Toshitsugu Oka

Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (23)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2004 and July 2005. The susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were measured. The bacteria were divided into 2 groups consisting of uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs (with and without indwelling catheter) based on their isolation origins. The results were compared with those obtained between 1995 and 2003. The drug sensitivity of S. aureus in this year was similar to those in up to the previous year and S. aureus showed the best susceptibility to vancomycin (VCM) and arbekacin (ABK). The drug sensitivity of E. faecalis in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous year. The susceptibility of E. coli to cephems in this year was generally good and was similar to those in up to the previous year. MIC90 of cefozopran (CZOP) was the most stable and 0.125 microg/mL or less since 1995. The susceptibility of E. coli to cefpirome (CPR) and cefotiam (CTM) also was good but to cefaclor (CCL), cefixime (CFIX), and cefpodoxime (CPDX) was largely decreased in complicated UTI groups. The sensitivity of E. coli to carbapenems also was good but to carumonam (CRMN) tended to decrease. The susceptibility of E. coli to quinolones, however, has largely changed and has decreased since 2003 in uncomplicated UTIs and 2000 in complicated UTIs. That was suggested the development of the resistance to the drug. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to cefazolin (CEZ), CTM, CCL, CPDX, and cefditoren (CDTR) decreased in the previous year and recovered to the year before the previous year in this year. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to other cephems was stable since 1995, especially against CZOP, the highest sensitivity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL) was maintained. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to carbapenems and CRMN also was good. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to aminoglycosides was lower than to CZOP but was stable since 1995. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa was generally low and has largely changed against the majority of the agents since 1995. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolated from uncomplicated UTIs has largely changed against ceftazidime (CAZ), cefsulodin (CFS), CZOP, imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEPM), aztreonam (AZT), CRMN, gentamicin (GM), and tobramycin (TOB). The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolated from complicated UTIs has largely changed against CSF, CZOP, MEPM, GM, and ciprofloxacin (CPFX). The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolated from complicated UTIs has been stable against amikacin (AMK). For annual changes in MIC50, TOB and IPM had a relatively stable and high activity (MIC50: 0.5-2 microg/mL).
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 08/2006; 59(4):217-315.
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    ABSTRACT: Six hundred six bacterial strains isolated from 490 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2004 and July 2005. The frequency of bacteria isolation stratified with patient clinical background was compared. The clinical background investigated included sex, age, type of infections, timing of antibiotics administration, and presence or absence of surgery affecting a decrease in defense against infection. The bacterial strains were stratified with the age and sex of the patients and the types of infections. In males, the number of patients aged less than 60 years was few and the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was observed most frequently. In females, the number of patients aged less than 60 years was comparatively more than in males. In all of ages except 0-19 and > or = 80 years, the ratio of the uncomplicated UTIs was high, accounting for 44.1-90.0% of all types of infections. In the present time, the bacteria most frequently isolated were Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis also were relatively frequently isolated. E. coli most frequently isolated with the uncomplicated UTIs and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis most frequently isolated with the complicated UTIs. With respect to the relation of these results to the age of the patients, in the uncomplicated UTIs, the isolation frequency of E. coli was the highest in all age groups except 0-19 years, accounting for 50% or higher. In the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, the isolation frequency of E. coli tended to be high in all age groups. In the complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, P. aeruginosa were more frequently isolated. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs between before and after the administration of antibiotics, P. aeruginosa increased after the administration in any types of UTIs. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs with or without surgery, E. coli was more frequently isolated in the patients without surgery, while P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated in the patients with surgery in any UTIs.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2006; 59(3):201-13.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from 490 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2004 and July 2005. The susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were measured. Of them, 577 strains were estimated as causative bacteria and used for the measurement. The strains consisted of 156 gram-positive bacterial strains (27.0%) and 421 gram-negative bacterial strains (73.0%). Against Staphylococcus aureus, arbekacin (ABK), vancomycin (VCM) showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 2 microg/mL. Against Enterococcus faecalis, ampicillin (ABPC) and VCM showed a strong antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of cephems to Escherichia coli was generally good, and especially cefozopran (CZOP) and cefpirome (CPR) showed the strongest activity (MIC90: < or = 125 microg/mL). Quinolone resistant E. coli [MIC of ciprofloxacin (CPFX): > or = 4 microg/mL] was detected at frequency of 18.8%, which was higher than that in the last year. Against Klebsiella pneumoniae, CZOP, meropenem (MEPM), and carumonam (CRMN) showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 0.125 microg/mL or less. The antibacterial activity of the other cephems was relatively good, and decrease in their activity observed in the last year study was not recognized. Against Serratia marcescens, imipenem (IPM) and gentamicin (GM) had the strongest antibacterial activity. Against Proteus mirabilis, CRMN showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 0.125 microg/mL or less. MEPM prevented the growth of all strains with 0.25 microg/mL. Next, cefmenoxime (CMX), ceftazidime (CAZ), CZOP, cefixime (CFIX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), and cefditoren (CDTR) showed a strong activity. The antibacterial activity of the drugs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was generally low, and MIC90 of all the drugs was ranged from 32 to > 128 microg/mL except IPM and MEPM having 16 microg/mL. The antibacterial activities of CZOP and CAZ were considered to be relatively good on MIC50 comparison (MIC50: 2 microg/mL).
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2006; 59(3):177-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Seven hundred and nineteen bacterial strains isolated from 565 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2002 and July 2003. The frequency of bacteria isolation divided with patient clinical background was compared. The clinical background investigated included sex, age, type of infections, timing of antibiotics administration, and presence or absence of surgery affecting a decrease in defense against infection. The bacterial strains were divided with the age and sex of the patients and the types of infections. In males, the number of patients aged less than 50 years was few and the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was observed most frequently. Number of patients aged 20-39 years was greater in female than male. In all of ages except 0-9 and 70-79 years, the ratio of the uncomplicated UTIs was high, accounting for 44.4-91.7% of all types of infections. In the present time, the bacteria most frequently isolated were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis also were relatively frequently isolated. E. coli was most frequently isolated from the uncomplicated UTIs, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were frequently isolated from the complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter. With respect to the relation of these results to the age of the patients, in the uncomplicated UTIs, the isolation frequency of E. coli was the highest in all age groups, accounting for 40% or higher. In the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, the isolation frequency of E. coli decreased with aging of the patients but still was the highest in all age groups. In the complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, the isolation frequency of E. coli was lower than in the uncomplicated UTIs in all age groups and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs between before and after the administration of antibiotics, P. aeruginosa increased after the administration in any types of UTIs. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs with or without surgery, E. coli was more frequently isolated in the patients without surgery, while P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated in the patients with surgery in any UTIs.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 01/2006; 58(6):544-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from 565 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2003 and July 2004. The susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. Of them, 701 strains were estimated as prophlogistic bacteria and used for the investigation. The strains consisted of 258 Gram-positive bacterial strains (36.8%) and 443 Gram-negative bacterial strains (63.2%). Against Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin (VCM) showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 2 microg/mL. Against Streptococcus agalactiae, ampicillin (ABPC), cefozopran (CZOP), imipenem (IPM), and clarithromycin (CAM) showed a strong activity and the MIC90 was 0.125 microg/mL or less. Against Enterococcus faecalis, VCM, ABPC, and IPM showed a strong antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of cephems to Escherichia coli was generally good, and especially CZOP and cefpirome (CPR) showed the strongest activity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). Quinolone resistant E. coli [MIC of ciprofloxacin (CPFX): > or =4 microg/mL] was detected at frequency of 15.7%, which was higher than that in the last year. Against Klebsiella pneumoniae, meropenem (MEPM) showed the strongest activity and next, the antibacterial activity of CRMN and CZOP was good. The antibacterial activity of the other cephems, however, significantly decreased, compared with that evaluated in last year. Against Serratia marcescens, MEPM had the strongest antibacterial activity. Against Proteus mirabilis, MEPM and CRMN showed the strongest activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 0.125 microg/mL or less. Nest, cefmenoxime (CMX), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefixime (CFIX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), CPR, CZOP, and cefditoren (CDTR) showed a strong activity. The antibacterial activity of the drugs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was generally low, and MIC90 of all the drugs was ranged from 32 to < or = 256 microg/mL except IPM and amikacin (AMK) having 16 microg/mL. The antibacterial activity of CZOP was relatively good (MIC50: 2 microg/mL).
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 12/2005; 58(6):518-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from 565 patients diagnosed as urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 14 institutions in Japan were collected between August 2003 and July 2004. The susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined. The bacteria were divided into 2 groups consisting of uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs (with and without indwelling catheter) based on their isolation origins. The results were compared with those obtained between 1994 and 2002. The drug sensitivity of S. aureus in this year was similar to those in up to the previous years and S. aureus showed the best susceptibility to vancomycin. The drug sensitivity of E. faecalis in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous years. The drug sensitivity of E. coli in this year was generally good except penicillins and was similar to those in up to the previous years. Among cephems, cefozopran (CZOP) and cefpirome (CPR) showed the highest potency activity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). An antibacterial activity of cefotiam (CTM) was stable for 10 years and was fine (MIC0: < or = 0.5 microg/mL). The sensitivity of E. coli to carbapenems and carumonam (CRMN) also was good like to CZOP. The sensitivity of the complicated UTIs group to quinolones, however, has decreased after 2000 and it was suggested that the resistance to the drug has developed. Kiebsiella spp. showed a decrease in the susceptibility to some of cephems. The drugs indicating a big decrease in the sensitivity were cefazolin, CTM, cefaclor, and cefpodoxime. Imipenem, carbapenems, also indicated a decrease in the sensitivity. The susceptibility of the strain to the other drugs was similar to that in up to the previous years. Among them, CZOP maintained good susceptibility (MIC90: > or = 0.125 microg/mL against uncomplicated UTIs, 0.25 microg/mL against complicated UTIs) like meropenem. The drug sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was generally low and was not much different from that in up to the previous years.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 12/2005; 58(6):557-654.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 13 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2002 and July 2003. The susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined. The bacteria were divided into 2 groups consisting of uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs (with and without indwelling catheter) based on their isolation origins. The results were compared with those obtained between 1993 and 2001. The drug sensitivity of S. aureus in this year was similar to those in up to the previous year and S. aureus showed the best susceptibility to vancomycin. The drug sensitivity of E. faecalis in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous year. The drug sensitivity of E. coli in this year was generally good except penicillins and was similar to those in up to the previous year. Among cephems, cefozopran (CZOP) and cefpirome (CPR) showed the highest potency (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). An antibacterial activity of cefotiam (CTM) was similar to it in 10 years ago and was fine (MIC90: < or = 1 microg/mL). The sensitivity of E. coli to carbapenems and carumonam (CRMN) also was good like to CZOP. However, the sensitivity of the complicated UTIs group to quinolones decreased after 2000 and was suggested to develop the resistance to the drug. The drug sensitivity of Klebsiella spp. in this year also was similar to those in up to the previous year. The bacteria showed good susceptibility (MIC: < or = 0.125 microg/mL) to cefmenoxime (CMX), CPR, cefixime (CFIX), flomoxef (FMOX), and CZOP among cephems. The drug sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was generally low. Most of the bacteria were little sensitive to cephems except CZOP and ceftazidime (CAZ). The sensitive bacteria to CZOP and ceftazidime (CAZ) were observed to be 26.8% (15/56 strains) and 39.3% (22/56 strains) in complicated UTIs group, respectively. The sensitivity profile of P. aeruginosa to the other tested drugs was not much different from that in up to the previous year. However, the sensitivity of the bacteria to carbapenems tended to decrease after 2000, and the low sensitive strains (MIC: > or = 256 microg/mL) were detected at 22.2% (2/9 strains) in the uncomplicated UTIs group and 3.6% (2/56 strains) in the complicated UTIs group.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 09/2004; 57(4):311-403.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from 491 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 13 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2002 and July 2003. The susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. Of them, 578 strains were estimated as causative bacteria and used for the investigation. The number of them was 578 strains consisting of 177 gram-positive bacterial strains (30.6%) and 401 gram-negative bacterial strains (69.4%). Against Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin (VCM) showed a strong activity and prevented the growth of all strains with 1 microg/mL. The susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis to cephems including cefotiam (CTM) was relatively good. Against Enterococcus faecalis, ampicillin (ABPC), imipenem (IPM), and VCM showed the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC90: 2-4 microg/mL). In addition, the low sensitive strains (MIC: > or = 256 microg/mL) to clarithromycin (CAM) were detected at 48.3% but none to cefozopran (CZOP). The antibacterial activity of cephems to Escherichia coli was generally good, and especially CZOP and cefpirome (CPR) showed the highest activity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). Quinolone resistant E. coli was detected at frequency of 13.5%, which was higher than that in the last year. The antibacterial activity of cephems to Citrobacter freundii was generally low but CZOP and CPR had a strong acitivity (MIC90: 0.25 and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively). The antibacterial activity of cephems to Klebsiella pneumoniae was good and especially cefmenoxime (CMX), cefixime (CFIX), flomoxef (FMOX), CPR, and CZOP showed stronger activity (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). Against Serratia marcescens, meropenem (MEPM) had the highest antibacterial activity followed by CPR and CZOP. Against Proteus mirabilis, CMX, ceftazidime (CAZ), CPR, MEPM, carumonam (CRMN), and levofloxacin (LVFX) showed the strongest activity (MC90: < or = 0.125 microg/mL). Among other cephems, CZOP and CFIX were also strong (MIC90: 0.25 microg/mL). The antibacterial activity of the drugs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was generally low, and MIC90 of all the drugs were ranged from 64 to > or = 256 microg/mL except IPM and amikacin (AMK) having 16 microg/mL. The antibacterial activity of CZOP was relatively good (MIC50: 8 microg/mL).
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 07/2004; 57(3):246-74.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 615 bacterial strains isolated from 491 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 13 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2002 and July 2003. Then, the clinical background of patients were investigated such as sex, age, and type of infections and kind of bacteria, frequency of bacteria isolation by age and infections, bacteria and infections by timing of antibiotics administration, and bacteria and infections by surgical procedures. The bacterial strains were divided by the age and sex of the patients and the types of infections. In males, the number of patients aged less than 50 years was few and the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was observed most frequently. In the present time, the bacteria most frequently isolated were Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis were also relatively frequently isolated. E. coli decreased and P. aeruginosa increased with the complication of the infections. E. faecalis tended to be isolated more frequently in the complicated UTIs than in the uncomplicated UTIs. With respect to the relation of these results to the age of the patients, in the uncomplicated UTIs, the isolation frequency of E. coli was the highest in all age groups, accounting for 70.8% in 20-49 years old. In the complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, the isolation frequency of E. coli decreased with aging of the patients and was lower than that of E. faecalis in the patients aged 70 or more (18.3 vs 20.6%). In the complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, the isolation frequency of E. coli was lower than in the uncomplicated UTIs in all age groups and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs between before and after the administration of antibiotics, E. coli decreased and P. aeruginosa increased after the administration in any UTIs. In comparison of causative bacteria in UTIs with or without surgery, E. coli was more frequently isolated in the patients without surgery, while P. aeruginosa was more in the patients with surgery in any UTIs. E. faecalis was more frequently isolated in the patients with surgery in uncomplicated and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter and in the patients without surgery in complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 07/2004; 57(3):275-87.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between September and December, 2001. Then, the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined, and the results were compared with those obtained between 1992 and 2000. Comparison was made by classifying strains isolated from patients into those in uncomplicated UTIs and those in complicated UTIs (including with or without indwelling catheter). The drug sensitivity of S. aureus in this year was comparable to those in up to the previous year, and S. aureus showed the best susceptibility to vancomycin (VCM). E. faecalis showed good susceptibility to ampicillin and imipenem, and the MIC90s were 2 micrograms/mL. The susceptibility of E. faecalis to VCM was also good. E. coli showed good susceptibility to the drugs except penicillins. Among cephems, the susceptibility to cefozopran (CZOP) was better (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microgram/mL). Just as the last report, the decreases in susceptibility of E. coli to quinolones were also observed in the patients with complicated UTIs. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to all the test drugs did not significantly change in 2001 and was generally good but not to penicillins. Among cephems, Klebsiella spp. showed good susceptibility to flomoxef, cefpirome, cefixime, and CZOP with < or = 0.125 microgram/mL of MIC90s either in uncomplicated or complicated UTIs. Although the drug sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was generally low, the detection of the strains that showed good susceptibility to quinolones and carbapenems (MIC: < or = 0.125-2 micrograms/mL) were relatively frequent.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 12/2003; 56(6):584-673.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of September and December 2001. Then, the susceptibilities of them to a variety of antimicrobial agents were investigated. The number of them were 496 strains. The breakdown of these strains was Gram-positive bacteria as 29.6% and Gram-negative bacteria as 70.4%. Susceptibilities of these bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as follows; against Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin (VCM) showed a strong activity, and this drug also had a strong activity against MRSA in preventing growth of all strains at 1 microgram/mL. In addition, arbekacin (ABK) showed strong activity with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/mL against MRSA and prevented growth of all strains at 4 micrograms/mL. ABK also showed a strong activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis in preventing growth of all strains at 0.5 microgram/mL. Ampicillin (ABPC) and cefozopran (CZOP) showed a relatively strong activity against S. epidermidis (MIC90: 8 micrograms/mL). ABPC, imipenem (IPM), and VCM showed strong activities against Enterococcus faecalis. No increase of low-susceptible strains in E. faecalis was observed against these antimicrobial agents. Against Escherichia coli, carbapenems showed the highest activities: meropenem (MEPM) prevented growth of all strains at 0.25 microgram/mL; IPM prevented growth of all strains at 0.5 microgram/mL. CZOP and cefotiam (CTM) also showed strong activities against E. coli: MIC90 of CZOP was within 0.125 microgram/mL; MIC90 of CTM was within 0.5 microgram/mL. Quinolone-resistant E. coli was detected at frequency of 9.3%, which was lower than that in the last year, and was higher level than those in up to 1999. MEPM showed the strongest activity against Citrobacter freundii in preventing growth of all strains at 0.125 microgram/mL. Almost all drugs showed strong activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis, and MEPM prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/mL. Against Serratia marcescens, the MIC90 of gentamicin (GM) was the lowest value being 2 micrograms/mL, and those of IPM and carumonam were 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, almost all drugs were not so active. The MIC90 of GM was 8 micrograms/mL, those of IPM and amikacin were 16 micrograms/mL, and those of all other drugs were over than 32 micrograms/mL.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 11/2003; 56(5):396-423.
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    ABSTRACT: Five-hundred thirty one bacterial strains isolated from 412 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between September and December 2001. Then, the clinical background of patients were investigated such as sex, age, and type of infections, infections and kind of bacteria, frequency of bacteria isolation by age and infections, bacteria and infections by timing of antibiotics administration, and bacteria and infections by surgical procedures. With regard to the relationship between age and sex of patients and type of infections, the number of cases aged lower than 50 years was few and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent in male patients. In females, the number of patients aged lower than 20 years was few. Most of female patients aged lower than 80 years had uncomplicated UTIs. As for the relationship between type of infections and kind of bacteria, Escherichia coli decreased as the infections were more complicated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis increased as the infections were more complicated. In relation of these results to age of patients, isolation frequency of E. coli gradually decreased with aging in patients aged 20 years and older with uncomplicated UTIs. The isolation frequencies of E. faecalis decreased with aging in the patients with complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter while P. aeruginosa decreased with aging in the patients with complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter. E. coli was isolated a few after administration of antibiotics, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were frequently isolated after administration in the patients with all types of infections. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs and with or without surgical operation, E. coli was frequently isolated in the patients without surgery in the patients with uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, while P. aeruginosa was frequently isolated in the patients who underwent surgery in the patients with uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter. In uncomplicated UTIs, isolation frequencies of Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa, and E. faecalis were significant in the patients with surgery. In complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, Klebsiella spp. was frequently isolated in the patients with surgery. In complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, S. aureus and Staphylococcus spp. were frequently isolated in the patients without surgery.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 11/2003; 56(5):424-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2000 and July 2001. Then, the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined, and the results were compared with those obtained between 1992 and 1999. Comparison was made by classifying strains isolated from patients into those in uncomplicated UTIs and those in complicated UTIs (including with or without indwelling catheter). E. faecalis showed good susceptibility to ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM), and the MIC90s were 2 micrograms/ml. Also, E. faecalis showed good susceptibility to vancomycin (VCM). However, the MIC90, which was 2 micrograms/ml between 1992 and 1999, rose to 4 micrograms/ml in patients with complicated UTIs because the strains inhibited at 4 micrograms/ml increased more than before. The low susceptibility of S. aureus to arbekacin (ABK) in complicated UTIs, as shown in 1998 and 1999, recovered in 2000, and no strains inhibited at > or = 4 micrograms/ml were detected. E. coli showed good susceptibility to CTM (MIC90: 0.25-0.5 microgram/ml) and CZOP (MIC90: < or = 0.125 microgram/ml) and was not resistant to those. E. coli also showed good susceptibility to the other drugs except to penicillins. Decreases in susceptibility of E. coli to quinolones, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and sparfloxacin (SPFX) were observed in the patients with complicated UTIs. The susceptibility of Klebsiella spp. to all drugs did not significantly change in 2000 and was generally good except to penicillins. Although the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems was notable, the MIC90 went up from 4 micrograms/ml to 16 micrograms/ml in complicated UTIs compared with those observed in the previous year.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 10/2002; 55(5):568-655.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 2000 and July 2001. Then, the susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. The number of them were 511 strains. The breakdown of these strains was Gram-positive bacteria as 29.0% and Gram-negative bacteria as 71.0%. Susceptibilities of these bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as follows; vancomycin (VCM), ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM) showed strong activities against Enterococcus faecalis. No increase in low-susceptible strains of E. faecalis observed against these antimicrobial agents. VCM showed a strong activity against MRSA preventing growth of all strains with 1 microgram/ml. In addition, the activity of arbekacin (ABK) was strong with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml against MRSA and prevented growth of all strains with 4 micrograms/ml. ABK showed a strong activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis preventing growth of all strains with 0.5 microgram/ml. ABPC, cefotiam (CTM) and cefozopran (CZOP) also showed a relatively strong activity against S. epidermidis (MIC90: 4 to 8 micrograms/ml). Against Escherichia coli, carbapenems showed high activities: meropenem (MEPM) prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml; IPM prevented growth of all strains with 0.25 microgram/ml. CZOP and CTM also showed strong activities against E. coli: MIC90 of CZOP was within 0.125 microgram/ml; MIC80 and MIC90 of CTM were 0.25 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Quinolone resistant E. coli was detected at frequency of 14.0%, which was significantly higher than that in the last year. Almost all drugs showed strong activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis, and MEPM prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, almost drugs were not so active. The MIC90 of carbapenems and gentamicin (GM) were 16 micrograms/ml and those of all other drugs were more than 32 micrograms/ml. Against Serratia marcescens, the MIC90 of IPM and GM were the lowest value being 2 micrograms/ml, and that of MEPM was 4 micrograms/ml.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 09/2002; 55(4):370-98.
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    ABSTRACT: Five-hundred eighty eight bacterial strains isolated from 435 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 institutions in Japan were supplied between August 2000 and July 2001. Then, the clinical background of patients were investigated such as sex, age, and type of infections, infections and kind of bacteria, frequency of bacteria isolation by age and infections, bacteria and infections by timing of antibiotics administration, and bacteria and infections by surgical procedures. About the relationship between age and sex of patients and type of infections, the number of male patients aged less than 50 years was few, and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent. In females, the number of patients aged less than 20 years was few. The majority of female patients aged 40 years and over had complicated UTIs while uncomplicated UTIs was most frequent in the patients being twenties. As for type of infections and kind of bacteria, Escherichia coli decreased when the infections became complicated, and pseudomonas aeruginosa increased when the infection became complicated. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated more frequently in complicated UTIs than in uncomplicated UTIs. Considering this result by age of patients, isolated frequency of E. coli was gradually decreased with aging in patients aged 20 years and over with uncomplicated UTIs or complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. The isolated frequencies of Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa, and E. faecalis were high in the patients with complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. In the patients aged 70 years and over with complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were frequently isolated. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs before and after the administration of antibiotics, the isolation of bacteria was remarkably decreased after administration in the patients with uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. E. coli decreased after administration of antibiotics, and P. aeruginosa increased after administration in the patients with all types of infections. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs and surgical procedures, E. coli was frequently isolated in the patients without surgery in all types of infections, while P. aeruginosa was frequently isolated in the patients who underwent surgery. In uncomplicated UTIs, Proteus spp. and E. faecalis were frequently isolated in the patients with surgery. In complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter, Klebsiella spp. was frequently isolated in the patients without surgery and E. faecalis was frequently isolated in the patients with surgery. In complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, most of organisms except P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were frequently isolated in the patients without surgery.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 09/2002; 55(4):399-411.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were examined and the results were compared with those obtained between 1991 and 1998. Comparison was made by classifying strains isolated from patients into those with uncomplicated UTIs and those with complicated UTIs (including with or without indwelling catheter). About E. faecalis, increase of low sensitive strains noted in the former year showed a decreasing tendency, however, one strain each with MIC of 4 micrograms/ml to vancomycin (VCM) was detected in patients with both uncomplicated and complicated UTIs. As for S. aureus, many sensitive strains to cephems, imipenem (IPM) and VCM were noted, and each MIC50 was better than that in the former years. S. aureus strains showing low susceptibility to arbekacin (ABK) were detected in patients with complicated UTIs in this year as well as in the former year, and one strain each with MIC of 16 micrograms/ml and 32 micrograms/ml was detected. Susceptibilities of E. coli were effective to all drugs except for penicillins and minocycline (MINO). Decrease of low sensitive strains was also noted in all drugs except for quinolones. Each MIC90 of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and sparfloxacin (SPFX) in patients with complicated UTIs against E. coli was 3 degrees classes lower than that in patients with uncomplicated UTIs. As for Klebsiella pneumoniae, decrease of low sensitive strains to cephems was noted in patients with uncomplicated UTIs in 1998. In 1999, low sensitive strains decreased also in patients with complicated UTIs, and few were detected. Susceptibilities of K. pneumoniae to quinolones were effective as compared with those in the former years with the MIC80s of 0.125 microgram/ml or below without detection of low sensitive strains. One low sensitive strain of K. pneumoniae with MIC of 8 micrograms/ml was detected for gentamicin (GM). Susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems were notable. The MIC90 of meropenem (MEPM) and IPM was 4 micrograms/ml each which was 2 degrees better than that in 1998. Resistant P. aeruginosa strains to other drugs except for monobactams decreased in 1999.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 07/2001; 54(6):231-322.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial strains isolated from patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the susceptibilities of them to many kinds of antimicrobial agents were investigated. The number of them were 499 strains. The breakdown of these strains was Gram-positive bacteria as 31.3% and Gram-negative bacteria as 68.7%. Susceptibilities of these bacteria to antimicrobial agents were as follows; vancomycin (VCM), ampicillin (ABPC) and imipenem (IPM) showed strong activities against Enterococcus faecalis. The increase of low-susceptible strains which was noticed in the former year showed a slight recovery in this year. VCM showed a strong activity against MRSA preventing growth of all strains with 1 microgram/ml. In addition, the activity of arbekacin (ABK) was also strong with the MIC90 of 2 micrograms/ml against MRSA. However, MSSA and MRSA showing low susceptibilities were detected in one strain each (MIC: 16 micrograms/ml and 32 micrograms/ml, respectively). Carbapenems showed high activities against Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli. Meropenem (MEPM) prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml. Quinolone resistant E. coli decreased in this year compared with those in the last year, that percentage was less than 5%. Almost all drugs showed strong activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. MEPM and carumonam (CRMN) prevented growth of all strains within 0.125 microgram/ml. On the other hand, one strain of K. pneumoniae showing resistance to cefaclor (CCL) and one strain of P. mirabilis showing low susceptibility to most of cephems were detected. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, almost drugs were not so active. The MIC90s of carbapenems were 8 micrograms/ml and those of all other drugs were more than 16 micrograms/ml.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2001; 54(5):185-216.
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    ABSTRACT: Five-hundred forty four bacterial strains isolated from 412 patients diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 institutions in Japan were supplied between the period of August 1999 to July 2000. Then, the clinical background of patients were investigated such as sex, age and type of infections, infections and kind of bacteria, frequency of isolation of bacteria by age and infections, bacteria and infections by timing of administration of antibiotics, and bacteria and infections by surgical procedures. About the relationship between age and sex of patients and type of infections, the number of male patients aged less than 50 years was few, and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent. In females, the number of patients aged less than 20 years was few. Complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter was the most frequent among female patients aged between 40 to 59 years, in other age groups, uncomplicated UTIs was most frequent. As for type of infections and kind of bacteria, Escherichia coli decreased when the infections became complicated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis increased when the infection became complicated. Considering this result by age of patients, isolation frequency of E. coli was gradually decreased with aging in patients aged more than 20 years with uncomplicated UTIs or complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. The isolation frequencies of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were gradually increased with aging in complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. In patients with complicated UTIs with indwelling catheter, there was no difference between age group, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis were frequently isolated. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs before and after the administration of antibiotics, the isolation of bacteria was remarkably decreased after administration in patients with uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheter. E. coli decreased after administration of antibiotics, and P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis increased after administration in patients with all infections. As for type of causative organisms in UTIs and surgical procedures, E. coli were more frequently isolated in patients with uncomplicated UTIs when surgical procedures were experienced. Also, Klebsiella spp. and E. faecalis were more frequently isolated in patients with surgical procedures. However, in complicated UTIs, type of causative organisms had no relationship with surgical procedures.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2001; 54(5):217-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 hospitals during June 1998 to May 1999, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period from 1990 to 1997 in uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs. Among E. faecalis strains, those with low susceptibilities to almost drugs have increased in the latest period. All 5 S. aureus strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were the most susceptible to gentamicin (GM). Over 50% of S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs were susceptible to GM, and on the contrary the resistant strains have increased with the MIC90 of 256 micrograms/ml or above. Among S. aureus strains isolated from complicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to arbekacin (ABK) have increased in the latest period compared to those during period of 1996-1997, and the MIC90s of them have changed into the lower state from 1 microgram/ml in 1996-1997 to 4 micrograms/ml in 1998. S. aureus strains have continued high susceptibilities to vancomycin (VCM). The susceptibilities to minocycline (MINO) of E. coli showed MIC90: 4 micrograms/ml in 1997, but those have returned in the latest period in uncomplicated UTIs. The MIC90s of ofloxacin (OFLX) to E. coli isolated from uncomplicated and complicated UTIs have been lower 2-3 classes in the latest period than those in 1997. Among Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to almost cephems had increased in 1997, but few of them were detected in the latest study. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to almost drugs have increased during the latest period. The MIC50s of cefozopran (CZOP) and OFLX against P. aeruginosa were the best in our history. The sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime (CAZ) have increased and its percentage was 30%. Piperacilline (PIPC), cefoperazone (CPZ), GM and OFLX resistant P. aeruginosa strains have increased in the latest period.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 06/2000; 53(5):299-386.
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical background was investigated on 449 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from whom 591 bacterial strains were isolated in 9 hospitals during the period from June, 1998 through May, 1999. About distribution of age and sex of patients and type of infections, among males, patients less than 50 years old were few, and uncomplicated UTIs without indwelling catheters was most frequent. Among females, patients less than 20 years old were few, and uncomplicated was most frequent. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated in uncomplicated UTIs, and the higher the ages of patients, the higher were became the isolation frequencies of Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp. In complicated UTIs with indwelling catheters and without indwelling catheters, the types of pathogens had no relation with ages. The complication of infections had decreased E. coli but that had increased Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Until last year, use of antibiotics had decreased pathogens isolated from patients with uncomplicated UTIs drastically in our study. But, pathogens isolated after antibiotics had increased in 1998. As for surgical procedures and types of causative organisms in UTIs, E. faecalis were more isolated when surgical procedures were experienced, and E. coli were more isolated when they were not in uncomplicated and complicated UTIs without indwelling catheters. In complicated UTIs with indwelling catheters, types of causative organisms had no relationship with surgical procedures.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 05/2000; 53(4):234-48.

Publication Stats

16 Citations

Institutions

  • 1999–2003
    • Sapporo Medical University
      • Division of Urology
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
    • Fukushima Medical University
      • Department of Urology
      Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan