ABSTRACT: Elastophagocytosis, or elastic fiber phagocytosis by multinucleate macrophages, has been observed in different skin conditions that may or may not occur on sun-exposed skin. Although loss of elastic fibers has been well documented in the homogenized papillary dermal zone in lichen sclerosus (LS), elastophagocytosis, to the best of our knowledge, has never been observed.
We encountered striking elastophagocytosis in a case of extragenital LS which prompted us to review all cases of LS diagnosed at the Skin Pathology Laboratory at Boston University over a 2-year period to assess for the presence of elastophagocytosis.
In 7 of 35 patients diagnosed with LS (20%), we found prominent elastophagocytosis to be present either immediately below or at the junction of the homogenized collagen and the normal underlying reticular dermis. Interestingly, all the cases in which elastophagocytosis was observed were in extragenital locations.
Elastophagocytosis was observed in 20% of LS cases, all of which were extragenital. We hypothesize that elastophagocytosis in LS, especially in extragenital sites, may not be an epiphenomenon but rather represents a contributing factor to elastic fiber loss in the hyalinized papillary dermal collagen that typifies this disease.
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 10/2010; 37(10):1032-7. · 1.56 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that multiple stacked pulses of lower fluence may have a similar effect on targets as a single pulse of higher fluence. When treating vascular lesions, increasing the fluence beyond a certain point will increase the risk of purpura given a constant pulse duration. Stacking pulses of lower fluence may have the advantage of heating vessels to a critical temperature without creating purpura.
To determine whether stacking low-fluence pulses of a variable-pulse pulsed-dye laser would improve clinical results without significantly increasing side and adverse effects.
Twenty-five patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years with facial telangiectasia and skin types I-IV were enrolled in the study. For each subject, the cheek or nasal ala areas on either side of the facial midline with similar telangiectasia density ratings were randomized to single pulse and multiple stacked pulse groups. One side of the cheek or nasal ala was treated with single nonoverlapping pulses with the Candela Vbeam 595-nm pulsed-dye laser. The opposite side of the cheek or nose was treated with the same parameters but with three or four pulses stacked on top of each other at a 1.5-Hz repetition rate. Patients were asked to rate the pain of the procedure on each side on a 0 to 3 scale. Investigators rated the erythema and edema after the procedure as well as vessel clearing and overall telangiectasia density scale at 1 and 6 weeks after the procedure.
Twenty-three patients completed the study. The mean pain rating was 1.58 for the pulse stacked side and 1.38 for the single-pass side. The mean erythema score after the procedure was 1.17 for the pulsed stacked side and 1.09 for the single pulsed side. The mean vessel clearing 1 week after the treatment was 74.3% for the pulse stacked side and 58.5% for the single pulsed side. The mean vessel clearing 6 weeks after the treatment was 87.6% for the pulse stacked side and 67.4% for the single pulsed side. The mean telangiectasia density scale score before treatment was 2.67 for the pulse stacked side and 2.59 for the single pulsed side. At 1 week after treatment, the mean telangiectasia density scale score was 1.06 for the pulsed stacked side and 1.5 for the single pulsed side. At 6 weeks after treatment, the mean telangiectasia density scale score was 0.72 for the pulsed stacked side and 1.30 for the single pulsed side. No patients experienced purpura in either group, and there were no cases of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, or scar formation. One patient experienced significant edema on the side of the cheeks treated with pulse stacking.
Treating superficial facial telangiectasia with a pulse stacking technique may improve clinical results without significantly increasing adverse effects.
Dermatologic Surgery 03/2004; 30(2 Pt 1):163-7; discussion 167. · 1.80 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation of tinea is usually, but not always, characteristic. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the routine use of the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain in inflammatory skin disorders is requisite for identifying clinically undiagnosed tinea cases and to ascertain whether there are histopathologic clues that suggest the diagnosis of a dermatophyte infection.
Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides from 60 PAS-positive tinea cases were examined histologically by two observers. One observer, aware of the diagnosis of tinea, searched for hyphal elements and also recorded in detail epidermal, dermal, and follicular changes. The second observer, not aware of the diagnosis beforehand, reviewed the same slides, together with randomly mixed slides from 21 non-tinea cases, recording the same parameters as the first reviewer.
Of the 60 cases of tinea, only 45% were diagnosed clinically. Histologic examination of H&E sections by the two observers disclosed the presence of hyphal elements in 68 and 45%, respectively. No significant histologic differences, except for the presence of hyphae, were observed between tinea and non-tinea cases.
The finding that only 57% of PAS-positive cases of tinea showed hyphal elements on H&E examination alone, together with no other differentiable histologic characteristics, lends strong support for the routine use of PAS-staining for inflammatory skin disorders.
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 11/2003; 30(10):611-5. · 1.56 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a small, low energy light based system for hair removal, when used by non-healthcare professionals ("patients") for self treatment in home-like environment following instructions and guidance provided by a physician.
A total of 73 patients between the ages of 19 and 54 years with skin types I through IV were enrolled in the study out of which 67 completed the study. Two treatment sites were chosen from among the arms, axilla, legs, bikini, back, belly, chest or face. The hair on the sites was trimmed and photographed. Each patient performed two self-treatments, using the hair removal device on their designated body sites, under the Investigator's direction. The first self-treatment was performed at the Investigator's office by the patient while the second self-treatment was performed 4 weeks later at a hotel room, simulating the home environment. Follow-up visits to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the treatments were performed 2 and 12 weeks following the last self-treatment.
The mean hair reduction was 33.6%, 4 weeks after the first self-treatment, 44.3%, 2 weeks following the last self-treatment, and 32.3%, 12 weeks following the last treatment. All the noted side effects were mild and transient. Transient erythema was noted in 47.5% of the patients. Other transient side effects reported include edema (5%), hyperpigmentation (4.75%), crusting (2.35%), hypopigmentation (1.55%), and blistering (1.4%). All noted side effects were resolved by the 12-week follow-up visit.
With adequate training and instruction, patients may administer self-treatments for hair removal with this small light based unit in a safe and effective manner.
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 02/2003; 33(1):25-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Granuloma faciale has been treated in the past with different modalities but the majority have had the risk of scarring.
Based on the principle of selective photothermolysis, we considered using the newer long-pulsed tunable dye laser for the treatment of granuloma faciale to target the vessels and minimize scarring.
Confirmation of the diagnosis by a punch biopsy of the lesion was followed by three treatments on separate occasions 6 weeks apart with the long-pulsed tunable dye laser.
There was significant flattening of the lesions after two treatments, with complete clearing after the third. No scarring was detectable and there was no recurrence in the 9-month follow-up.
We conclude that granuloma faciale may be successfully treated with the long-pulsed tunable dye laser with minimal risk of scarring, especially in cosmetically sensitive areas.
Dermatologic Surgery 07/2002; 28(6):527-9. · 1.80 Impact Factor