[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role and identity of host and non-host chemical cues (semiochemicals) in host location and non-host avoidance for copepodid larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, was investigated using Y-tube behavioural bioassays, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Using artificial seawater conditioned with the preferred salmonid host, Salmo salar, L. salmonis displayed high activation and directional responses in Y-tube assays to salmon-conditioned water (SCW), to an extract of SCW prepared by SPE, and to a vacuum distillate of the SPE extract. Similar responses were observed to two chemicals identified from SCW by coupled GCMS: isophorone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Dose-response studies with isophorone showed that copepodid responses across the range tested were maximised at 0.01 and 0.1 mg·mL1. A mixture of isophorone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one also induced high activation and directional responses. Semiochemicals were also isolated from the non-host fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus (Rafinesque)), by SPE and analysed by GCMS. Two non-host-specific chemicals were identified as 2-aminoacetophenone and 4-methylquinazoline. When SCW was mixed with either of the non-host chemicals, activation and directional responses to SCW were eliminated in the Y tube.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 04/2011; 63(2):448-456. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroantennogram (EAG) and y-tube bioassays have been used to demonstrate the repellent properties of five plant compounds with host-seeking parous female Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer. The compounds were methyl salicylate and allyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. EAG thresholds were 1 times 10-3 to 1 μg. In the bioassays, maximal repellencies occurred with 1 times 10˜2 to lOug. When each compound was combined with 1-octen-3-ol, a confirmed host-odour attractant for C.impunctatus females, additive effects were recorded in EAG assays and in bioassays, all of the compounds either reduced or reversed the attractancy of l-octen-3-ol. Of the isothiocyanates, allyl isothiocyanate was the most potent and when combined with 1-octen-3-ol in field trials, the attractant effect of l-octen-3-ol was reduced.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-proliferation in Drosophila Kc167 cells was inhibited by 50% when cell cultures contained 1.7 x 10(-7) M azadirachtin for 48 h (a tertranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica). Drosophila Kc167 cells exhibited direct nuclear damage within 6-h exposure to azadirachtin (5 x 10(-7) M and above) or within 24 h when lower concentrations were used (1 x 10(-9) M). Fractionation of an extract of Drosophila Kc167 cells combined with ligand overlay technique resulted in the identification of a putative azadirachtin binding complex. Identification of the members of this complex by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) and N-terminal sequencing identified heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) as one of its components.
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 05/2007; 64(4):200-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In insects primary urine is produced by the Malpighian tubules under hormonal control. Here we have analysed the effects of the peptide locustatachykinin I (Lom-TK-I) on secretion in isolated Malphigian tubules. We also mapped the distribution of Lom-TK immunoreactivity in the gut in comparison with Locusta diuretic hormone (Lom-DH) and serotonin, two other factors that are active on locust tubules. Lom-TK-I produces an immediate, potent and long-lasting stimulation of fluid secretion. Furthermore, we show that Lom-TK-I acts synergistically with Lom-DH on fluid secretion and demonstrate that Lom-TKs are co-localised with Lom-DH in endocrine cells of the midgut ampullae. Thus, the two peptides might be released together to act synergistically on fluid secretion. Also serotonin and Lom-DH act synergistically and we can demonstrate a plexus of serotonin-containing axon processes over the midgut.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of olfaction and diffusible pheromones in mate location behavior of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, was assessed with Y-tube behavioral bioassays. The pheromone "emitting" animals were located in a chamber in one arm of a Y-tube arena, with artificial seawater flowing through both arms. Adult male sea lice displayed both activation and directional responses to seawater conditioned with preadult II virgin females, but were only activated by mated adult female conditioned water. Further, when males were given the choice of preadult II virgin females or mated adult females, a significant number of males chose the arm with the preadult II virgin females. Adult males showed activation responses when presented with water conditioned with adult males but were not attracted to them. When presented with adult males, preadult II virgin females showed only directional responses, but not activation responses. Preadult II virgin female conditioned water was extracted using solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocols pioneered for semiochemical isolation. Adult male sea lice showed significant directional responses to the preadult II virgin female SPE extract. Distillation under vacuum was performed on the extract to give a distillate comprising components with a molecular weight range and physical properties comparable to those of compounds utilized as volatile semiochemicals by terrestrial organisms and a residue comprising components with higher molecular weight range comparable to those utilized as involatile semiochemicals. Adult males were found to be both significantly activated and attracted to the distillate, but not to the residue. This research provides evidence that small, lipophilic organic molecules are used by sea lice as sex pheromone signals to locate a member of the opposite sex.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 11/2002; 28(10):2107-17. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of behavioural bioassays and electrophysiological recording techniques has enabled the role of semiochemicals to be investigated for the first time in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). Adult male sea lice L salmonis were activated by, and attracted to, salmon-conditioned water (SCW) and SCW extract. Non-host fish odours, turbot-conditioned water (TCW) and turbot-conditioned water extract (TCW extract), elicited activation but no attraction in the lice. Solid-phase extraction techniques were developed to extract low molecular weight components of fish odours, and biological activity was shown to be confined to these. Electrophysiological activity from aesthetascs in the first antennae was found and neural responses to odours were recorded from the antennal nerves. Preliminary experiments on individual chemicals (isophorone, 1-octen-3-ol) linked to salmon revealed behavioural activation and electrophysiological responses in adult male L salmonis. Isophorone was shown to be significantly attractive to sea lice when placed in a slow-release system in a perfused tank of seawater in a choice situation. Proof of concept has been established for successfully extracting odour cues from seawater, analysing their biological activity and applying these to slow-release technologies for field trapping of lice. Future work involving linked GC-MS techniques using behaviour, electrophysiological responses, and organolepsis will establish further host location cues specific to Atlantic salmon.
Pest Management Science 07/2002; 58(6):537-45. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult male salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, displayed kinetic and rheotactic behavioral responses to seawater conditioned with the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The kinetic response was initiated by a range of skin, mucus, and flesh preparations from salmon and from a nonsalmonid, the turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Kinesis was quantified by digitally recording the movement of individual lice and by measuring both speed and distance traveled. A directional response, measured in Y-tube assays, was seen in the presence of salmon-conditioned water, but not of turbot-conditioned water. Thus, there is strong evidence that chemical signals are used by salmon lice to mediate host-finding behavior. It is hypothesized that, although salmon lice are excited by the presence of fish-derived semiochemicals, there is a salmonid-specific signal that mediates their positive rheotactic response to a host.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 07/2000; 26(8):1833-1847. · 2.46 Impact Factor