K Galvin

University College Cork, Cork, M, Ireland

Are you K Galvin?

Claim your profile

Publications (18)36.72 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable.
    Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 10/2007; 62(3):85-91. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Planta Medica - PLANTA MED. 01/2007; 73(09).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 01/2006; 57(3-4):219-28. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of type of conserved forage and concentrate composition on the quality of beef held in overwrapped (aerobic) or modified atmosphere packaging under simulated retail display for 17 d. Friesian steers (n = 45) were assigned randomly to one of five dietary treatments: 1) extensively fermented grass silage plus silage concentrate (EFS); 2) restricted fermented grass silage plus silage concentrate (RFS); 3) starch-based concentrate plus wheat straw (SC); 4) nonstarch-based concentrate plus wheat straw (NSC); or 5) zero-grazed perennial ryegrass plus grass concentrate (RYE). Meat quality was determined by measuring color, lipid oxidation (TBARS), alpha-tocopherol concentrations, and fatty acid composition. In aerobically packaged beef, there was a display x diet interactive effect (P < 0.001) on Hunter a* values, with steaks from the EFS group having higher (P < 0.05) a* values than all other dietary groups from d 6 through d 17. Moreover, during the last 12 d of display, beef from the EFS group had the lowest (P < 0.01) proportion of metmyoglobin (display day x diet; P < 0.001). Under aerobic packaging, the SC and NSC groups produced steaks with higher (P < 0.05) TBARS values than RFS, EFS, and RYE groups, which did not differ from each other (display day x diet; P < 0.01). The SC and NSC groups had higher (P < 0.05) oxidation levels than RFS, EFS, and RYE groups, which did not differ from each other. Beef from the EFS group had (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol than from the SC, NSC, and RYE groups. Beef from EFS-fed steers had a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of saturated fatty acids than the SC and NSC groups. It was concluded that the method of grass conservation influenced beef color, whereas concentrate composition did not. Color of aerobically packaged beef was improved by feeding animals silage that had undergone extensive fermentation. Conversely, oxidative stability was decreased by feeding animals starch- and nonstarch-based concentrate diets.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2004; 82(8):2384-91. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 06/2004; 55(3):171-8. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differing in unsaturation level (2.5% tallow or olive, sunflower or linseed oils) together with α-tocopheryl acetate ( α-TA) at either a control (20 mg α-TA/kg feed) or a supplemented level (400 mg α-TA/kg feed) on α-tocopherol content, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of duck muscle in 7 week old birds were investigated. Fat source influenced fatty acid composition of duck meat. Ducks fed tallow had a higher percentage saturated fats, while ducks fed olive oil had a higher percentage monounsaturated fats than other dietary groups. In the absence of supplemental α-TA, duck muscle stability to lipid oxidation was greatest for those receiving diets containing sunflower oil and lowest for those receiving tallow. α-Tocopherol content and oxidative stability of duck muscle were increased (p < 0.05) by α-TA supplementation irrespective of fat source. Interestingly oxidative changes were much more extensive in duck breast meat than corresponding thigh meat for all treatment groups. This finding is in contrast when compared with similar dietary trials for chicken and turkey. Therefore, oxidative stability of duck meat differs from that of other poultry meats.
    International Journal of Poultry Science 05/2003;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five batches of aerobically packaged minced beef from Friesian cattle were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 kGy using a (60)Co irradiation source. The five batches were as follows: non-supplemented (C), dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplemented (S), α-tocopheryl acetate supplemented with water soluble rosemary extract added after mincing (Rw), α-tocopheryl acetate supplemented with oil soluble rosemary extract added after mincing (Ro) and α-tocopheryl acetate supplemented with water and oil soluble rosemary extracts added after mincing (R). Incorporation of antioxidants resulted in better retention of colour. Irradiation at 4 kGy increased Hunter 'a' values up to day 4 with α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation and up to day 6 when rosemary extracts were added. Irradiation at 4 kGy increased Hunter 'b' values on days 4, 6 and 8 in the control samples. Antioxidants decreased metmyoglobin values on day 0 and day 2 for non-irradiated (0 kGy) samples and for the entire display period for irradiated samples. Antioxidants increased the oxymyoglobin values up to day 4 for the 1, 2 and 3 kGy beef samples and over the entire display period for the 4 kGy samples. TBARS values for each treatment group increased with increasing irradiation dose. α-Tocopheryl acetate supplemented samples had lower TBARS values than control samples at all irradiation doses. The levels of α-tocopherol in samples on day 0 decreased with increasing irradiation dose for the (C) and (S) samples. However, levels of α-tocopherol in samples on day 0 increased with increasing irradiation dose for Ro, Rw and R samples. All antioxidant treatments were effective at inhibiting lipid peroxidation even at the highest irradiation dose applied. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, mainly in C18:2 after storage at 40°C under fluorescent light for 8 days.
    Meat Science 04/2003; 63(4):433-40. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Continental Limousin and Charolais crossbred steers (n=66) were assigned to one of six diets: (1) high herbage allowance (18 kg grass dry matter), zero concentrate (HH0C), (2) high herbage allowance and 2.5 kg concentrate (HHLC), (3) high herbage allowance and 5 kg concentrate (HHHC), (4) low herbage allowance (6 kg grass DM) and 5 kg concentrate (LHHC), (5) medium herbage allowance (12 kg grass DM) and 2.5 kg concentrate (MHLC) or (6) concentrates ad-libitum+1 kg straw (CON). Colour was assessed in steaks (n=5) chosen at random from each dietary group and held in overwrapped and/or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80 O(2):20 CO(2)) under simulated retail display conditions for 17 days. When the HH0C and the CON groups were compared, there was no significant difference in colour under overwrapped conditions, however under MAP, surface redness was significantly (P<0.01) higher (greatest Hunter "a" values) in the HH0C group. When the other four diets were compared to the HH0C and CON groups, there was no significant difference in colour under both forms of packaging. Lipid oxidation was highest for the dietary group CON compared to all other dietary groups examined. There was no significant difference in vitamin E levels between the six dietary groups, levels ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 μg/g meat.
    Meat Science 03/2003; 63(3):279-86. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heifers (n=10) were randomly selected from the slaughter line of a local factory each month for a period of 21 months. Rib steak (sampled at the 10th rib) from the left side of each carcass was taken for analysis. The cattle breeds selected during this study were Friesian, Hereford and Charolais. The mean weight of the left side for all carcasses was 146.6 (S.E.M.= 1.0kg). Graded carcasses selected for sampling during this trial were classified using the EUROP scale and the specific heifer grades chosen were factory grades EO4L and EO4H. Initial Hunter 'a' values (on the day of arrival in the laboratory) of rib steak from heifers finished between November and March (overwintered) were significantly (P<0.001) higher than Hunter 'a' values from heifers finished between April and October (pastured). After storage at 4 °C under simulated retail display conditions for 6 days, the Hunter 'a' values for overwintered samples were also significantly (P<0.001) greater than those for pastured samples. Breed also had an effect on the colour of the meat. After storage for 6 days, Hunter 'a' values of rib steak from Charolais were significantly (P<0.05) higher than either Friesian or Hereford. Pastured heifers had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of the monounsaturated fatty acid C16.1 in the total lipid fraction of rib steak (neutral and polar) than samples taken from overwintered heifers. Pastured heifers had significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) C18.3 in the phospholipid fraction than those from overwintered cattle. However, Hereford had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of C14.0, C16.1 and C18.0 in the phospholipid fraction than those found in Friesian and Charolais. The level of α-tocopherol in the muscle was not affected by either pasturing/overwintering or breed. However, Continental breeds had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of α-tocopherol in adipose tissue than Friesian.
    Meat Science 07/2002; 61(3):227-32. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of three preslaughter diets on heifer beef quality were investigated. Heifers (n = 45) were divided into three groups and fed for ad libitum consumption either maize silage, grass silage, or a 50:50 mixture of maize silage and grass silage. Meat quality was determined by measuring color, lipid oxidation, alpha-tocopherol levels, and fatty acid composition. Beef from the maize silage group had poorest color stability (P < 0.05), whereas beef from the grass silage diet had best (P < 0.05) color stability. The visual panel least preferred the maize silage group after 2 or more days of display, and lipid oxidation was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in this group compared to the 50:50 maize:grass silage and grass silage groups. There was a significant (P < 0.001) difference in the alpha-tocopherol levels detected in the meat from the three dietary groups. Alpha-tocopherol levels increased in the order: maize silage < 50:50 maize:grass silage < grass silage, at levels of 2.08, 2.95, and 3.84 microg/g meat, respectively. Fatty acid analysis indicated 18:3 was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the maize silage-fed group than in the maize:grass silage and grass silage groups. However, 18:3 was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the grass silage group than in the other two groups. There were no significant differences in all other fatty acids among the three dietary groups. It was concluded that beef from grass silage-fed animals had better overall quality in terms of color, lipid oxidation, and alpha-tocopherol levels than beef from maize silage fed animals.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2002; 80(6):1556-63. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked, refrigerated and frozen beef steaks, was investigated. Steers (Friesian×Charolais×Black Hereford) were fed diets providing 20 or 3000 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/head/day for 135 days prior to slaughter. α-Tocopherol concentrations in M. psoas major (PM) and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) were significantly (p<0.05) increased by supplementation and were significantly (p<0.05) higher in PM than LD. Cholesterol oxidation (monitored by measuring 7-ketocholesterol formation) increased during refrigerated and frozen storage in some, but not all, groups, and tended to be higher in PM than LD. Dietary vitamin E did not affect 7-ketocholesterol formation in LD, but significantly (p<0.05) reduced concentrations in PM during refrigerated and frozen storage. Supplementation significantly (p<0.05) reduced TBARS in PM and LD, indicating that vitamin E improved oxidative stability in both muscles. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation inhibits cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked beef during refrigerated and frozen storage, but may be influenced by muscle type.
    Meat Science 05/2000; 55(1):7-11. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of carnosine on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted chicken thigh meat and its relationship to dietary α-tocopherol supplementation was examined. Broilers (Cobb 500) were fed diets with a basal (30 mg kg(-1)) or supplemental (200 mg kg(-1)) level of α-tocopheryl acetate for 6 weeks. Thigh meat patties were prepared with carnosine (1.5%), salt (1%) or salt plus carnosine. Salt accelerated lipid and cholesterol oxidation following cooking and refrigerated storage. However, carnosine inhibited lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted patties. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation also reduced the extent of lipid and cholesterol oxidation in salted patties. The combination of carnosine and dietary α-tocopherol resulted in the greatest lipid and cholesterol stability in salted meat.
    Meat Science 05/1999; 52(1):89-94. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant activity of carnosine in chicken meat, and its relationship to dietary α-tocopherol supplementation, was examined. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing 30 (basal) or 200 (supplemental) mg α-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) feed for 6 weeks. Raw and cooked thigh meat patties containing carnosine (0-1·5%) were prepared. Lipid oxidation, during refrigerated storage under fluorescent light, was assessed by monitoring malonaldehyde formation, using the TBA assay and single wavelength (conventional) or first derivative spectrophotometry. In raw patties, added carnosine improved oxidative stability for up to 10 days of refrigerated storage. In cooked patties, the 1·5% carnosine level provided the best antioxidant protection during 7 days of storage. Carnosine (1·5%) was at least as effective as supplemental α-tocopherol in improving the oxidative stability of raw and cooked patties. The presence of both antioxidants had an additive effect on oxidative stability. Overall, the use of derivative spectrophotometry improved the specificity of the TBA assay for monitoring MDA formation in refrigerated meats.
    Meat Science 12/1998; 50(4):479-88. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. The effect of dietary fat and vitamin E supplementation on quality attributes (drip loss, oxidative stability, sensory quality) in chicken meat and meat products was investigated. Broiler chicks were fed on diets containing tallow (60 g/kg) or olive oil (60 g/kg) at a basal (30 mg/kg diet) or supplemental (200 mg/kg diet) concentration of alpha-tocopheryl acetate for 8 weeks. The alpha-tocopherol content and fatty acid composition of breast and thigh meat was determined. Drip loss was determined in breast fillets. Lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances/TBARS) and sensory quality (warmed-over flavour development/WOF) were assessed in minced thigh meat during storage. 2. Dietary olive oil increased the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) in the diets. In breast and thigh, this resulted in approximately a two-fold increase in the MUFA/SFA ratio. Supplemental alpha-tocopherol increased the alpha-tocopherol content of muscles. 3. Dietary fat not influence drip loss in thawed breast fillets during refrigerated storage, but supplemental alpha-tocopherol reduced drip loss. 4. TBARS and WOF development in minced thigh meat patties were also reduced by supplemental alpha-tocopherol following frozen storage, or cooking and refrigerated storage. Storage stability was not adversely affected by dietary fat. 5. Overall, the results showed that increasing the monounsaturated profile of chicken meat lipids did not adversely affect quality characteristics. Dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation was a more important factor in the determination of broiler meat quality.
    British Poultry Science 08/1998; 39(3):365-71. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of dietary α-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on α-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 °C for 5 days. α-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in α-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage.
    Food Chemistry 06/1998; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.
    Meat Science 01/1998; 49S1:S73-86. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in chicken muscle during storage was investigated. Broiler chicks (Cobb 500 strain) were fed diets supplemented with 20, 200 or 800 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) feed. Cooked breast and thigh muscle patties were prepared and stored at 4 °C for up to 12 days. Dietary supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased α-tocophenol concentrations in cooked muscle and decreased thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) during storage. COPs increased during storage. Total COPs ranged from 0.17-3.48 and 2.49-5.79 μg g(-1) in breast and thigh meat, respectively. TBARS and total COPs were linearly correlated in breast (r = 0.68, p < 0.001,) and thigh patties (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Dietary α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the formation of COPs during storage. Total COPs formed after 12 days were reduced by 42 and 75% in breast, and 50 and 72% in thigh, at supplementation levels of 200 and 800 mg kg(-1) feed, respectively.
    Meat Science 01/1998; 48(1-2):1-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of oxidised dietary sunflower oil and dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on alpha-tocopherol concentrations in broiler muscle and on the storage stability of refrigerated, cooked, minced muscle were determined. Broiler chicks were fed on diets containing fresh sunflower oil and 30 (FS30) or 200 (FS200) mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or oxidised sunflower oil and 0 (OS0), 30 (OS30) or 200 (OS200) mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg. 2. Inclusion of oxidised sunflower oil significantly reduced dietary and hence, muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations. 3. Oxidised oil increased oxidation in raw and cooked muscle, and reduced the oxidative stability of muscle during refrigerated and frozen storage. 4. Supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate improved the stability of muscle, with stability increasing as muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased, when fresh or oxidised oil was fed. Supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg offset the effects of oxidised oil in breast, but not in thigh. 5. The results show that the prooxidising effects of oxidised oils in muscle foods can be overcome, but alpha-tocopherol content needs to be adequately adjusted to compensate for increased oxidative stress. Supplementation with 200 to 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg may be necessary to achieve an optimum muscle alpha-tocopherol concentration.
    British Poultry Science 12/1997; 38(5):499-504. · 1.15 Impact Factor