D M Rennick

Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (48)432.72 Total impact

  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2008; 557(1):215 - 229. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb24015.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled mucosal immunity in the gastrointestinal tract of humans results in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. In early clinical trials as well as in animal models, IL-12 has been implicated as a major mediator of these diseases based on the ability of anti-p40 mAb treatment to reverse intestinal inflammation. The cytokine IL-23 shares the same p40 subunit with IL-12, and the anti-p40 mAbs used in human and mouse IBD studies neutralized the activities of both IL-12 and IL-23. IL-10-deficient mice spontaneously develop enterocolitis. To determine how IL-23 contributes to intestinal inflammation, we studied the disease susceptibility in the absence of either IL-23 or IL-12 in this model, as well as the ability of recombinant IL-23 to exacerbate IBD induced by T cell transfer. Our study shows that in these models, IL-23 is essential for manifestation of chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas IL-12 is not. A critical target of IL-23 is a unique subset of tissue-homing memory T cells, which are specifically activated by IL-23 to produce the proinflammatory mediators IL-17 and IL-6. This pathway may be responsible for chronic intestinal inflammation as well as other chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2006; 116(5):1310-6. DOI:10.1172/JCI21404 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-23 and IL-12 are heterodimeric cytokines which share the p40 subunit, but which have unique second subunits, IL-23p19 and IL-12p35. Since p40 is required for the development of the Th1 type response necessary for resistance to Toxoplasma gondii, studies were performed to assess the role of IL-23 in resistance to this pathogen. Increased levels of IL-23 were detected in mice infected with T. gondii and in vitro stimulation of dendritic cells with this pathogen resulted in increased levels of mRNA for this cytokine. To address the role of IL-23 in resistance to T. gondii, mice lacking the p40 subunit (common to IL-12 and IL-23) and mice that lack IL-12 p35 (specific for IL-12) were infected and their responses were compared. These studies revealed that p40(-/-) mice rapidly succumbed to toxoplasmosis, while p35(-/-) mice displayed enhanced resistance though they eventually succumbed to this infection. In addition, the administration of IL-23 to p40(-/-) mice infected with T. gondii resulted in a decreased parasite burden and enhanced resistance. However, the enhanced resistance of p35(-/-) mice or p40(-/-) mice treated with IL-23 was not associated with increased production of IFN-gamma. When IL-23p19(-/-) mice were infected with T. gondii these mice developed normal T cell responses and controlled parasite replication to the same extent as wild-type mice. Together, these studies indicate that IL-12, not IL-23, plays a dominant role in resistance to toxoplasmosis but, in the absence of IL-12, IL-23 can provide a limited mechanism of resistance to this infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2004; 173(3):1887-93. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.173.3.1887 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine regulating immune responses. We have previously reported that IL-10(-/-) mice experience accelerated alveolar bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to examine the timing of the manifestation of accelerated alveolar bone loss in IL-10(-/-) mice. Twenty-four IL-10(-/-) and 21 IL-10(+/+) age-matched male 129/SvEv mice were used. Sacrifice times occurred at 1, 3 and 9.5 months of age. Alveolar bone loss was determined morphometrically on defleshed jaws. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for determination of serum concentration of type I collagen C-telopeptide, a systemic marker of bone resorption. Alveolar bone loss for the entire IL-10(-/-) group was significantly different than for the IL-10(+/+) group (p = 0.025). There was no significant difference in alveolar bone loss between IL-10(-/-) and IL-10(+/+) mice at 1 and 3 months of age. At 9.5 months of age, IL-10(-/-) mice exhibited 39% greater alveolar bone loss than IL-10(+/+) mice (p = 0.018). For IL-10(-/-) mice, alveolar bone loss significantly increased with age. Serum C-telopeptide levels significantly decreased with age in both groups. IL-10(-/-) mice had consistently higher C-telopeptide levels than IL-10(+/+) mice and the difference between the two groups reached statistical significance (p = 0.011) for the 9.5-month-old mice. These results suggest that the accelerated alveolar bone loss observed in IL-10(-/-) mice is a late-onset condition and that lack of IL-10 may have an effect on bone homeostasis.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 07/2004; 39(3):194-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0765.2004.00724.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, including those implicated in alveolar bone resorption. We hypothesized that lack of interleukin-10 leads to increased alveolar bone resorption. Male interleukin-10(-/-) mice, on 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J background, were compared with age-, sex-, and strain-matched interleukin-10(+/+) controls for alveolar bone loss. Immunoblotting was used for analysis of serum reactivity against bacteria associated with colitis and periodontitis. Interleukin-10(-/-) mice had significantly greater alveolar bone loss than interleukin-10(+/+) mice (p = 0.006). The 30-40% greater alveolar bone loss in interleukin-10(-/-) mice was evident in both strains, with C57BL/6J interleukin-10(-/-) mice exhibiting the most bone loss. Immunoblotting revealed distinct interleukin-10(-/-) serum reactivity against Bacteroides vulgatus, B. fragilis, Prevotella intermedia, and, to a lesser extent, against B. forsythus. The results of the present study suggest that lack of interleukin-10 leads to accelerated alveolar bone loss.
    Journal of Dental Research 09/2003; 82(8):632-5. DOI:10.1177/154405910308200812 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    Chest 04/2003; 123(3 Suppl):439S. DOI:10.1378/chest.123.3_suppl.439S · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient Th1-driven adaptive immune response requires activation of the T cell receptor and secretion of the T cell stimulatory cytokine IL-12 by activated antigen-presenting cells. IL-12 triggers Th1 polarization of naive CD4(+) T cells and secretion of IFN-gamma. We describe a new heterodimeric cytokine termed IL-27 that consists of EBI3, an IL-12p40-related protein, and p28, a newly discovered IL-12p35-related polypeptide. IL-27 is an early product of activated antigen-presenting cells and drives rapid clonal expansion of naive but not memory CD4(+) T cells. It also strongly synergizes with IL-12 to trigger IFN-gamma production of naive CD4(+) T cells. IL-27 mediates its biologic effects through the orphan cytokine receptor WSX-1/TCCR.
    Immunity 07/2002; 16(6):779-90. DOI:10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00324-2 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-12p40 "soluble receptor" subunit and a novel cytokine-like subunit related to IL-12p35, termed p19. Human and mouse IL-23 exhibit some activities similar to IL-12, but differ in their capacities to stimulate particular populations of memory T cells. Like IL-12, IL-23 binds to the IL-12R subunit IL-12Rbeta1. However, it does not use IL-12Rbeta2. In this study, we identify a novel member of the hemopoietin receptor family as a subunit of the receptor for IL-23, "IL-23R." IL-23R pairs with IL-12Rbeta1 to confer IL-23 responsiveness on cells expressing both subunits. Human IL-23, but not IL-12, exhibits detectable affinity for human IL-23R. Anti-IL-12Rbeta1 and anti-IL-23R Abs block IL-23 responses of an NK cell line and Ba/F3 cells expressing the two receptor chains. IL-23 activates the same Jak-stat signaling molecules as IL-12: Jak2, Tyk2, and stat1, -3, -4, and -5, but stat4 activation is substantially weaker and different DNA-binding stat complexes form in response to IL-23 compared with IL-12. IL-23R associates constitutively with Jak2 and in a ligand-dependent manner with stat3. The ability of cells to respond to IL-23 or IL-12 correlates with expression of IL-23R or IL-12Rbeta2, respectively. The human IL-23R gene is on human chromosome 1 within 150 kb of IL-12Rbeta2.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2002; 168(11):5699-708. · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-12p40 “soluble receptor” subunit and a novel cytokine-like subunit related to IL-12p35, termed p19. Human and mouse IL-23 exhibit some activities similar to IL-12, but differ in their capacities to stimulate particular populations of memory T cells. Like IL-12, IL-23 binds to the IL-12R subunit IL-12Rβ1. However, it does not use IL-12Rβ2. In this study, we identify a novel member of the hemopoietin receptor family as a subunit of the receptor for IL-23, “IL-23R.” IL-23R pairs with IL-12Rβ1 to confer IL-23 responsiveness on cells expressing both subunits. Human IL-23, but not IL-12, exhibits detectable affinity for human IL-23R. Anti-IL-12Rβ1 and anti-IL-23R Abs block IL-23 responses of an NK cell line and Ba/F3 cells expressing the two receptor chains. IL-23 activates the same Jak-stat signaling molecules as IL-12: Jak2, Tyk2, and stat1, -3, -4, and -5, but stat4 activation is substantially weaker and different DNA-binding stat complexes form in response to IL-23 compared with IL-12. IL-23R associates constitutively with Jak2 and in a ligand-dependent manner with stat3. The ability of cells to respond to IL-23 or IL-12 correlates with expression of IL-23R or IL-12Rβ2, respectively. The human IL-23R gene is on human chromosome 1 within 150 kb of IL-12Rβ2.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2002; 168(11):5699-5708. · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Immunology 06/2002; 168(11):5699-5708. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.168.11.5699 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Chest 04/2002; 121(3 Suppl):88S. · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/2002; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/S0091-6749(02)82112-1 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression. The induction of these cytokines resulted in Th2-like responses marked by increased serum IgE, IgG(1), and IgA levels, blood eosinophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs and digestive tract that included eosinophilic infiltrates, increased mucus production, and epithelial cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy. In addition, our studies show that IL-25 induces Th2-type cytokine production by accessory cells that are MHC class II(high), CD11c(dull), and lineage(-). These results suggest that IL-25, derived from Th2 T cells, is capable of amplifying allergic type inflammatory responses by its actions on other cell types.
    Immunity 01/2002; 15(6):985-95. DOI:10.1016/S1074-7613(01)00243-6 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that inhibits both Th1-like T cell responses and macrophage activation. Deficiency of IL-10 has been associated with increased Th1-like CD4+ T-cell responses and increased clearance of some intracellular pathogens, however, its role in mycobacterial infections is controversial. In order to examine the effects of mycobacterial virulence on the outcome of infection we compared infection with Mycobacterium avium and virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C57Bl/6 IL-10-/- mice. M. avium infection in IL-10-/- mice resulted in sustained increases in interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T-cell responses and was associated with the increased clearance of M. avium from the liver and lung. By contrast, M. tuberculosis infection in IL-10-/- mice led to a transient increase in IFN-gamma T-cell responses at 4 weeks postinfection, with reduced bacterial burden in the lungs. This was not sustained so that by 8 weeks there was no difference to wild-type (WT) mice. In vitro infection of IL-10-/- macrophages with M. avium, but not M. tuberculosis, led to an increased IL-12 production. Therefore, endogenous IL-10 exerts a significant inhibition on specific IFN-gamma T-cell responses to M. avium infection, however, this effect is short lived during the M. tuberculosis infection, and fails to influence the long-term course of infection.
    Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/2001; 54(1-2):163-70. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3083.2001.00952.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-4 is associated with Th2-type immune responses and can either inhibit or, in some cases, promote Th1-type responses. We tested the effect of IL-4 treatment on the development of inflammation in the CD4+CD45RBhigh T cell transfer model of colitis, which has been characterized as a Th1-dependent disease. IL-4 treatment significantly accelerated the development of colitis in immunodeficient recipients (recombinase-activating gene-2 (Rag2)−/−) of CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression in the colons of IL-4-treated mice showed an up-regulation of both Th1- and Th2-associated molecules, including IFN-γ, IP-10, MIG, CXCR3, chemokine receptor-8, and IL-4. However, cotreatment with either IL-10 or anti-IL-12 mAb effectively blocked the development of colitis in the presence of exogenous IL-4. These data indicate that IL-4 treatment exacerbates a Th1-mediated disease rather than induces Th2-mediated inflammation. As other cell types besides T cells express the receptor for IL-4, the proinflammatory effects of IL-4 on host cells in Rag2−/− recipients were assessed. IL-4 treatment was able to moderately exacerbate colitis in Rag2−/− mice that were reconstituted with IL-4Rα-deficient (IL-4Rα−/−) CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells, suggesting that the IL-4 has proinflammatory effects on both non-T and T cells in this model. IL-4 did not cause colitis in Rag2−/− mice in the absence of T cells, but did induce an increase in MHC class II expression in the lamina propria of the colon, which was blocked by cotreatment with IL-10. Together these results indicate that IL-4 can indirectly promote Th1-type inflammation in the CD4+CD45RBhigh T cell transfer model of colitis.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2001; 166(4). · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used quantitative PCR to investigate the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in two Th1-mediated murine models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). First, mRNA levels encoding the chemokines MIG, RANTES, lymphotactin, MIP-3alpha, TCA-3, TARC, MIP-3beta, LIX, MCP-1 and MIP-1beta and the receptors CCR4, CCR6 and CCR2 were significantly increased in chronically inflamed colons of IL-10-/- mice when compared with wildtype mice. Interestingly, reversal of colitis in IL-10-/- mice by anti-IL-12 mAb was accompanied by the inhibition in the expression of LIX, lymphotactin, MCP-1, MIG, MIP-3alpha, MIP-3beta, TCA-3, CCR2 and CCR4, whereas the increased mRNA levels of MIP-1beta, RANTES, TARC and CCR6 were unaffected. Second, to investigate which chemokines and receptors were up-regulated during the inductive phase of colitis, we employed the CD4+CD45RBhigh T cell transfer model. At 4 and 8 weeks after reconstitution of Rag-2-/- mice the mRNA levels of IP-10, MCP-1, MDC, MIG, TARC, RANTES, CCR4 and CCR5 were significantly increased prior to the appearance of macroscopic lesions. Other chemokines and chemokine receptors were clearly associated with the acute phase of the disease when lesions were evident. The sum of our studies with these two models identifies chemokines that are expressed at constant levels, irrespective of inflammatory responses, and those that are specifically associated with acute and/or chronic stages of Th1-driven colitis.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/2001; 31(5):1465-74. DOI:10.1002/1521-4141(200105)31:5<1465::AID-IMMU1465>3.0.CO;2-E · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable levels of this complex. IL-23 binds to IL-12R beta 1 but fails to engage IL-12R beta 2; nonetheless, IL-23 activates Stat4 in PHA blast T cells. IL-23 induces strong proliferation of mouse memory (CD4(+)CD45Rb(low)) T cells, a unique activity of IL-23 as IL-12 has no effect on this cell population. Similar to IL-12, human IL-23 stimulates IFN-gamma production and proliferation in PHA blast T cells, as well as in CD45RO (memory) T cells.
    Immunity 12/2000; 13(5):715-25. DOI:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)00070-4 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-10 is associated with a Th2 response, down-regulation of a Th1 response and macrophage activation. We assessed the role of IL-10 during systemic infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. Systemic aspergillosis was established in female C56B1/6 IL-10(-/-) (KO) and wild-type (WT) C57B1/6 mice by i.v. administration of 1 x 10(5)-6 x 10(5) conidia of A. fumigatus. In two experiments, KO survived longer than did WT (P < 0.001). Determination of fungal burdens in the kidneys and brain showed that KO carried significantly lower burdens in both organs than did WT on day 3 (P < 0.001). Semiquantitative histological analyses showed fewer inflammatory foci/mm2 in brain and kidneys of KO than WT (P < 0.03 and < 0.001, respectively) and that extent of infection and associated tissue injury were greater in WT. Although beneficial in some bacterial infections, exogenous IL-10 has been shown deleterious in models of fungal infection. Our data indicate IL-10 is deleterious during systemic aspergillosis infection, increasing the host susceptibility to lethal infection. We speculate this might be related to greater Th2 or lesser Th1 responses, or down-regulation of macrophage responses, in WT compared with KO.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 12/2000; 122(2):186-91. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2000.01382.x · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • D M Rennick, M M Fort
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10(-/-) mice spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation characterized by discontinuous transmural lesions affecting the small and large intestine and by dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. The uncontrolled generation of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th1 type) has been shown to play a causal role in the development of enterocolitis affecting these mutants. This article discusses studies of IL-10(-/-) mice that have investigated the role of enteric organisms in triggering intestinal disease, the mediators responsible for initiating and maintaining intestinal disease, the role IL-10 plays in the generation and/or function of regulatory cells, and the results of IL-10 therapy in experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and human patients with IBD.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 07/2000; 278(6):G829-33. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with inhibition of cell-mediated immunity and downregulation of the expression of costimulatory molecules required for T-cell activation. When IL-10-deficient (IL-10KO) mice are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, they succumb to a T-cell-mediated shock-like reaction characterized by the overproduction of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) associated with widespread necrosis of the liver. Since costimulation is critical for T-cell activation, we investigated the role of the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions in this infection-induced immunopathology. Our studies show that infection of mice with T. gondii resulted in increased expression of B7 and CD40 that was similar in wild-type and IL-10KO mice. In vivo blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40-CD40L interactions following infection of IL-10KO mice with T. gondii did not affect serum levels of IFN-gamma or IL-12, nor did it prevent death in these mice. However, when both pathways were blocked, the IL-10KO mice survived the acute phase of infection and had reduced serum levels of IFN-gamma and alanine transaminase as well as decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver and spleen. Analysis of parasite-specific recall responses from infected IL-10KO mice revealed that blockade of the CD40-CD40L interaction had minimal effects on cytokine production, whereas blockade of the CD28-B7 interaction resulted in decreased production of IFN-gamma but not IL-12. Further reduction of IFN-gamma production was observed when both costimulatory pathways were blocked. Together, these results demonstrate that the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40L interactions are involved in the development of infection-induced immunopathology in the absence of IL-10.
    Infection and Immunity 06/2000; 68(5):2837-44. DOI:10.1128/IAI.68.5.2837-2844.2000 · 4.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
432.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2008
    • Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1996
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States