[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR, CD89) triggers several important physiological functions, including phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activation and antigen presentation. Efforts are underway to delineate FcalphaR signal-transduction pathways that control these functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that cross-linking of FcalphaR increased its partitioning into membrane glycolipid rafts and was accompanied by gamma-chain-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Lck/Yes-related novel protein tyrosine kinase (Lyn) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Here we have performed a more extensive characterization of signalling effectors recruited to rafts on FcalphaR cross-linking. We demonstrate that in addition to tyrosine kinases Lyn and Btk, FcalphaR cross-linking also recruits B-lymphocyte kinase (Blk) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to rafts. We show recruitment of phosphoinositide kinases, including 3-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma2, and serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, PKCepsilon, and protein kinase B (PKB) alpha. This suggests that lipid rafts serve as sites for FcalphaR-triggered recruitment of multiple classes of signalling effectors. We further demonstrate that tyrosine kinases and PKCalpha have a sustained association with rafts, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream effectors have a transient association with rafts. This is consistent with temporally regulated divergence of FcalphaR signalling pathways in rafts. Furthermore, we suggest the spatial separation of signalling effectors by transport of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, PKBalpha and PKCepsilon to endocytic compartments containing internalized FcalphaR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-presenting cells internalize antigen by fluid-phase pinocytosis or by endocytosis via surface receptors such as the B cell receptor (BCR) and Fc receptors for IgG, IgA and IgE (FcR). While both modes of internalization lead to antigen presentation it is recognized that receptor-mediated endocytosis greatly enhances the efficiency of processing and antigen presentation. Receptors facilitate the entry of antigen into the endocytic pathway by interaction of their internalization motifs with the endocytic machinery. These motifs include tyrosine-based, dileucine and casein kinase-like motifs. However these structures appear insufficient to support processing of cryptic epitopes, leading to a limited immune response. Cryptic epitope processing appears dependent on receptor signaling which is mediated by immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAMs). The signaling cascade which follows receptor crosslinking promotes reorganization and acidification of the late endocytic compartment or MIIC. Signaling events downstream of Syk, in particular calcium flux and protein kinase C activation, are necessary for MIIC induction. PI(3) kinase is also involved at multiple steps in antigen presentation, including production of PIP3 and transport of cathepsins. PIP3 is crucial both as a binding substrate for proteins implicated in vesicle transport and for the recruitment of signaling molecules to the plasma membrane. Among PIP3 activated molecules, protein kinase B (PKB) has been linked to endocytic function. We observe association of activated PKB with the MIIC after signaling through antigen presentation-competent receptors, but not mutant, presentation-defective receptors.