[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construction of multicellular organisms depends on stem cells-cells that can both regenerate and produce daughter cells that undergo differentiation. Here, we show that the gaseous messenger ethylene modulates cell division in the cells of the quiescent center, which act as a source of stem cells in the seedling root. The cells formed through these ethylene-induced divisions express quiescent center-specific genes and can repress differentiation of surrounding initial cells, showing that quiescence is not required for these cells to signal to adjacent stem cells. We propose that ethylene is part of a signaling pathway that modulates cell division in the quiescent center in the stem cell niche during the postembryonic development of the root system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a diversity of roles in plants. In recent years, a role for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS during
cell growth and development has been discovered in a number of plant model systems. These studies indicate that ROS are required
for cell expansion during the morphogenesis of organs such as roots and leaves. Furthermore, there is evidence that ROS are
required for root hair growth where they control the activity of calcium channels required for polar growth. The role of ROS
in the control of root hair growth is reviewed here and results are highlighted that may provide insight into the mechanism
of plant cell growth in general.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Root hairs are cellular protuberances extending from the root surface into the soil; there they provide access to immobile inorganic ions such as phosphate, which are essential for growth. Their cylindrical shape results from a polarized mechanism of cell expansion called tip growth in which elongation is restricted to a small area at the surface of the hair-forming cell (trichoblast) tip. Here we identify proteins that spatially control the sites at which cell growth occurs by isolating Arabidopsis mutants (scn1) that develop ectopic sites of growth on trichoblasts. We cloned SCN1 and showed that SCN1 is a RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that spatially restricts the sites of growth to a single point on the trichoblast. We showed previously that localized production of reactive oxygen species by RHD2/AtrbohC NADPH oxidase is required for hair growth; here we show that SCN1/AtrhoGDI1 is a component of the mechanism that focuses RHD2/AtrbohC-catalysed production of reactive oxygen species to hair tips during wild-type development. We propose that the spatial organization of growth in plant cells requires the local RhoGDI-regulated activation of the RHD2/AtrbohC NADPH oxidase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs by using a green-fluorescent-protein-talin reporter and shown to form a dense mesh in the apex of the growing tip. The kojak gene, which encodes a protein similar to the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, is needed in the first stages of hair growth. A role for LRX1, a leucine-rich repeat extensin, in determining the morphology of the cell wall of root hairs has been established using reverse genetics. The new information can be integrated into a general and more advanced view of how these specialized plant cells grow.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/2002; 357(1422):815-21. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2002.1092 · 7.06 Impact Factor