Jill S Warrington

Tufts University, Бостон, Georgia, United States

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Publications (9)29.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the role of specific isoforms in the biotransformation of phenacetin and chlorzoxazone and examined the effect of age on these reactions using liver microsomes from Fischer 344 rats between 3 and 26 months of age. Using rat cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, we found that phenacetin biotransformation was primarily mediated by CYP2C6 and CYP1A isoforms, while chlorzoxazone biotransformation was largely mediated by CYP2E1 and CYP1A1. Incubations with liver microsomes prepared from rats of varying ages demonstrated that both phenacetin and chlorzoxazone biotransformation declined with age. Metabolite formation rates in the old rats (25-26 months) were reduced by approximately 60-70% for these reactions. This study suggests that the activity of CYP2E and CYP1A enzymes decline with age in the rat liver. Also, the relative specificity of the index substrates phenacetin (for CYP1A2) and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1) in man appears not to be applicable in rats.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 07/2004; 56(6):819-25. DOI:10.1211/0022357023529 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • J S Warrington, D J Greenblatt, L L Von Moltke
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Triazolam (TRZ) has been used extensively in rat to evaluate its benzodiazepine agonist central nervous system effects. However, the pharmacokinetics of TRZ in the male rat are not well understood. 2. To characterize further TRZ biotransformation across species, the NADPH-dependent biotransformation of TRZ was examined in rat and human liver microsomes. The role of specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the biotransformation of TRZ in the rat were also determined using both rat cDNA-expressed CYPs and chemical and antibody inhibition techniques. 3. The formation of TRZ's primary hydroxylated products, alpha-OH- and 4-OH-TRZ, was consistent with a single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten model in humans. 4. Although 4-OH-TRZ formation in the male rat liver was also approximated by a single-enzyme model, a second low-affinity component was identified as contributing to alpha-OH-TRZ formation in the rat. 5. The K(m) values for the primary metabolic pathway differed between the two species. However, the net intrinsic clearances were similar for the rat and human. 6. As observed previously for humans, chemical and antibody inhibition studies suggested that CYP3A enzymes contribute significantly to TRZ hydroxylation in the rat. This finding was further supported by the use of rat cDNA-expressed CYPs. 7. The male rat might serve as a useful model for evaluating mechanisms regulating TRZ metabolism in vivo.
    Xenobiotica 06/2004; 34(5):463-71. DOI:10.1080/00498250410001691299 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of age on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in rat liver, intestine, kidney, and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and lymphocytes. Flow cytometric analysis was used to examine P-gp expression in lymphocytes from male Fischer-344 rats from three age groups (young at 3-4 months, intermediate at 13-14 months, and old at 25-26 months). In addition, P-gp function in lymphocytes was assessed by measuring the ability of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil to limit the efflux of the fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine 123. P-gp expression was evaluated in the remaining four tissues by Western blot analysis. The effect of age on P-gp expression was tissue-specific. Although lymphocytic and hepatic P-gp expression increased with age, renal P-gp content was lower in the old kidneys. No statistical difference was observed in P-gp expression in intestinal microsomes or in BBB cell lysates among the three age groups. P-gp function was also increased by 6- to 8-fold in lymphocytes from the old rats. When P-gp expression was compared with CYP3A expression in these rats (reported elsewhere in this journal), we found that P-gp expression increased with age, whereas CYP3A expression and activity declined in the old livers. The converse pattern was observed in the kidney. Thus, age-related changes in P-gp expression and function are likely to be tissue-specific, and these changes may be inversely related to differences in CYP3A expression.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2004; 309(2):730-6. DOI:10.1124/jpet.103.061234 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of age on CYP3A expression and function in the liver, intestine, and kidney from young (3-4 months), intermediate (13-14 months), and old (25-26 months) male Fischer-344 rats. The biotransformation of triazolam to its primary hydroxylated products, 4-OH-TRZ (triazolam) and alpha-OH-TRZ, was used as a marker of CYP3A activity in rat liver and intestine. Immunoactive CYP3A expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis in the rat intestine, liver, and kidney. Since testosterone and NADPH reductase levels may modulate CYP3A activity, we also examined free plasma testosterone concentrations and NADPH reductase expression in these rats. The effect of age on CYP3A expression was tissue-specific. Although both CYP3A activity and expression were reduced by approximately 50 to 70% in the old livers compared with the young animals, intestinal CYP3A activity and expression did not change significantly with age. The expression of one CYP3A isoform was increased by 1.5-fold in the old kidneys. NADPH reductase expression was reduced by 23 to 36% with age in all tissues; this reached statistical significance only in the liver. Plasma testosterone levels declined by 74% in the old animals. This study suggests that the effect of age on CYP3A expression and function is tissue-specific. In addition, changes in testosterone levels and NADPH reductase expression may contribute to age-related differences in hepatic CYP3A activity.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2004; 309(2):720-9. DOI:10.1124/jpet.103.061077 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sildenafil [SIL (Viagra); Pfizer, New York, NY] is a widely prescribed agent for erectile dysfunction in men older than 65 years. The present study evaluated experimental models to assess age-dependent changes in SIL biotransformation using hepatic microsomes from male rats and mice ranging from 6 weeks to 26 months of age. The role of specific isoforms in the conversion of SIL to its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320 (piperazine N-desmethyl sildenafil) in the mouse was also investigated using immunoinhibitory antibodies. Although CYP2C11 largely mediated UK-103,320 formation in the rat, UK-103,320 formation was principally inhibited by a CYP3A antibody in the mouse. An age-related decrement in metabolite formation rate was observed for both species, although this effect was more pronounced in the old rats (reduced to 7% of young) than in the old mice (reduced to 51% of young). CYP2C expression was assessed by Western blot analysis in rat and mouse livers. Age-related differences in hepatic CYP3A expression in the mouse were also compared with metabolite formation rates in the mouse model. Decrements with age in CYP2C and -3A expression in the aging rodents paralleled the decrements in SIL biotransformation, suggesting that age-related differences in SIL metabolic rate may, in part, reflect differences in expression. Although the role of specific CYP enzymes and the clearance values for this reaction may differ among species, age-related changes in these rodent models are consistent with the reduced clearance of SIL observed in human studies.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 11/2003; 31(11):1306-9. DOI:10.1124/dmd.31.11.1306 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions of midazolam and ketoconazole were studied in vivo and in vitro in rats. Ketoconazole (total dose of 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally) reduced clearance of intravenous midazolam (5 mg/kg) from 79 to 55 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05) and clearance of intragastric midazolam (15 mg/kg) from 1051 to 237 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05), increasing absolute bioavailability from 0.11 to 0.36 (p < 0.05). Presystemic extraction occurred mainly across the liver as opposed to the gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Midazolam increased electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude in the beta-frequency range. Ketoconazole shifted the concentration-EEG effect relationship rightward (increase in EC(50)), probably because ketoconazole is a neutral benzodiazepine receptor ligand. Ketoconazole competitively inhibited midazolam hydroxylation by rat liver and intestinal microsomes in vitro, with nanomolar K(i) values. At a total serum ketoconazole of 2 microg/ml (3.76 microM) in vivo, the predicted reduction in clearance of intragastric midazolam by ketoconazole (to 6% of control) was slightly greater than the observed reduction in vivo (to 15% of control). However, unbound serum ketoconazole greatly underpredicted the observed clearance reduction. Although the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of midazolam in rats incompletely parallel those in humans, the experimental model can be used to assess aspects of drug interactions having potential clinical importance.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2002; 302(3):1228-37. DOI:10.1124/jpet.102.035972 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the suitability of the male rat model for human studies on sildenafil metabolism, we examined the biotransformation of sildenafil in male rat liver microsomes and identified the role of specific cytochrome P450s (P450) using inhibitory antibodies and cDNA-expressed P450s. Rates of formation of the major circulating metabolite of sildenafil, UK-103,320, were 11-fold greater in the male rat than in human liver microsomes at 36 microM sildenafil, whereas substrate concentration corresponding to 50% V(max) (K(m) values) were 2.9-fold lower in the male rat. Although sildenafil is largely metabolized by CYP3A isoforms in humans, coincubation of rat liver microsomes with immunoinhibitory antibodies (CYP1A1/2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, and 3A1/2) revealed that metabolite formation was inhibited only by an antirat CYP2C11 antibody. Incubation of sildenafil with a cDNA-expressed CYP2C11 produced 10-fold higher levels of UK-103,320 than other P450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2C6, 2C12, 2C13, 2E1, 3A1, and 3A2). Thus CYP2C11 contributes in a major way to the metabolism of sildenafil in the male rat. P450 isoforms mediating sildenafil biotransformation differ substantially between humans and the male rat, thereby limiting the applicability of this species as a model for sildenafil metabolism and drug interactions in humans.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 07/2002; 30(6):655-7. DOI:10.1124/dmd.30.6.655 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro biotransformation of sildenafil to its major circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, was studied in human liver microsomes and in microsomes containing heterologously expressed human cytochromes. In human liver microsomes, the mean K(m) (+/-S.E. ) was 14.4 +/- 2.0 microM. A screen of the chemical inhibitors omeprazole (10 microM), quinidine (10 microM), sulfaphenazole (10 microM), and ketoconazole (2.5 microM) only revealed detectable inhibition with ketoconazole. Sildenafil biotransformation (36 microM) was inhibited by increasing concentrations of ketoconazole and ritonavir (IC(50) values less than 0.02 microM), which are established cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibitors. Using microsomes containing cDNA-expressed cytochromes, UK-103,320 formation was found to be mediated by four cytochromes: CYP3A4, -2C9, -2C19, and -2D6. Estimated relative contributions to net intrinsic clearance were 79% for CYP3A4 and 20% for CYP2C9; for CYP2C19 and -2D6, estimated contributions were less than 2%. These results demonstrate that CYP3A4 is the primary cytochrome mediating UK-103,320 formation and that drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 are likely to impair sildenafil biotransformation.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 05/2000; 28(4):392-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study age-related changes in drug metabolism, we examined the in vitro biotransformation of midazolam (MDZ), a human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A substrate, using liver microsomes from three age groups of male CD-1 mice ranging from 6 weeks to 2 years old. MDZ was metabolized to two major products, alpha-OH- and 4-OH-MDZ, which were quantified by HPLC. For both metabolites, V(max) values were reduced in old livers (P <.05), while K(m) values did not change with age. The net intrinsic clearance (the sum of V(max)/K(m) for both pathways) also was reduced in the old animals (P <.05). The capacity of ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor in humans, to inhibit the biotransformation of MDZ and of alprazolam, another human CYP3A substrate, did not differ significantly with age. At 100 microM alprazolam, 0.5 microM ketoconazole inhibited metabolite formation by >80%. At 30 microM MDZ, 2.5 microM ketoconazole impaired 4-OH-MDZ formation by 88%, whereas it reduced alpha-OH-MDZ formation by only 46%. Immunoinhibition studies with polyclonal anti-rat CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 antibodies confirmed that 4-OH-MDZ formation was largely CYP3A-dependent, while alpha-OH-MDZ formation was mediated by CYP3A and -2C isoforms. Western blot analysis revealed decreased microsomal content of CYP3A in old livers. Net intrinsic clearance of MDZ was correlated with total CYP3A content (P <.001). These results demonstrate a reduction in MDZ biotransformation in old male mice, which may be attributable, in part, to decreased CYP3A content in old livers. Changes in expression and activity of CYP2C isoforms also may contribute to age-related changes in MDZ biotransformation, but this requires more investigation.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2000; 292(3):1024-31. · 3.86 Impact Factor