[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The radish displays great morphological variation but the genetic factors underlying this variability are mostly unknown. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling radish morphological traits, we cultivated 94 F4 and F5 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the rat-tail radish and the Japanese radish cultivar 'Harufuku' inbred lines. Eight morphological traits (ovule and seed numbers per silique, plant shape, pubescence and root formation) were measured for investigation. We constructed a map composed of 322 markers with a total length of 673.6 cM. The linkage groups were assigned to the radish chromosomes using disomic rape-radish chromosome-addition lines. On the map, eight and 10 QTLs were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The chromosome-linkage group correspondence, the sequence-specific markers and the QTLs detected here will provide useful information for further genetic studies and for selection during radish breeding programs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar 'California Wonder' and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar 'LS2341 (JP187992)', which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed clear polymorphisms between two radish lines; a rat-tail radish and a Japanese cultivar, 'Harufuku'. As a test case for evaluation of the present SSRs, we conducted two studies. First, we selected 16 SSRs to calculate polymorphism information contents (PICs) using 16 radish cultivars and four other Brassicaceae species. These markers detected 3-15 alleles (average = 9.6). PIC values ranged from 0.54 to 0.92 (average = 0.78). Second, part of the present SSRs were tested for mapping using our previously-examined mapping population. The map spanned 672.7 cM with nine linkage groups (LGs). The 21 radish SSR markers were distributed throughout the LGs. The SSR markers developed here would be informative and useful for genetic analysis in radish and its related species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 12/2009; 120(5):1021-7. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial genomes of plants are much larger than those of mammals and often contain conserved open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function. Here, we show that one of these conserved ORFs is actually the gene for ribosomal protein L10 (rpl10) in plant. No rpl10 gene has heretofore been reported in any mitochondrial genome other than the exceptionally gene-rich genome of the protist Reclinomonas americana. Conserved ORFs corresponding to rpl10 are present in a wide diversity of land plant and green algal mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial rpl10 genes are transcribed in all nine land plants examined, with five seed plant genes subject to RNA editing. In addition, mitochondrial-rpl10-like cDNAs were identified in EST libraries from numerous land plants. In three lineages of angiosperms, rpl10 is either lost from the mitochondrial genome or a pseudogene. In two of them (Brassicaceae and monocots), no nuclear copy of mitochondrial rpl10 is identifiably present, and instead a second copy of nuclear-encoded chloroplast rpl10 is present. Transient assays using green fluorescent protein indicate that this duplicate gene is dual targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts. We infer that mitochondrial rpl10 has been functionally replaced by duplicated chloroplast counterparts in Brassicaceae and monocots.
DNA Research 11/2009; 17(1):1-9. · 4.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed in the water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) from an SSR-enriched genomic library. Of the SSR markers tested, 11 primer pairs produced clearly distinguishable DNA banding patterns. Forty-three alleles were detected with the 11 markers. The allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3.9. Polymorphism values ranged from 0.11 to 0.66 with an average of 0.51. These primers were also applicable to another Nelumbo species, Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. (American lotus) and hybrids between N. nucifera and N. lutea. These results indicate that the SSR markers developed in this study are informative and will be useful for genetic analysis in Nelumbo species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The water lotus, genus Nelumbo, contains two species, the sacred (Nelumbo nucifera) and American lotuses (Nelumbo lutea). Hundreds of flowering lotus cultivars are currently known. However, their classification is unclear. For the classification of Nelumbo cultivars, in addition to 35 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers recently developed, we have developed 17 and 16 of new Nelumbo SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and expressed sequence tag (EST) data, respectively. Out of these 68 SSRs, along with SSRs recently published by others, 52 showed clear polymorphisms in 98 Nelumbo samples. A total of 300 alleles were observed, ranging from 2 to 11 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.77. Alleles specific for the American lotus-derived cultivars and a cluster of the American lotus-derived cultivars on a neighbour-joining tree confirmed genetic differences between N. lutea and N. nucifera. In addition, a possible differentiation between Chinese and Japanese cultivars was also suggested. Parentage analysis using the SSR markers confirmed four known parentages and predicted currently-unknown parentages of six cultivars. The present data have demonstrated that site-specific, co-dominant SSR markers enable more accurate classification, identification and comparison of Nelumbo species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondria of contemporary organisms contain fewer genes than the ancestral bacteria are predicted to have contained. Because most of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus, the genes would have been transferred from the mitochondrion to the nucleus at some stage of evolution and they must have acquired cis-regulatory elements compatible with eukaryotic gene expression. However, most of such processes remain unknown.
The ribosomal protein L6 gene (rpl6) has been lost in presently-known angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. We found that each of the two rice rpl6 genes (OsRpl6-1 and OsRpl6-2) has an intron in an identical position within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), which suggests a duplication of the rpl6 gene after its transfer to the nucleus. Each of the predicted RPL6 proteins lacks an N-terminal extension as a mitochondrial targeting signal. Transient assays using green fluorescent protein indicated that their mature N-terminal coding regions contain the mitochondrial targeting information. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that OsRpl6-2 expresses considerably fewer transcripts than OsRpl6-1. This might be the result of differences in promoter regions because the 5'-noncoding regions of the two rpl6 genes differ at a point close to the center of the intron. There are several sequences homologous to the region around the 5'-UTR of OsRpl6-1 in the rice genome. These sequences have characteristics similar to those of the transposable elements (TE) belonging to the PIF/Harbinger superfamily.
The above evidences suggest a novel mechanism in which the 5'-UTR of the transferred mitochondrial gene was acquired via a TE. Since the 5'-UTRs and introns within the 5'-UTRs often contain transcriptional and posttranscriptional cis-elements, the transferred rice mitochondrial rpl6 gene may have acquired its cis-element from a TE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the most important leguminous crop in the world due to its high contents of high-quality protein and oil for human and animal consumption as well as for industrial uses. An accurate and saturated genetic linkage map of soybean is an essential tool for studies on modern soybean genomics. In order to update the linkage map of a F2 population derived from a cross between Misuzudaizu and Moshidou Gong 503 and to make it more informative and useful to the soybean genome research community, a total of 318 AFLP, 121 SSR, 108 RFLP, and 126 STS markers were newly developed and integrated into the framework of the previously described linkage map. The updated genetic map is composed of 509 RFLP, 318 SSR, 318 AFLP, 97 AFLP-derived STS, 29 BAC-end or EST-derived STS, 1 RAPD, and five morphological markers, covering a map distance of 3080 cM (Kosambi function) in 20 linkage groups (LGs). To our knowledge, this is presently the densest linkage map developed from a single F2 population in soybean. The average intermarker distance was reduced to 2.41 from 5.78 cM in the earlier version of the linkage map. Most SSR and RFLP markers were relatively evenly distributed among different LGs in contrast to the moderately clustered AFLP markers. The number of gaps of more than 25 cM was reduced to 6 from 19 in the earlier version of the linkage map. The coverage of the linkage map was extended since 17 markers were mapped beyond the distal ends of the previous linkage map. In particular, 17 markers were tagged in a 5.7 cM interval between CE47M5a and Satt100 on LG C2, where several important QTLs were clustered. This newly updated soybean linkage map will enable to streamline positional cloning of agronomically important trait locus genes, and promote the development of physical maps, genome sequencing, and other genomic research activities.
DNA Research 01/2008; 14(6):257-69. · 4.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A linkage map of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was constructed to localize the clubroot resistance (CR) gene, Crr3. Quantitative trait loci analysis using an F(3) population revealed a sharp peak in the logarithm of odds score around the sequence-tagged site (STS) marker, OPC11-2S. Therefore, this region contained Crr3. Nucleotide sequences of OPC11-2S and its proximal markers showed homology to sequences in the top arm of Arabidopsis chromosome 3, suggesting a synteny between the two species. For fine mapping of Crr3, a number of STS markers were developed based on genomic information from Arabidopsis. We obtained polymorphisms in 23 Arabidopsis-derived STS markers, 11 of which were closely linked to Crr3. The precise position of Crr3 was determined using a population of 888 F(2) plants. Eighty plants showing recombination around Crr3 locus were selected and used for the mapping. A fine map of 4.74 cM was obtained, in which two markers (BrSTS-41 and BrSTS-44) and three markers (OPC11-2S, BrSTS-54 and BrSTS-61) were cosegregated. Marker genotypes of the 21 selected F(2) families and CR tests of their progenies strongly suggested that the Crr3 gene is located in a 0.35 cM segment between the two markers, BrSTS-33 and BrSTS-78.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 01/2007; 114(1):81-91. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three copies of the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb were isolated from the pea (PscoxVb-1, PscoxVb-2, and PscoxVb-3). Northern Blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses suggest that all 3 genes are transcribed in the pea. Each pea coxVb gene has an N-terminal extended sequence that can encode a mitochondrial targeting signal, called a presequence. The localization of green fluorescent proteins fused with the presequence strongly suggests the targeting of pea COXVb proteins to mitochondria. Each pea coxVb gene has 5 intron sites within the coding region. These are similar to Arabidopsis and rice, although the intron lengths vary greatly. A phylogenetic analysis of coxVb suggests the occurrence of gene duplication events during angiosperm evolution. In particular, 2 duplication events might have occurred in legumes, grasses, and Solanaceae. A comparison of amino acid sequences in COXVb or its counterpart shows the conservation of several amino acids within a zinc finger motif. Interestingly, a homology search analysis showed that bacterial protein COG4391 and a mitochondrial complex I 13 kDa subunit also have similar amino acid compositions around this motif. Such similarity might reflect evolutionary relationships among the 3 proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A population of F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was made from a cross between susceptible ('Santou') and resistant (PI197088-1) lines of cucumber in order to study powdery mildew resistance loci. Susceptibility to powdery mildew in the F7 RIL individuals showed a continuous distribution from susceptible to resistant, suggesting that powdery mildew resistance is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A QTL analysis identified two and three loci for powdery mildew resistance under 26 and 20 degrees C conditions, respectively. One QTL was found in the same position under both temperature conditions. Therefore, it is more likely that one major QTL acts under both temperature conditions and that other QTLs are specific to the two temperature conditions. The above results suggest that the four QTLs are controlled in a different temperature manner, and that their combination played an important role in expressing a high level of resistance to powdery mildew in this cucumber population. Sequence-tagged site (STS) markers associated with each QTL were developed and would be useful for breeding a cucumber line with a high level of powdery mildew resistance.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/2006; 112(2):243-50. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial rps2 gene from barley, like that of rice, wheat, and maize, has an extended open reading frame (ORF) at the 3'-region when compared to that from lower plants. However, the extended portions are variable among these cereals. Since barley and wheat belong to the same tribe (Triticeae), it would be interesting to know when and where the two types of rps2 were generated during evolution. To determine this, we utilized the mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence to examine variations of the rps2 genes in the tribe Triticeae. By means of the variable 3'-region, the distribution of barley (B)-type and wheat (W)-type rps2 sequences was studied in 19 genera of the tribe. The B-type sequence was identified in 10 of the 19 genera, whereas the W-type sequence was present in all 19 genera. Thus, ten of the examined genera have both types of rps2 sequences due to the presence of two copies of the gene. The W-type sequence was also present in the tribe Bromeae and the B-type sequence was also found in Aveneae and Poeae. Phylogenetic trees based on the B-type and W-type sequences were different from those based on other molecular data. This suggests that the mitochondrial genome in Triticeae has a unique evolutionary history.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2005; 110(6):995-1002. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening a genomic library of Lolium temulentum (darnel) with synthetic (GT)15 and (GA)15 oligonucleotides, we identified microsatellite-containing clones. Based on the sequence data of the clones, specific primer pairs were synthesized and their effectiveness examined using 10 L. temulentum and two L. persicum accessions from Asia, Africa and Europe. Fifteen primer pairs amplified single fragments, and five of them showed polymorphism in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the L. temulentum and L. persicum accessions. Fifteen primer pairs reported in L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were also applied in this study. Nine of them amplified the microsatellite alleles, and two of the nine showed polymorphic alleles in L. temulentum and L. persicum. For the polymorphic markers, polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.60 to 0.86 with an average of 0.76 among 10 L. temulentum accessions. The microsatellite markers developed for L. temulentum and L. perenne should be informative and powerful in analysing the intraspecific genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of L. temulentum and L. persicum.
Weed Research 03/2004; 44(2):136 - 141. · 2.05 Impact Factor