[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDGF and VEGF are two of the most potent mitogen for connective tissue, its secretion appears to be
particularly important when the source is Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), hence the latter leading role in tissue regeneration.
ELISA PDGFBB levels in PRP, Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP) and exudates, were determined in 32 healthy subjects
before and 24 hours after ingestion of Aspirin (ASA) and Clopidogrel (CLO). Results: PDGFBB baseline levels were 10.6
± 1.9 ng / ml (PPP), 12.12 ± 2.5 ng / ml (PRP) and 10.84 ± 1.68 ng / ml (exudate) While after treatment with PDGFBB
ASA concentrations were at 8.96 ± 1.4 ng / ml (PPP), 11.36 ± 1.48 ng / ml (PRP), 11.11 ± 1.14 ng / ml (exudate) and the
Clopidogrel were 8.53 ± 0.59 ng / ml (PPP), 9.65 ± 1.17 ng / ml (PRP) and 8.51 ± 0.75 ng / ml (exudate) . VEGF basal
values were 973.9 ± 590.3 pg / ml (PPP), 1184.2 ± 288.4 pg / ml (PRP), 1069.3 ± 192.3 pg / ml (exudate). After
treatment with ASA VEGF values were at 1439.5 ± 117.4 pg / ml (PPP), 1802.3 ± 123.9 pg / ml (PRP), 1745.6 ± 171.6
pg / ml (exudate) and the Clopidogrel were 577.8 ± 150.6 pg / ml (PPP), 668.7 ± 100.6 pg / ml (PRP), 624.9 ± 106.7 pg /
ml (exudate). Conclusions: It was noted that after administration of antiplatelet drugs PDGFBB and VEGF values
decreased statistically significantly, especially for the group of Clopidogrel. The ASA lesser extent appear to affect the
concentrations of both factors, which may be attributable to the pharmacological action mechanism between the ASA
Keywords: PRP, PDGF, VEGF, ASA, Clopidogrel
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high risk behaviors observed in prison centers have favored the transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. The main risk factor to acquire hepatitis C virus infection seems to be the use of intravenous drugs. In Venezuela, the prevalence of the infection in these centers is unknown since studies of the hepatitis C virus there are lacking.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus and the risk factors involved in the transmission in prisoner populations.
A sample of 200 prisoners was studied from Sabaneta Jail, Maracaibo, Venezuela. The ages were between 18-69 years (average +/- DS: 31.6+/-9.9 years). Serum samples were tested by a fourth generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and a confirmatory assay INNO-LIA. Both kits were from Innogenetic Laboratories N.V. (Belgium). Viral RNA was tested by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR).
The ELISA assay determined a hepatitis C virus prevalence of 5.0% (10/200); 3/200 (1.5%) individuals were positive by both INNO-LIA and RT-PCR tests.
The observed prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in this population was very low, suggesting a low circulation of the virus in this environment and a low level of associated risk behaviors.
Biomédica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud 12/2009; 29(4):647-52. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-T. gondii total and IgM antibodies in women of childbearing age. One hundred serum samples of women were studied with age range from 11 to 45 years old. Samples were chosen by random. The determination of total antibodies was carried out through the indirect hemagglutination technique and IgM antibodies by ELISA's technique. The statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi square and the Spearman correlation tests. The theoretical estimated incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was calculated, according to the annual increment of antibody prevalence among the age groups. The overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 33%, while only six individuals (18.2%) were positive to IgM. The highest prevalence was observed in the 11-35 year-old age group. The theoretical estimated incidence was 1.5 for 100 pregnancies in women of 21-25 year-old group; it decreased until 0.1% in the 41-45 year-old age group. The findings show a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in this community with a high infection risk in women of the studied age group and the high cat population observed, suggesting that the transmission way by contaminated soils may play a main role in the spreading of toxoplasmosis in this community.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 01/2009; 51(1):13-7. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral load in pediatric patients with HIV infections can help to make therapeutic decisions to modify the evolution of the disease.
To evaluate viral load in positive HIV children with antiretroviral treatment.
Viral load was measured every six months during three years in fifty pediatric patients chosen randomly in aged 1 to 12 years, using the Test Monitor HIV-1 AMPLICOR, version 1.5.
During the three years follow up, there was an increase in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte count and decrease in the viral load. However, there was no significant relationship between lymphocyte subpopulation counts and viral loads.
Viral load demonstrated to be an appropriate method to quantify plasma HIV-RNA. This tool can help to define the condition of a particular patient to predict clinical course of the disease and to assess the response to the treatment.
Revista medica de Chile 09/2008; 136(8):1021-6. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Japreira indigenous community, Venezuela, and its relationship to age and gender. An intentional, non-probabilistic sample of 149 individuals was selected from a total of 300. All samples were studied for the presence of total HBV antibodies (total anti-HBc), and the positive samples were tested for HBV surface and "e" antigens (HBsAg, HBeAg). Overall prevalence rates of total anti-HBc were 72.9% in females and 81.1% in males. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was observed in males 26-35 years of age. Only four of the 44 HBsAg carriers were positive for HBeAg. The results showed a high endemic HBV infection rate and indicated that its spread begins at early ages. Sexual transmission may be the main route for spread of the virus. Crowding, close contact with bodily fluids, specific social practices, and features of the circulating viral strain among members of this community could be involved in the high chronicity observed in the Japreira indigenous community.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública 06/2008; 24(5):1183-6. · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prev- alence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Japreira indigenous community, Venezuela, and its relationship to age and gender. An intention- al, non-probabilistic sample of 149 individuals was selected from a total of 300. All samples were studied for the presence of total HBV antibodies (total anti-HBc), and the positive samples were tested for HBV surface and "e" antigens (HBsAg, HBeAg). Overall prevalence rates of total anti- HBc were 72.9% in females and 81.1% in males. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was observed in males 26-35 years of age. Only four of the 44 HBsAg carriers were positive for HBeAg. The re- sults showed a high endemic HBV infection rate and indicated that its spread begins at early ag- es. Sexual transmission may be the main route for spread of the virus. Crowding, close contact with bodily fluids, specific social practices, and features of the circulating viral strain among members of this community could be involved in the high chronicity observed in the Japreira indigenous community.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública 01/2008; 24(5). · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies done with human and animals have shown that the diminished vitamin A intake can produce anemia, but the ethiopathogenic mechanism hasn't been known due to the few studies about the complex interactions between micronutrients deficiencies, immune system and cytokine productions. The objective of the present study was to analyze the serum concentration of IFN-gamma and IL-10 in anemic and non anemic children according to vitamin A nutritional status. A descriptive study of 53 euthrophic children, without infectious diseases (45-77 month old; 29 girls, 24 boys), living in a slum in Maracaibo-Venezuela. Anemia was evaluated by means of blood hemoglobin concentration analysis, standard WHO criteria for anemia were Hb < 110 g/L in <60 month old children; Hb < 115 g/L in >60 month old children. Vitamin A status was assessed by Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC) technique, which determines Normal CIC=Control or Abnormal CIC=VAD. The serum concentration of IFN-gamma and IL-10 (pg/mL; X +/- DE), was determined by the ELISA method. Statistical significance of differences was tested by ANOVA (p < 0.05). Prevalence of anemia was 75.50%; VAD 50.94% and anemia+VAD 35.86%. The anemic children with VAD showed significant serum values of IFN-gamma e IL-10 lower than in other groups. This alteration of the complex immunoregulatory mechanism could be responsible for dysfunction eritrhoid cell formation.
Archivos latinoamericanos de nutrición 12/2006; 56(4):329-34. · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RESUMEN Objetivos: Determinar la presencia y relación del virus herpes simple tipo 2 (VHS-2) en mujeres con diferentes gra- dos de lesiones preinvasivas de cuello uterino. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron 176 mujeres con lesiones preinvasivas de cuello uterino y 40 mujeres como grupo control con cuello uterino sano, que asistieron a la consulta ginecológica en diferentes centros de salud, durante los años 2002-2005 en Maracaibo-Venezuela. A las pacientes se les tomó un hisopado del exocervix y una biopsia dirigida del sitio de la lesión por colposcopía. La determinación de VHS-2 � serealizó � atravésdeinmunofluorescenciadirecta. �Resultados: La presencia de infección por VHS-2 fue 44 /176 �� (25%). � ElmayornúmerodeVHS-2 � seobtuvoenlaspacientescongradodelesióntipoNICII � (66,7%). � Elmayor � porcentaje de infección por VHS-2 se determinó en las pacientes que iniciaron sus relaciones sexuales entre los 15 y 20 � años � (34,5%), � lasrelacionessexualesdiarias � (50%), � así � comorelacionesdetipoorogenitalfueronconsideradaslas � conductas de mayor riesgo para adquirir la infección. Conclusiones: No se evidenció una relación directa entre VHS-2 y la presencia de cáncer. Los factores de riesgo asociados con la infección son similares a otras ITS, y están ligados con la conducta sexual y hábitos propios del individuo. Palabras clave: Virus herpes simple tipo 2; Neoplasia intraepitelial del cuello uterino; Inmunofluorescencia directa, Enfermedades de transmisión sexual (fuente: DeCS BIREME). ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the presence and relationship of type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) in women with diffe- rent degrees of pre-invasive cervical lesions. Materials and methods: 176 women with pre-invasive cervical lesions and 40 healthy controls were studied. These women were regular clients of gynecology outpatient clinics in different health centers during the 2002-2005 period in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Subjects underwent an exo-cervical smear and acolposcopy-orientedbiopsyofthelesionsite. � HSV-2 � determinationwasperformedusingdirectimmunofluorescence. � Results: � HSV-2 � infectionwasdetectedin � 44/176 � women � (25%). � ThehighestfiguresforHSV-2 � wereobtainedinwomen � withICNIIlesions � (66,7%). � ThehighestfrequenciesofHSV-2 � infectionswerefoundinwomenstartingsexuallifebet- ween � 15 � and � 20 � yearsofage � (34,5%). � Dailyintercourse � (50%), � aswellasoralsex, � wasconsideredasthemostrisky � behavior for acquiring the infection. Conclusions: No direct relationship between HSV-2 and cancer was evidenced. Risk factors associated with this infection are similar to those for other sexually transmitted diseases, and they are linked with sexual behavior and individual habits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El Virus Sincicial Respiratorio (VSR) es una de las causas más importantes de enfermedad de las vías respiratorias en infantes y preescolares. El VSR ha sido señalado como factor de riesgo en la aparición del asma bronquial en pacientes pediátricos, pero existen controversias sobre su papel en el asma del adulto. El presente estudio determinó la presencia del antígeno de VSR y bacterias en adultos asmáticos del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se recolectaron 196 hisopados faríngeos (143 de pacientes asmáticos en crisis y 53 de no asmáticos). El antígeno del VSR fue determinado por la técnica de ELISA y la presencia de bacterias por técnicas bacteriológicas convencionales. En los pacientes asmáticos se encontró una incidencia de VSR de 42,65%, mientras que en el grupo control no se detectaron antígenos virales. En cuanto a las bacterias, los individuos asmáticos presentaron un mayor porcentaje (84,15%) de flora transitoria (p<0,001) como Streptococcus pyogenes y Escherichia coli que el grupo no asmático, en el que se aislaron estas bacterias en el 47,2% de los hisopados. La incidencia de VSR en pacientes asmáticos evidencia que este agente pudiera jugar un papel importante como factor de riesgo en la patogénesis del asma bronquial en el adulto. La presencia incrementada de bacterias patógenas en la microflora de la orofaringe de los pacientes asmáticos podría ser debido a la alteración del tracto bronquial por la infección viral, y consecuentemente constituir otro factor predisponente de esta enfermedad.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The systemic Toxocariasis or migrant larva is a helminto-zoonosis caused by the migration of nematode larvae through human tissues mainly, of the canine helminth Toxocara canis, which can infect humans, especially children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-T. canis antibodies in an infantile population. Serum samples of 73 children of either sex with ages between 4 and 6 years were examined. The determination of anti-Toxocara antibodies was carried out through an ELISA test (using excretory/secretory antigen from the Toxocara larvae). The statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi square test, the Fisher exact test and the correlation of Spearman. The overall prevalence of infection was 9.72%, the highest percentage (50%) was observed in 4 year-old children (3/6), there were significant differences among the ages. No differences were observed with regard to sex. An inverse correlation was observed between the age and ELISA positivity. These results suggest that the toxocariasis is frequent in children from this community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little information is available about Flavivirus infection in amerindian populations in western Venezuela. On this account the activity and seroprevalence of these viruses were determined and the hypothesis concerning the existence of a sylvatic cycle, conditioning the infection transmission of these viruses in indigenous populations, was studied. For this, blood samples from Yukpas (n=144) and Barí (n=110) communities were collected, 35 (Yukpas=25 and Barí=10) of which were processed for viral isolation followed by RT-PCR. The anti-Flavivirus IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. The results did not show active Dengue cases and the seroprevalence of anti-Flavivirus IgG in the Yukpa population was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in the Barí population (43.1% vs. 6.4%). The present study has determined the presence of Flavivirus immunity in Yukpa and Barí populations. These results show a higher prevalence at the former than in the Barí population, which suggests circulation of Flavivirus, mainly in the Yukpa communities, being scarce and sporadic in Barí villages. However, in the indigenous populations studied, the causes or factors that determine the off set of Flavivirus infections in these zones could vary. The detected prevalence between both communities may be due to differences in the structure settlements and social habits. No evidences were found to support the presence of a sylvatic cycle in the Flavivirus transmission, specially of Dengue, in this population.