in limiting amounts, their random distribution to high affinity sites (iterons) at the origin (ori) and an outside locus (incC), the statistical mechanics of bound monomer participation in pairing the two loci (cis-handcuffing), and initiation probability as proportional to the number of non-handcuffed ori-saturated plasmids. Provided cis-handcuffing is present, this model closely accounts for the shape of the replication rate function derived from experiment, and reproduces the observation that replication occurs throughout the cell cycle. Present concepts of iteron-based molecular mechanisms thus appear capable of yielding a quantitative description of unit-copy-number plasmid replication dynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced delivery of substance P (SP) nocitoxins to the spinal cord interstitium is under consideration for the treatment of chronic pain. To characterize treatment protocols, a three-dimensional finite-element model of infusion into the human dorsal column was developed to predict the distribution of SP-diphtheria toxin fusion protein (SP-DT') within normal and target tissue. The model incorporated anisotropic convective and diffusive transport through the interstitial space, hydrolysis by peptidases, and intracellular trafficking. For constant SP-DT' infusion (0.1 microl/min), the distribution of cytotoxicity in NK1 receptor-expressing neurons was predicted to reach an asymptotic limit at 6-8 h in the transverse direction at the level of the infusion cannula tip ( approximately 60% ablation of target neurons in lamina I/II). Computations revealed that SP-DT' treatment was favored by a stable SP analog (half-life approximately 60 min), high infusate concentration (385 nM), and careful catheter placement (adjacent to target lamina I/II). Sensitivity of cytotoxic regions to NK1 receptor density and white matter protease activity was also established. These data suggest that intraparenchymal infusions can be useful for treatment of localized chronic pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced interstitial infusion can deliver macromolecular drugs to large tissue volumes of the central nervous system. To characterize infusion into the spinal cord, an image-based three-dimensional finite element model of the rat spinal cord was developed. The model incorporated convection and diffusion through white and gray matter, including anisotropic transport due to alignment of white matter tracts. Spatial and temporal distribution of the marker substance albumin within the interstitial space was determined. Consistent with previous experiments, predicted distribution was highly anisotropic. Infusing into the dorsal column, albumin was primarily confined to, white matter with limited penetration into adjacent gray matter. Distribution was determined primarily by the ratio of fiber-parallel to fiber-perpendicular hydraulic conductivity tensor components (k(wm-z)/k(wm-x)), the ratio of transverse white and gray matter hydraulic conductivity (k(wm-x)/k(gm)), and tissue porosity. Fits to previous experimental measures of axial and transverse spread, distribution volume, and protein recovery yielded an optimum k(wm-z)/k(wm-x) of approximately 20 at 0.1 microl/min. k(wm-x)/k(gm) of 100 was sufficient to match experimental transverse distribution data. Best fits to data at 0.1 microl/min were achieved by porosities characteristic of moderate edema (e.g., 0.26). Distribution also varied with catheter placement with more medial placement resulting in greater distribution volumes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential for administering substance P (SP) nocitoxins for the treatment of chronic pain has been identified. To characterize treatment protocols for the spinal cord or elsewhere, binding/internalization of these compounds at the cellular targets must be understood quantitatively. Thus, a kinetic model of SP binding and intracellular trafficking has been developed from data. The eight differential equation model describes surface binding between SP and neurokinin 1 receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by spatial translation to a perinuclear endosome where SP is sorted from its receptor, SP degradation in late endosomes/early lysosomes, and return of sorted receptor to plasma membrane via recycling endosomes. With suitably optimized parameters, the model accounts for the kinetics of total, membrane-associated, and internalized SP in cells continuously exposed to SP, as well as the fractions of internalized SP remaining intact at 30 and 60 min. Simultaneously, the model accounts for the kinetics of internalization and receptor recycling after SP preloading of membrane and subsequent exposure to SP-free media. Rate constants (min(-1)) are: 0.034 +/- 0.004 (receptor off-rate), 0.15 +/- 0.03 (internalization), 0.048 +/- 0.003 (exit from sorting endosome), 0.062 +/- 0.008 (exit of labeled SP amino acids from prelysosome), and 0.029 +/- 0.004 (receptor return from recycling endosome to plasma membrane). The SP kinetics resemble those of transferrin and its receptor at the internalization step, but are several-fold slower in the sorting and recycling steps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrinsic disease processes of the brainstem (gliomas, neurodegenerative disease, and others) have remained difficult or impossible to treat effectively because of limited drug penetration across the blood-brainstem barrier with conventional delivery methods. The authors used convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of a macromolecular tracer visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to examine the utility of CED for safe perfusion of the brainstem.
Three primates (Macaca mulatta) underwent CED of various volumes of infusion ([Vis]; 85, 110, and 120 microl) of Gd-bound albumin (72 kD) in the pontine region of the brainstem during serial MR imaging. Infusate volume of distribution (Vd), homogeneity, and anatomical distribution were visualized and quantified using MR imaging. Neurological function was observed and recorded up to 35 days postinfusion. Histological analysis was performed in all animals. Large regions of the pons and midbrain were successfully and safely perfused with the macromolecular protein. The Vd was linearly proportional to the Vi (R2 = 0.94), with a Vd/Vi ratio of 8.7 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- standard deviation). Furthermore, the concentration across the perfused region was homogeneous. The Vd increased slightly at 24 hours after completion of the infusion, and remained larger until the intensity of infusion faded (by Day 7). No animal exhibited a neurological deficit after infusion. Histological analysis revealed normal tissue architecture and minimal gliosis that was limited to the region immediately surrounding the cannula track.
First, CED can be used to perfuse the brainstem safely and effectively with macromolecules. Second, a large-molecular-weight imaging tracer can be used successfully to deliver, monitor in vivo, and control the distribution of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutic agents for treatment of intrinsic brainstem processes.
Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2002; 97(4):905-13. DOI:10.3171/jns.2002.97.4.0905 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Kynurenine and quinolinic acid are neuroactive L-tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites of potential importance in pathogenesis and treatment of neurologic disease. To identify precursors of these metabolites in brain, [(2)H(3) ]-L-kynurenine was infused subcutaneously by osmotic pump into three groups of gerbils: controls, CNS-localized immune-activated, and systemically immune-activated. The specific activity of L-kynurenine and quinolinate in blood, brain and systemic tissues at equilibrium was then quantified by mass spectrometry and the results applied to a model of metabolism to differentiate the relative contributions of various metabolic precursors. In control gerbils, 22% of L-kynurenine in brain was derived via local synthesis from L-tryptophan/formylkynurenine versus 78% from L-kynurenine from blood. Quinolinate in brain was derived from several sources, including: local tissue L-tryptophan/formylkynurenine (10%), blood L-kynurenine (35%), blood 3-hydroxykynurenine/3-hydroxyanthranilate (7%), and blood quinolinate (48%). After systemic immune-activation, however, L-kynurenine in brain was derived exclusively from blood, whereas quinolinate in brain was derived from three sources: blood L-kynurenine (52%), blood 3-hydroxykynurenine or 3-hydroxyanthranilate (8%), and blood quinolinate (40%). During CNS-localized immune activation, > 98% of both L-kynurenine and quinolinate were derived via local synthesis in brain. Thus, immune activation and its site determine the sources from which L-kynurenine and quinolinate are synthesized in brain. Successful therapeutic modulation of their concentrations must take into account the metabolic and compartment sources.
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2002; 82(2):258-68. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.00955.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) distributes macromolecules in the brain in a homogeneous, targeted fashion in clinically useful volumes. However, the binding of growth factors to heparin-binding sites in the extracellular matrix may limit the volume of distribution (V(d)). To overcome this limitation, we examined the effects of heparin coinfusion on V(d) of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NTN), artemin, and a nonspecifically bound protein, albumin. Heparin coinfusion significantly enhanced the V(d) of GDNF and GDNF-homologous trophic factors, probably by binding and blocking heparin-binding sites in the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, coinfusion of heparin with NTN enhanced striatal dopamine metabolism, compared to trophic factor administered alone. The negligible benefit of GDNF in recent clinical trials of Parkinson's disease may result from limited tissue distribution. Heparin coinfusion during CED targeting the striatum may alleviate this important limitation. This study demonstrates the influence of receptor binding on the distribution of trophic factors in the CNS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct interstitial infusion is a technique capable of delivering agents over both small and large dimensions of brain tissue. However, at a sufficiently high volumetric inflow rate, backflow along the catheter shaft may occur and compromise delivery. A scaling relationship for the finite backflow distance along this catheter in pure gray matter (x(m)) has been determined from a mathematical model based on Stokes flow, Darcy flow in porous media, and elastic deformation of the brain tissue: x(m) = constant Q(o)(3)R(4)r(c)(4)G(-3)mu(-1) 1/5 [corrected] = volumetric inflow rate, R = tissue hydraulic resistance, r(c) = catheter radius, G = shear modulus, and mu = viscosity). This implies that backflow is minimized by the use of small diameter catheters and that a fixed (minimal) backflow distance may be maintained by offsetting an increase in flow rate with a similar decrease in catheter radius. Generally, backflow is avoided in rat gray matter with a 32-gauge catheter operating below 0.5 microliter/min. An extension of the scaling relationship to include brain size in the resistance term leads to the finding that absolute backflow distance obtained with a given catheter and inflow rate is weakly affected by the depth of catheter tip placement and, thus, brain size. Finally, an extension of the model to describe catheter passage through a white matter layer before terminating in the gray has been shown to account for observed percentages of albumin in the corpus callosum after a 4-microliter infusion of the compound to rat striatum over a range of volumetric inflow rates.
The American journal of physiology 11/1999; 277(4 Pt 2):R1218-29. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective treatment of central nervous system (CNS) structures holds therapeutic promise for many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The ability to inhibit or augment specific neuronal populations within the CNS reliably by using present therapeutic techniques is limited. To overcome this problem, the authors modeled and developed a method in which convection was used to deliver compounds to deep brain nuclei in a reproducible, homogeneous, and targeted manner. To determine the feasibility and clinical efficacy of convective drug delivery for treatment of a neurological disorder, the investigators selectively ablated globus pallidus internus (GPi) neurons with quinolinic acid (QA), an excitotoxin, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced model of primate parkinsonism.
After the parameters of convective distribution to the GPi were confirmed by infusion of biotinylated albumin into the GPi of a primate (Macaca mulatta), seven adult monkeys of this species were rendered either fully parkinsonian by intravenous injections of MPTP (five animals) or hemiparkinsonian by a right-sided intracarotid injection of this agent (two monkeys). Using convection-enhanced delivery to the GPi, animals were infused with either QA (three fully parkinsonian, two hemiparkinsonian) or saline (two fully parkinsonian). The three fully parkinsonian animals that underwent GPi lesioning with QA had substantial improvement of PD symptoms, manifested by a marked increase in activity (34 +/- 2.5%; mean +/- standard deviation) and dramatic improvement of parkinsonian clinical scores. In contrast, the control animals did not improve (activity monitor change = -1.5 +/- 0.5%). The two hemiparkinsonian animals that underwent QA lesioning of the GPi had dramatic recovery of extremity use. Histological examination revealed selective neural ablation of GPi neurons (mean loss 87%) with sparing of surrounding gray and white matter structures. No animal developed worsening signs of PD or neurological deficits after infusion.
Convection-enhanced delivery of QA permits selective, region-specific (GPi), and safe lesioning of neuronal subpopulations, resulting in dramatic improvement in parkinsonian symptomatology. The properties of convection-enhanced delivery indicate that this method could be used for chemical neurosurgery for medically refractory PD and that it may be ideal for cell-specific therapeutic ablation or trophic treatment of other targeted structures associated with CNS disorders.
Journal of Neurosurgery 09/1999; 91(2):294-302. DOI:10.3171/jns.1999.91.2.0294 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the neurotoxic tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolite quinolinic acid originates in brain by both local de novo synthesis and entry from blood, its concentrations in brain parenchyma, extracellular fluid, and CSF are normally below blood values. In the present study, an intraperitoneal injection of probenecid (400 mg/kg), an established inhibitor of acid metabolite transport in brain, into gerbils, increased quinolinic acid concentrations in striatal homogenates, CSF, serum, and homogenates of kidney and liver. Direct administration of probenecid (10 mM) into the brain compartment via an in vivo microdialysis probe implanted into the striatum also caused a progressive elevation in both quinolinic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in the extracellular fluid compartment but was without effect on serum quinolinic acid levels. A model of microdialysis transport showed that the elevations in extracellular fluid quinolinic acid and homovanillic acid levels following intrastriatal application are consistent with probenecid block of a microvascular acid transport mechanism. We conclude that quinolinic acid in brain is maintained at concentrations below blood levels largely by active extrusion via a probenecid-sensitive carrier system.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/1999; 72(5):2135-44. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0722135.x · 4.28 Impact Factor