J. A. Tomsick

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands

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Publications (323)884.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The majority of ultraluminous X-ray sources are point sources that are spatially offset from the nuclei of nearby galaxies and whose X-ray luminosities exceed the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their X-ray luminosities in the 0.5-10 kiloelectronvolt energy band range from 10(39) to 10(41) ergs per second. Because higher masses imply less extreme ratios of the luminosity to the isotropic Eddington limit, theoretical models have focused on black hole rather than neutron star systems. The most challenging sources to explain are those at the luminous end of the range (more than 10(40) ergs per second), which require black hole masses of 50-100 times the solar value or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries, or both. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82 that reveal pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds and a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to an X-ray luminosity in the 3-30 kiloelectronvolt range of 4.9 × 10(39) ergs per second. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable source that can reach an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt range of 1.8 × 10(40) ergs per second. This association implies a luminosity of about 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects.
    Nature 10/2014; 514(7521):202-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of PSR J1101-6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014-6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A at v>1000 km/s. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity E_dot = 1.36e36 erg/s, characteristic age Tau_c = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength B_s = 7.4e11 G. In comparison to Tau_c, the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11-61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 < P_0 < 60 ms. PSR J1101-6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's E-dot. However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2014; 795(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\geq3\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic CVs dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars (IPs) and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to $f_X\approx10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral and timing analysis of NuSTAR observations of RX J0520.5$-$6932 in the 3-79 keV band collected during its outburst in January 2014. The target was observed on two epochs and we report the detection of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with central energies of $E_\mathrm{CRSF} = 31.3_{-0.7}^{+0.8}$ keV and $31.5_{-0.6}^{+0.7}$ keV during the two observations, respectively, corresponding to a magnetic field of $B \approx 2 \times10^{12}$ G. The 3-79 keV luminosity of the system during the two epochs assuming a nominal distance of 50 kpc was $3.667\pm0.007\times 10^{38}\,\mathrm{erg\,s^{-1}}$ and $3.983\pm0.007\times10^{38}\,\mathrm{erg\,s^{-1}}$. Both values are much higher than the critical luminosity of $\approx1.5\times10^{37}\,\mathrm{erg\,s^{-1}}$ above which a radiation dominated shock front may be expected. This adds a new object to the sparse set of three systems that have a cyclotron line observed at luminosities in excess of $10^{38}\,\mathrm{erg\,s^{-1}}$. A broad ($\sigma\approx0.45$ keV) Fe emission line is observed in the spectrum at a central energy of $6.58_{-0.05}^{+0.05}$ keV in both epochs. The pulse profile of the pulsar was observed to be highly asymmetric with a sharply rising and slowly falling profile of the primary peak. We also observed minor variations in the cyclotron line energy and width as a function of the rotation phase.% As in observations of other cyclotron absorption line sources, there is a small ($\Delta\phi\lesssim0.1$) phase difference between the peak of the cyclotron energy variation and the peak of the flux variation.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relation between compact jet emission and X-ray variability properties of all black hole transients with multiwavelength coverage during their outburst decays. We studied the evolution of all power spectral components (including low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations), and related this evolution to changes in jet properties tracked by radio and infrared observations. We grouped sources according to their tracks in radio/X-ray luminosity relation, and show that the standards show stronger broadband X-ray variability than outliers at a given X-ray luminosity when the compact jet turned on. This trend is consistent with the internal shock model and can be important for the understanding of the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation. We also observed that the total and the QPO rms amplitudes increase together during the earlier part of the outburst decay, but after the compact jet turns either the QPO disappears or its rms amplitude decreases significantly while the total rms amplitudes remain high. We discuss these results with a scenario including a variable corona and a non-variable disk with a mechanism for the QPO separate from the mechanism that create broad components. Finally, we evaluated the timing predictions of the magnetically dominated accretion flow model which can explain the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 795(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Timing of high-count rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count-rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (~2.5 msec), and varies by a few percent event-to-event. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be modeled easily with the standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cross power density spectrum to obtain a good proxy of the white noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this way, most of the standard timing analysis can be performed, albeit with a sacrifice in signal to noise relative to what would be achieved using more standard techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1 and GRS 1915+105.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized the broad-band X-ray spectra of Swift J1745-26 during the decay of the 2013 outburst using INTEGRAL ISGRI, JEM-X and Swift XRT. The X-ray evolution is compared to the evolution in optical and radio. We fit the X- ray spectra with phenomenological and Comptonization models. We discuss possible scenarios for the physical origin of a ~50 day flare observed both in optical and X- rays ~170 days after the peak of the outburst. We conclude that it is a result of enhanced mass accretion in response to an earlier heating event. We characterized the evolution in the hard X-ray band and showed that for the joint ISGRI-XRT fits, the e-folding energy decreased from 350 keV to 130 keV, while the energy where the exponential cut-off starts increased from 75 keV to 112 keV as the decay progressed.We investigated the claim that high energy cut-offs disappear with the compact jet turning on during outburst decays, and showed that spectra taken with HEXTE on RXTE provide insufficient quality to characterize cut-offs during the decay for typical hard X-ray fluxes. Long INTEGRAL monitoring observations are required to understand the relation between the compact jet formation and hard X-ray behavior. We found that for the entire decay (including the flare), the X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal Comptonization, but a jet synchrotron origin cannot be ruled out.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report on Swift and Suzaku observations near the end of an outburst from the black hole transient 4U 1630-47 and Chandra observations when the source was in quiescence. 4U 1630-47 made a transition from a soft state to the hard state ~50 d after the main outburst ended. During this unusual delay, the flux continued to drop, and one Swift measurement found the source with a soft spectrum at a 2-10 keV luminosity of L = 1.07e35 erg/s for an estimated distance of 10 kpc. While such transients usually make a transition to the hard state at L/Ledd = 0.3-3%, where Ledd is the Eddington luminosity, the 4U 1630-47 spectrum remained soft at L/Ledd = 0.008/M10% (as measured in the 2-10 keV band), where M10 is the mass of the black hole in units of 10 solar masses. An estimate of the luminosity in the broader 0.5-200 keV bandpass gives L/Ledd = 0.03/M10%, which is still an order of magnitude lower than typical. We also measured an exponential decay of the X-ray flux in the hard state with an e-folding time of 3.39+/-0.06 d, which is much less than previous measurements of 12-15 d during decays by 4U 1630-47 in the soft state. With the ~100 ks Suzaku observation, we do not see evidence for a reflection component, and the 90% confidence limits on the equivalent width of a narrow iron Kalpha emission line are <40 eV for a narrow line and <100 eV for a line of any width, which is consistent with a change of geometry (either a truncated accretion disk or a change in the location of the hard X-ray source) in the hard state. Finally, we report a 0.5-8 keV luminosity upper limit of <2e32 erg/s in quiescence, which is the lowest value measured for 4U 1630-47 to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 791(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present NuSTAR spectral and timing studies of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. The spectrum is well-described by a ~1 keV blackbody and a hard continuum component, as expected from an accreting X-ray pulsar. We detect a cyclotron line at 17 keV, confirming that the compact object in IGR J17544-2619 is indeed a neutron star. This is the first measurement of the magnetic field in a SFXT. The inferred magnetic field strength, B = (1.45 +/- 0.03) * 10^12 G * (1+z) is typical of neutron stars in X-ray binaries, and rules out a magnetar nature for the compact object. We do not find any significant pulsations in the source on time scales of 1-2000 s.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg$^2$ of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5-473332, CXOU J163350.9-474638, and CXOU J163355.1-473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 791(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report NuSTAR observations of the millisecond pulsar - low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) transition system PSR J1023+0038 from June and October 2013, before and after the formation of an accretion disk around the neutron star. Between June 10-12, a few days to two weeks before the radio disappearance of the pulsar, the 3-79 keV X-ray spectrum was well fit by a simple power law with a photon index of Gamma=1.17 +/-0.08 (at 90% confidence) with a 3-79 keV luminosity of 7.4+/-0.4 x 10^32 erg/s. Significant orbital modulation was observed with a modulation fraction of 36+/-10%. During the October 19-21 observation, the spectrum is described by a softer power law (Gamma=1.66+/-0.06) with an average luminosity of 5.8+/-0.2 x 10^33 erg/s and a peak luminosity of ~1.2 x 10^34 erg/s observed during a flare. No significant orbital modulation was detected. The spectral observations are consistent with previous and current multi-wavelength observations and show the hard X-ray power law extending to 79 keV without a spectral break. Sharp edged, flat bottomed `dips' are observed with widths between 30-1000 s and ingress and egress time-scales of 30-60 s. No change in hardness ratio was observed during the dips. Consecutive dip separations are log-normal in distribution with a typical separation of approximately 400 s. These dips are distinct from dipping activity observed in LMXBs. We compare and contrast these dips to observations of dips and state changes in the similar transition systems PSR J1824-2452I and XSS J1227.0-4859 and discuss possible interpretations based on the transitions in the inner disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 791(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on CTIO/NEWFIRM and CTIO/OSIRIS photometric and spectroscopic observations of 20 new X-ray (0.5-10 keV) emitters discovered in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS). NEWFIRM photometry was obtained to pinpoint the near-infrared counterparts of NARCS sources, while OSIRIS spectroscopy was used to help identify 20 sources with possible high mass X-ray binary properties. We find that (1) two sources are WN8 Wolf-Rayet stars, maybe in colliding wind binaries, part of the massive star cluster Mercer 81; (2) two are emission-line stars, possibly in X-ray binaries, that exhibit near- and mid-infrared excesses either due to free-free emission from the decretion discs of Be stars or warm dust in the stellar winds of peculiar massive stars such as B[e] supergiants or luminous blue variables; (3) one is a B8-A3 IV-V star that could be in a quiescent high mass X-ray binary system; (4) two are cataclysmic variables including one intermediate polar; (5) three may be neutron star symbiotic binaries; (6) five are most likely white dwarf symbiotic binaries; and (7) five exhibit properties more consistent with isolated giant/dwarf stars. The possible detection of one to three high mass X-ray binaries is in good agreement with our predictions. However, our study illustrates the difficulty of clearly differentiating quiescent or intermediate X-ray luminosity systems from isolated massive stars, which may lead to an underestimation of the number of known high mass X-ray binaries.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative 9.758(44) × 10–13, yielding a spin-down luminosity 4.4 × 1036 erg s–1, characteristic age 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 1.4 × 1013 G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n 2, and that its initial spin period was P 0 ~ 15 ms.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 788(2):155. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative Pdot = 9.758(44)E-13, yielding a spin-down luminosity Edot = 4.4E36 erg s-1, characteristic age = P/2Pdot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 1.4E13 G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2 - 10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present Edot. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using 5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broad-band spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is approximately 2, and that its initial spin period was Po ~ 15 ms.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6--471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the {\em Chandra} X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the {\em Chandra} spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived {\em XMM-Newton} observation results in best fit parameters $N_{\rm H}$ $=1.5^{+0.7}_{-0.5}\times10^{23} \text{cm}{^{-2}}$ and $\Gamma=1.1^{+0.7}_{-0.6}$ (90$%$ confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then $L_X\sim 4.8\times10^{33}d_{10}^2$ergs s$^{-1}$ with $d_{10}=d/10$kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 (MGPS-2) shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1 x 10^(33) erg/s (for D=1kpc), with around 60 percent in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with an 18 keV electron temperature, which can be understood as arising in a radiatively-inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) if only a small fraction of the mass flow reaches the neutron star. We suggest that most of the accretion flow is centrifugally inhibited by the magnetic propeller effect. The power-law cutoff energy is set by the degree of Compton cooling of the RIAF electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star atmosphere. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen~X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: GRO J1008$-$57 is a high-mass X-ray binary for which several claims of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature near 80 keV have been reported. We use NuSTAR, Suzaku, and Swift data from its giant outburst of November 2012 to confirm the existence of the 80 keV feature and perform the most sensitive search to date for cyclotron scattering features at lower energies. We find evidence for a 78$^{+3}_{-2}$ keV line in the NuSTAR and Suzaku data at $> 4\sigma$ significance, confirming the detection using Suzaku alone by Yamamoto et al. (2014). A search of both the time-integrated and phase-resolved data rules out a fundamental at lower energies with optical depth larger than 5% of the 78 keV line. These results indicate that GRO J1008$-$57 has a magnetic field of $6.7\times10^{12} (1+z)$ G, the highest of known accreting pulsars.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectral analysis of three simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift/XRT observations of the transient Be-neutron star binary KS 1947+300 taken during its outburst in 2013/2014. These broad-band observations were supported by Swift/XRT monitoring snap-shots every 3 days, which we use to study the evolution of the spectrum over the outburst. We find strong changes of the power-law photon index, which shows a weak trend of softening with increasing X-ray flux. The neutron star shows very strong pulsations with a period of P ~ 18.8 s. The 0.8-79 keV broad-band spectrum can be described by a power-law with an exponential cutoff and a black-body component at low energies. During the second observation we detect a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 12.5 keV, which is absent in the phase-averaged spectra of observations 1 and 3. Pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that the strength of the feature changes strongly with pulse phase and is most prominent during the broad minimum of the pulse profile. At the same phases the line also becomes visible in the first and third observation at the same energy. This discovery implies that KS 1947+300 has a magnetic field strength of B ~ 1.1e12 (1+z)G, which is at the lower end of known cyclotron line sources.
    03/2014; 784(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Sagittarius A$^{\star}$ harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A$^{\star}$ spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Here we report the detection with the NuSTAR observatory in Summer and Fall 2012 of four low to medium amplitude X-ray flares to energies up to 79 keV. For the first time, we clearly see that the power-law spectrum of Sagittarius A$^{\star}$ X-ray flares extends to high energy, with no evidence for a cut off. Although the photon index of the absorbed power-law fits are in agreement with past observations, we find a difference between the photon index of two of the flares (significant at the 95% confidence level). The spectra of the two brightest flares (~55 times quiescence in the 2-10 keV band) are compared to simple physical models in an attempt to identify the main X-ray emission mechanism, but the data do not allow us to significantly discriminate between them. However, we confirm the previous finding that the parameters obtained with synchrotron models are, for the X-ray emission, physically more reasonable than those obtained with inverse-Compton models. One flare exhibits large and rapid (< 100 s) variability, which, considering the total energy radiated, constrains the location of the flaring region to be within ~10 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 786(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift-XRT, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power-law is required at $>4\sigma$ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at $2\times10^5$ and $10^6$ seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive black body or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant ($10^8$ cm), while the second powerlaw component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi-LAT.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2014; 784(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
884.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Georgia College and State University
      Georgia, United States
  • 2005–2014
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1996–2014
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • North Carolina State University
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2001–2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France