[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon in which a short period of sub-lethal ischemia in one organ protects against subsequent bouts of ischemia in another organ. We hypothesized that RIPC in patients with intermittent claudication would increase muscle tissue resistance to ischemia, thereby resulting in an increased ability to walk.
In a claudication clinic, 52 ambulatory patients who presented with complaints of intermittent claudication in the lower limbs associated with an absent or reduced arterial pulse in the symptomatic limb and/or an ankle-brachial index <0.90 were recruited for this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). All of the patients underwent two tests on a treadmill according to the Gardener protocol. Group A was tested first without RIPC. Group A was subjected to RIPC prior to the second treadmill test. Group B was subjected to RIPC prior to the first treadmill test and then was subjected to a treadmill test without RIPC. In Group C (control group), both treadmill tests were performed without RIPC. The first and second tests were conducted seven days apart. Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM.
Group A showed a significant increase in the initial claudication distance in the second test compared to the first test.
RIPC increased the initial claudication distance in patients with intermittent claudication; however, RIPC did not affect the total walking distance of the patients.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 04/2013; 68(4). · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intermittent claudication reflects the presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of the MetS in claudicants and its correlation with age, gender, localization of arterial obstruction, and symptomatic coronary disease. Patients (n = 170) with intermittent claudication were studied. The mean age was 65 years (33-89). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 98 patients (57.6%). The mean age of patients with MetS was 63.5 years compared with 67.0 years for patients without MetS (P = .027). Considering patients aged ≥65 years, MetS was present in 46 (48.9%) individuals and in 52 (68.4%) patients younger than 65 years (P = .011). Metabolic syndrome must be actively searched for in claudicant patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a suitable predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has already been investigated. Its relevance as a predictor of the appearance and worsening of coronary arterial disease is also well known. However, the same is not true regarding peripheral arterial disease.
Eighty-five consecutive patients with an ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) < 0.9 and the presence of either intermittent claudication or critical lower leg ischemia were included. The plasma level of IgG autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein was evaluated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were categorized into quartiles according to the ankle-brachial pressure index (a marker of peripheral arterial disease severity), and significant differences were investigated with the Kruskal-Wallis test.
There was no significant difference between the quartiles for this population (p = 0.33). No correlation was found between the ankle-brachial pressure index and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not a good predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 04/2010; 65(4):383-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training in whom there was an aggravation of the arterial disease.
Three hundred and sixty-four patients with claudication who presented with femoropopliteal or tibioperoneal obstructions in at least 1 of the lower limbs and who did not have aortic or bilateral iliac obstructions were included. Forty patients developed new stenoses in previously spared arterial segments (confirmed by duplex scanning), which were proximal to preexisting lesions, and formed the progression group, in contrast to the stable group of patients (n = 324) who did not exhibit this worsening of the disease. Follow-up was 276 and 277 days for stable and progression groups, respectively. All patients underwent an unsupervised program of submaximal walking 4 days a week. Changes in maximal walking distance at a progressive treadmill test were appraised during follow-up, with special interest directed to the periods between admission, diagnosis of arterial worsening, and the end of follow-up.
Performance was not significantly different between groups during the entire follow-up period. Furthermore, patients with claudication who evolved with progression of their arteriopathy did not present a reduction of their maximal walking distance in response to the development of new arterial lesions at any time during their follow-up.
Worsening of the peripheral arterial disease in patients with claudication undergoing physical training, manifested as de novo arterial occlusion in proximal and previously spared segments, does not imply in an impairment of their claudication distance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of predictive factors for the evolution of arterial grafts in patients with critical ischemia have been well defined in clinical studies, including diabetes mellitus, dialytic renal insufficiency, smoking, and distal arterial runoff. The goal of this study was to determine whether patients with critical ischemia undergoing arterial reconstruction in which ischemic lesions appeared spontaneously, compared to those in which the ischemic lesion appeared following an external aggression to the limb present different patterns of evolution.
From February 2002 to January 2004, 100 patients undergoing infra-inguinal arterial reconstruction were followed. They were divided into 2 groups: 1) the spontaneous group (n = 52), comprising individuals presenting with ischemic lesions of spontaneous origin and 2) the external aggression to the limb group (n = 48), comprising individuals for which an external causal mechanism for the appearance of the ischemic lesion was identified. The variables analyzed were limb salvage and graft functioning rates.
Patients with spontaneous lesions had rates of limb salvage and graft functioning significantly lower than those for patients with lesions that were secondary to external aggression (42.3% versus 87.5%, respectively for both outcomes; P <.001).
The absence of an external aggression as a contributing factor to a critical ischemic lesion in the lower limb may result in a poorer evolution of both graft function and limb salvage following arterial revascularization. However, this factor is not expected to directly influence the case conduct, since almost half of the patients without evident external aggression had good graft functioning and limb salvage. This prognostic factor should be used just as all others are, i.e., to give patients and doctors a better idea of the possible evolution in such cases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the results including long-term follow-up obtained with endovascular treatment of patients with intermittent claudication who did not experience clinical improvement with conservative treatment.
From January 1992 to January 2002, 62 of 1380 patients (4.5%) with intermittent claudication underwent endovascular treatment and were followed up for up to 120 months (mean 76 months). The variables analyzed were the functioning of the arterial segment undergoing the endovascular procedure, the evolution of the maximum walking distance, and incidence of related morbidity and mortality.
Fifty-two patients (84%) experienced no walking limitation after the procedure, and 6 patients (10%) improved but still exhibited some degree of limitation, for a total improved outcome of 94%. The patency rate was 82%. There was no intraoperative mortality. One primary failure and one immediate thrombosis occurred, and both were surgically corrected. Thrombosis of the treated artery occurred in 6 patients 12, 16, 25, 29, 62, and 66 months after the procedure. These patients started to experience intermittent claudication with a walking distance to onset that was similar to their presurgical distance to onset. During follow-up, a mortality rate of 12.9% (8 patients) was observed, 6 due to myocardial infarctions and 2 due cerebral infarction. Three patients underwent coronary bypasses 22, 36, and 55 months after the endovascular surgery, and 2 patients underwent coronary angioplasty after 6 and 26 months. The mean follow up period was 76 months (range 0-120 months).
This study shows that endovascular treatment of intermittent claudication brought about a lasting regression of the ischemic conditions in a significant number of patients, with excellent patency rates. It was concluded that this is a good alternative for selected patients, with low rates of complications and positive long-term results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need for noninvasive methods for the early identification of patients with intermittent claudication who need surgical treatment. Newer magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) techniques allow detailed study of the arterial tree with image quality similar to that of conventional arteriography. From April 1997 to January 2001, 30 patients with intermittent claudication of the lower limbs were studied with both imaging methods. In each case, the MRA images were examined first and the arteriographic images were examined 15 days later. Examiners interpreting the arteriographic images were blinded to the results of the corresponding MRA images. After each examination (MRA and arteriography), a vascular surgeon suggested a surgical plan. MRA showed results similar to those of arteriography, although with inferior image quality. No patient had an allergic reaction or side effects due to administration of contrast material. There was total agreement between MRA and arteriography in regard to the morphologic analysis and proposed surgical plans in every case. In conclusion, MRA is a feasible, useful, and less invasive alternative for the morphologic evaluation of the aortofemoral area in patients with intermittent claudication of lower limbs.