[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gluten proteins differ from other cereal proteins as they are partly resistant to enzymatic processing in the intestine, resulting in a continuous exposure of the proteins to the intestinal immune system. In addition to being a disease-initiating factor in coeliac disease (CD), gluten intake might affect type 1 diabetes development. Studies in animal models of type 1 diabetes have documented that the pathogenesis is influenced by diet. Thus, a gluten-free diet largely prevents diabetes in NOD mice while a cereal-based diet promotes diabetes development. In infants, amount, timing and mode of introduction have been shown to affect the diabetogenic potential of gluten, and some studies now suggest that a gluten-free diet may preserve beta cell function. Other studies have not found this effect. There is evidence that the intestinal immune system plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, as diabetogenic T cells are initially primed in the gut, islet-infiltrating T cells express gut-associated homing receptors, and mesenteric lymphocytes transfer diabetes from NOD mice to NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Thus, gluten may affect diabetes development by influencing proportional changes in immune cell populations or by modifying the cytokine/chemokine pattern towards an inflammatory profile. This supports an important role for gluten intake in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and further studies should be initiated to clarify whether a gluten-free diet could prevent disease in susceptible individuals or be used with newly diagnosed patients to stop disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of long-term tolerance to β-cell autoantigens has been investigated both in animal models and in human type 1 diabetes (T1D) in order to prevent the disease. As regards external compounds, the dietary plant protein fraction has been associated with high penetrance of the disease, whereas gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis was lowered. Intranasal gliadin also rescued a fraction of prediabetic 13-week-old NOD mice from progressing to clinical onset of diabetes compared to OVA-treated controls. Vaccination with i.n. gliadin led to an induction of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and even more significant induction of γδ T cells in mucosal, but not in non-mucosal lymphoid compartments. This prevention strategy was characterized by an increased proportion of IL-10 and a decreased proportion of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ-positive CD4+Foxp3+ T cells, and IFN-γ-positive γδ T cells, preferentially in mucosal lymphoid organs. In conclusion, i.n. vaccination with gliadin, an environmental antigen with possible etiological influence in T1D, may represent a novel, safer strategy for prevention or even early cure of T1D.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94530. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-responsive, chronic inflammatory enteropathy. IL-1 cytokine family members IL-1β and IL-18 have been associated with the inflammatory conditions in CD patients. However, the mechanisms of IL-1 molecule activation in CD have not yet been elucidated. We show in this study that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes from celiac patients responded to pepsin digest of wheat gliadin fraction (PDWGF) by a robust secretion of IL-1β and IL-1α and a slightly elevated production of IL-18. The analysis of the upstream mechanisms underlying PDWGF-induced IL-1β production in celiac PBMC show that PDWGF-induced de novo pro-IL-1β synthesis, followed by a caspase-1 dependent processing and the secretion of mature IL-1β. This was promoted by K+ efflux and oxidative stress, and was independent of P2X7 receptor signaling. The PDWGF-induced IL-1β release was dependent on Nod-like receptor family containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) and apoptosis-associated speck like protein (ASC) as shown by stimulation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from NLRP3(-/-) and ASC(-/-) knockout mice. Moreover, treatment of human PBMC as well as MyD88(-/-) and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)(-/-) BMDC illustrated that prior to the activation of caspase-1, the PDWGF-triggered signal constitutes the activation of the MyD88/TRIF/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Moreover, our results indicate that the combined action of TLR2 and TLR4 may be required for optimal induction of IL-1β in response to PDWGF. Thus, innate immune pathways, such as TLR2/4/MyD88/TRIF/MAPK/NF-κB and an NLRP3 inflammasome activation are involved in wheat proteins signaling and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CD.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62426. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory processes play an important role in the development of nasal polyps (NP), but the etiology and, to a high degree also, the pathogenesis of NP are not fully understood. The role of several cytokines and chemokines such as eotaxins, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, and RANTES has been reported in NP. Herewith, we investigated the expression and pattern of distribution of chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR3 in nasal polyps. Immunohistochemical detection was carried out in frozen sections of biopsies from 22 NP and 18 nasal mucosa specimens in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. Fluorescence microscopy and computerized image analysis revealed a statistically significant increased number of CCR1 (45.2 ± 2.8 vs. 15.1 ± 1.9, p < 0.001)-positive as well as CCR3 (16.4 ± 1.4 vs. 9.7 ± 1.1, p < 0.001)-positive cells in the stroma of NP compared to nasal mucosa. In comparison to healthy nasal mucosa, increased positivity of CCR3 was detected in the epithelial compartment of NP. Our data suggest that increased expression of CCR1 and CCR3 chemokine receptors may, in accord with various chemokines, contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis by facilitating increased migration and prolonged accumulation of inflammatory cells, e.g., eosinophils, in the inflammatory infiltrate of NP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary gluten influences the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and a gluten-free (GF) diet has a protective effect on the development of T1D. Gluten may influence T1D due to its direct effect on intestinal immunity; however, these mechanisms have not been adequately studied. We studied the effect of a GF diet compared to a gluten-containing standard (STD) diet on selected T cell subsets, associated with regulatory functions as well as proinflammatory Th17 cells, in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, we assessed diet-induced changes in the expression of various T cell markers, and determined if changes were confined to intestinal or non-intestinal lymphoid compartments. The gluten-containing STD diet led to a significantly decreased proportion of γδ T cells in all lymphoid compartments studied, although an increase was detected in some γδ T cell subsets (CD8(+), CD103(+)). Further, it decreased the proportion of CD4(+)CD62L(+) T cells in Peyer's patches. Interestingly, no diet-induced changes were found among CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells or CD3(+)CD49b(+)cells (NKT cells) and CD3(-)CD49b(+) (NK) cells. Mice fed the STD diet showed increased proportions of CD4(+)CD45RB(high+) and CD103(+) T cells and a lower proportion of CD4(+)CD45RB(low+) T cells in both mucosal and non-mucosal compartments. The Th17 cell population, associated with the development of autoimmunity, was substantially increased in pancreatic lymph nodes of mice fed the STD diet. Collectively, our data indicate that dietary gluten influences multiple regulatory T cell subsets as well as Th17 cells in mucosal lymphoid tissue while fewer differences were observed in non-mucosal lymphoid compartments.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33315. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria). The effects of the germ-free state or the effects of colonization on disease initiation and maintenance can be observed in these models. Using this approach we demonstrated direct involvement of components of the microbiota in chronic intestinal inflammation and development of colonic neoplasia (i.e., using models of human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma). In contrast, a protective effect of microbiota colonization was demonstrated for the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Interestingly, the development of atherosclerosis in germ-free apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice fed by a standard low-cholesterol diet is accelerated compared with conventionally reared animals. Mucosal induction of tolerance to allergen Bet v1 was not influenced by the presence or absence of microbiota. Identification of components of the microbiota and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of their action in inducing pathological changes or exerting beneficial, disease-protective activities could aid in our ability to influence the composition of the microbiota and to find bacterial strains and components (e.g., probiotics and prebiotics) whose administration may aid in disease prevention and treatment.Keywords: allergy; hygiene hypothesis; intestinal permeability; leaky gut; probiotics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria). The effects of the germ-free state or the effects of colonization on disease initiation and maintenance can be observed in these models. Using this approach we demonstrated direct involvement of components of the microbiota in chronic intestinal inflammation and development of colonic neoplasia (i.e., using models of human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma). In contrast, a protective effect of microbiota colonization was demonstrated for the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Interestingly, the development of atherosclerosis in germ-free apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice fed by a standard low-cholesterol diet is accelerated compared with conventionally reared animals. Mucosal induction of tolerance to allergen Bet v1 was not influenced by the presence or absence of microbiota. Identification of components of the microbiota and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of their action in inducing pathological changes or exerting beneficial, disease-protective activities could aid in our ability to influence the composition of the microbiota and to find bacterial strains and components (e.g., probiotics and prebiotics) whose administration may aid in disease prevention and treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T1DM is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta-cells. Multiple factors may contribute to the development of T1DM. Among these, the metabolic state of beta-cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines, produced by infiltrating immune cells, have been implicated in the precipitation of T1DM.
In this study, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of human pancreata revealed a distinct subset of beta-cells expressing the innate LPS co-receptor CD14. Human islets expressed fully functional CD14 as LPS stimulation led to a dose-dependent secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8, which were substantially inhibited by a blocking anti-CD14 mAb. In addition, LPS stimulation impaired the glucose-mediated insulin secretion in rat islets. β-GalCer and sulfatide, glycolipids that are related to insulin processing and secretion, are possibly interacting with the CD14 receptor complex. β-GalCer had an LPS-like, serum- and CD14-dependent effect on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a human monocyte cell line. In contrast, the LPS-mediated cytokine production was inhibited by sulfatide. Human islets also responded to β-GalCer (10 µg/mL) by secreting TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8, whereas sulfatide partly inhibited the effect of LPS.
A subset of human beta-cells expresses functional CD14 receptor and thus is able to recognize both exogenous bacterial (LPS) as well as endogenous ligands (e.g. glycolipids of beta-cell origin). The CD14 expression on a subset of human beta-cells may play a role in the innate surveillance of the endocrine environment but may also contribute to innate immune mechanisms in the early stages of beta-cell aggression.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2010; 26(8):656-67. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps (NP), edematous projections of nasal mucosa (NM), are characterized by an inflammatory cellular infiltrate, however, little is known about etiopathogenesis of NP. Both innate immune mechanisms leading to activation of NF-kappaB and homeostasis of epithelial cells were implicated in the pathogenesis of NP. In this study we investigated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in NP compared to healthy NM in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. Using immunohistochemistry, frozen tissue sections of NP from 18 patients, and mucosal biopsy specimens of the inferior turbinate from 17 subjects were stained for IGF-1R and iNOS markers. Fluorescence microscopy and computerized image analysis revealed low numbers of IGF-1R-positive cells in all specimens. However, substantially increased numbers of IGF-1R-positive cells were found in NP compared to NM both within the epithelium (1.63 vs. 0.43) and stroma (3.27 vs. 1.03). Positivity for iNOS was detected within the epithelium of NP compared with NM. Numbers of iNOS-positive single cells were highly increased in NP vs. NM in both epithelial (3.83 vs. 1.08) and stromal (4.96 vs. 2.67) compartments. An increased iNOS expression within the epithelial layer as well as increased number of iNOS- and IGF-1R-positive cells in NP was observed. This suggests that innate immune mechanism, and to a lesser extent also growth and homeostasis of epithelial cells, may play a role in formation of NP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice.
Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals.
A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p < 0.0001) was observed in NOD mice fed gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n = 33). Surprisingly, gluten+ diet also prevented diabetes incidence, even at the level found with the gluten-free diet (p < 0.0001, 5.9%, n = 34). The minority of mice, which developed diabetes on all the three diabetes-protective (gluten+, gluten-free, Pregestimil) diets, did that slightly later compared to those on the standard diet. Lower insulitis score compared to control mice was found in non-diabetic NOD mice on the gluten-free, and to a lesser extent also gluten+ and Pregestimil diets. No substantial differences in the number of CD3(+), TCR-gammadelta(+), and IgA(+) cells in the small intestine were documented.
Gluten+ diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice at the level found with the non-purified gluten-free diet. Possible mechanisms of the enigmatic, dual effect of dietary gluten on the development of T1D are discussed.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 01/2008; 24(1):59-63. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal thymectomy (NTX) impairs T cell regulation and leads to organ-specific autoimmune disease in susceptible mouse strains. In the NOD mouse model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes, we observed that NTX dramatically accelerated autoimmune pancreatic beta cell destruction and diabetes. NTX had only a minor effect in NOD mice protected from diabetes by transgenic expression of the beta cell autoantigen proinsulin in APCs, inferring that accelerated diabetes after NTX is largely due to failure to regulate proinsulin-specific T cells. NTX markedly impaired the development of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), the number of which was already reduced in euthymic NOD mice compared with control strains. IEL purified from euthymic NOD mice, specifically CD8alphaalpha TCRgammadelta IEL, when transferred into NTX-NOD mice, trafficked to the small intestinal epithelium and prevented diabetes. Transfer of prototypic CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells also prevented diabetes in NTX-NOD mice; however, the induction of these cells by oral insulin in euthymic mice depended on the integrity of TCRgammadelta IEL. We conclude that TCRgammadelta IEL at the mucosal interface between self and nonself play a key role in maintaining peripheral tolerance both physiologically and during oral tolerance induction.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2006; 176(11):6553-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of the diet on the caecal bacterial flora, which may affect the intestinal physiology and mediate disease prevention.
Two groups of NOD mice from the age of 3 weeks were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Each diabetic mouse, when diagnosed, along with a non-diabetic mouse from the same diet group and two non-diabetic mice from the alternate diet group were euthanized and sampled for classical bacteriological examination.
Nine out of 19 (47%) standard-fed mice and 1 out of 19 (5%) gluten-free-fed mice developed diabetes (p < 0.01). Mice on the gluten-free diet had significantly fewer aerobically (p < 0.01) and microaerophilically (p < 0.001) cultivated bacteria in their intestines than standard-fed mice. Non-diabetic mice also had significantly fewer microa erophilic and anaerobic bacteria than diabetic mice (p < 0.05). These differences were primarily due to a difference in the Gram-positive flora.
The gluten-free diet compared to the standard diet both qualitatively and quantitatively substantially altered the composition of the caecal bacterial flora in NOD mice. Although Gram-positive bacteria might influence the beta cells through certain digestive products, it is more likely to assume that any effect on diabetes incidence is immunological.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 01/2006; 22(3):220-5. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes (pivotal in many inflammatory pathologies) are targets for glucocorticoid hormone (GC). How TCR-mediated activation and GC signaling via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) impact on T-cell fates is not fully defined. We delineated here the expression of a recently identified glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR) induced by GC and by TCR-mediated T-cell activation in GC receptor (GR)-deficient mice (GR-/-). We also compared the action of GC on GITR+ and GITR- T cells by monitoring apoptosis, proliferation and cytokine production stimulated by anti-CD3 antibody. By using GR-/- mice, we observed that the development of GITR+ T cells (both in thymus and periphery) is not dependent upon GR signaling. This contradicts the implication of GITR's name reflecting GC induction. TCR-mediated T-cell activation induced GITR expression in both GR+/+ and GR-/- cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, there was very modest GITR upregulation on GR+/+ T cells by a range of GC doses (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Constitutive expression of GITR by a subset of CD4+ cells did not significantly render them resistant to GC-induced cell death. However, TCR-induced GITR upregulation on GR+/+ T cells was correlated with resistance to GC-mediated apoptosis suggesting that GITR, in conjunction with other (as yet unidentified) TCR-induced factors, protects T cells from apoptosis. Thus, even though GC is a potent inducer of apoptosis of T cells, activated T cells are resistant to GC-mediated killing. Meanwhile, although GC suppressed anti-CD3-induced cytokine production, cell proliferation was unaffected by GC in GR+/+ mice. GR deficiency has no effect on anti-CD3-induced cytokine production and proliferation. Our findings also have implications for GC treatment in that it would be more difficult to abrogate an ongoing T-cell mediated inflammatory response than to prevent its induction.
International Immunology 10/2004; 16(9):1315-21. · 3.14 Impact Factor