J. A. Tomsick

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (343)990.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We report on multi-wavelength measurements of Swift J1753.5-0127 in the hard state at L=2.7e36 erg/s (assuming d=3 kpc) in 2014. The radio emission is optically thick synchrotron, presumably from a compact jet. We take advantage of the low extinction and model the near-IR to UV emission with a multi-temperature disk model. Assuming a BH mass of M_BH=5 Msun and a system inclination of 40 deg, the fits imply an inner radius for the disk of Rin/Rg>212 d_3 (5Msun/M_BH). The outer radius is R_out/R_g=90,000 d_3 (5Msun/M_BH), which corresponds to 6.6e10 d_3 cm, consistent with the expected size of the disk. The 0.5-240 keV spectrum measured by Swift/XRT, Suzaku, and NuSTAR is relatively well characterized by a power-law with a photon index of Gamma=1.722+/-0.003, but a significant improvement is seen when a second continuum component is added. Reflection is a possibility, but no iron line is detected, implying a low iron abundance. We are able to fit the entire SED with a multi-temperature disk component, a Comptonization component, and a broken power-law, representing the emission from the compact jet. The broken power-law cannot significantly contribute to the soft X-ray emission, and this may be related to why Swift J1753.5-0127 is an outlier in the radio/X-ray correlation. The broken power-law might dominate above 20 keV, which would constrain the break frequency to be between 2.4e10 Hz and 3.6e12 Hz. Although the fits to the full SED do not include significant thermal emission in the X-ray band, previous observations have consistently seen such a component, and we find that there is evidence at the 3.1-sigma level for a disk-blackbody component with a temperature of 150(+30)(-20) eV and an inner radius of 5-14 R_g. If this component is real, it might imply the presence of an inner accretion disk in addition to the strongly truncated (R_in>212 R_g) disk.
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    ABSTRACT: The black hole candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in October 2013. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state: the spectra show a broad relativistic iron line, and the light curves reveal a ~40 ks flare with the count rate peaking about 40% above the non-flare level and with significant spectral variation. A model combining a multi-temperature thermal component, a power-law, and a reflection component with an iron line provides a good description of the NuSTAR spectrum. Although relativistic broadening of the iron line is observed, it is not possible to constrain the black hole spin with these data. The variability of the power-law component, which can also be modeled as a Comptonization component, is responsible for the flux and spectral change during the flare, suggesting that changes in the corona (or possibly continued jet activity) are the likely cause of the flare.
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral analysis of five NuSTAR and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst in summer 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range ~0.9-6%. Throughout this outburst, GX 339-4 stayed in the hard state, and all five observations show similar X-ray spectra with a hard power-law with a photon index near 1.6 and significant contribution from reflection. Using simple reflection models we find unrealistically high iron abundances. Allowing for different photon indices for the continuum incident on the reflector relative to the underlying observed continuum results in a statistically better fit and reduced iron abundances. With a photon index around 1.3, the input power-law on the reflector is significantly harder than that which is directly observed. We study the influence of different emissivity profiles and geometries and consistently find an improvement when using separate photon indices. The inferred inner accretion disk radius is strongly model dependent, but we do not find evidence for a truncation radius larger than 100 r_g in any model. The data do not allow independent spin constraints but the results are consistent with the literature (i.e., a>0). Our best-fit models indicate an inclination angle in the range 40-60 degrees, consistent with limits on the orbital inclination but higher than reported in the literature using standard reflection models. The iron line around 6.4 keV is clearly broadened, and we detect a superimposed narrow core as well. This core originates from a fluorescence region outside the influence of the strong gravity of the black hole and we discuss possible geometries.
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    ABSTRACT: The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly known as the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray telescope (0.2-5 MeV) designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear-line emission and gamma-ray polarization. The heart of COSI is a compact array of cross-strip germanium detectors (GeDs), providing excellent spectral resolution ( ) and the capability to track individual photon interactions with full 3D position resolution to 1.6 mm3. COSI is built upon considerable heritage from the previous NCT balloon instrument, which has flown successfully on two conventional balloon flights to date. The Crab Nebula was detected at a significance of 6σ in the second flight, which is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a compact Compton telescope. COSI has been upgraded from the previous NCT instrument to be an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) payload, utilizing a new detector configuration optimized for polarization sensitivity and employing a mechanical cryocooler to remove consumables (LN2) for ULDB flights. The instrument is being integrated for a ULDB flight in December 2014 from Antarctica on a superpressure balloon. Here we will present the redesign of the instrument and our current progress in preparing for the flight.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 06/2015; 784:359-363. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2014.11.099 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broad-band spectra in unprecedented detail. We confirm that the iron line cannot be fit with a combination of narrow lines and absorption features, and instead requires a relativistically blurred profile in combination with a narrow line and absorption from the companion wind. We use the reflection models of Garcia et al. (2014) to simultaneously measure the black hole spin, disk inner radius, and coronal height in a self-consistent manner. Detailed fits to the iron line profile indicate a high level of relativistic blurring, indicative of reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find a high spin, a small inner disk radius, and a low source height, and rule out truncation to greater than three gravitational radii at the 3{\sigma} confidence level. In addition, we find that the line profile has not changed greatly in the switch from soft to hard states, and that the differences are consistent with changes in the underlying reflection spectrum rather than the relativistic blurring. We find that the blurring parameters are consistent when fitting either just the iron line or the entire broad-band spectrum, which is well modelled with a Comptonized continuum plus reflection model.
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral analysis of NuSTAR and Swift observations of Cep X-4 during its outburst in 2014. We observed the source once during the peak of the outburst and once during the decay, finding good agreement in the spectral shape between the observations. We describe the continuum using a powerlaw with a Fermi-Dirac cutoff at high energies. Cep X-4 has a very strong cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) around 30 keV. A simple absorption-like line with a Gaussian optical depth or a pseudo-Lorentzian profile both fail to describe the shape of the CRSF accurately, leaving significant deviations at the red side of the line. We characterize this asymmetry with a second absorption feature around 19 keV. The line energy of the CRSF, which is not influenced by the addition of this feature, shows a small but significant positive luminosity dependence. With luminosities between (1-6)e36 erg/s, Cep X-4 is below the theoretical limit where such a correlation is expected. This behavior is similar to Vela X-1 and we discuss parallels between the two systems.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Swift observations of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856. We measure the orbital period to be 16.544+/-0.008 days using Swift data spanning 1900 days. The orbital period is different from the 2011 gamma-ray measurement which was used in the previous X-ray study of An et al. (2013) using ~400 days of Swift data, but is consistent with a new gamma-ray solution reported in 2014. The light curve folded on the new period is qualitatively similar to that reported previously, having a spike at phase 0 and broad sinusoidal modulation. The X-ray flux enhancement at phase 0 occurs more regularly in time than was previously suggested. A spiky structure at this phase seems to be a persistent feature, although there is some variability. Furthermore, we find that the source flux clearly correlates with the spectral hardness throughout all orbital phases, and that the broadband X-ray spectra measured with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift are well fit with an unbroken power-law model. This spectrum suggests that the system may not be accretion-powered.
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    ABSTRACT: The Galactic Centre hosts a puzzling stellar population in its inner few parsecs, with a high abundance of surprisingly young, relatively massive stars bound within the deep potential well of the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (ref. 1). Previous studies suggest that the population of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10 kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre.
    Nature 04/2015; 520(7549):646-9. DOI:10.1038/nature14353 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/HETG-NuSTAR observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 years of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5-70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors, and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disc, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4x10^7 cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B~9x10^10 G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV feature into (quasi-)neutral and highly ionized Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission lines. XSTAR modeling shows these lines to also emanate from a truncated accretion disk. The burst spectra, with a peak flux more than an order of magnitude higher than Eddington, are well fit with a power-law with an exponential rolloff and a 10~keV feature, with similar fit values compared to the persistent and dip spectra. The burst spectra lack a thermal component and any Fe features. Anisotropic (beamed) burst emission would explain both the lack of the BB and any Fe components.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 804(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/43 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we report on observations of two hard X-ray sources that were originally discovered with the INTEGRAL satellite: IGR J04059+5416 and IGR J08297-4250. We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to localize the sources and then archival near-IR images to identify the counterparts. Both sources have counterparts in the catalog of extended 2 Micron All-Sky Survey sources, and the counterpart to IGR J04059+5416 has been previously identified as a galaxy. Thus, we place IGR J04059+5416 in the class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and we suggest that IGR J08297-4250 is also an AGN. If this identification is correct, the near-IR images suggest that the host galaxy of IGR J08297-4250 may be merging with a smaller nearby galaxy. For IGR J04059+5416, the 0.3-86 keV spectrum from Chandra and INTEGRAL is consistent with an absorbed power-law with a column density of N_H = 3.1(+2.0)(-1.5)e22 cm-2 and a photon index of Gamma = 1.4+/-0.7, and we suggest that it is a Seyfert galaxy. For IGR J08297-4250, the photon index is similar, Gamma = 1.5+/-0.8, but the source is highly absorbed (N_H = 6.1(+10.1)(-4.3)e23 cm-2).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2015; 449(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv325 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As of 2014 August, the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) had observed ~30 X-ray binaries either as part of the planned program, as targets of opportunity, or for instrument calibration. The main science goals for the observations include probing the inner part of the accretion disk and constraining black hole spins via reflection components, providing the first observations of hard X-ray emission from quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs), measuring cyclotron lines from accreting pulsars, and studying type I X-ray bursts from neutron stars. Here, we describe the science objectives in more depth and give an overview of the NuSTAR observations that have been carried out to achieve the objectives. These include observation of four "IGR" High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) discovered by INTEGRAL. We also summarize the results that have been obtained and their implications. Among the IGR HMXBs, we focus on the discovery of a cyclotron line in the spectrum of IGR J17544-2619.
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    ABSTRACT: This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of the physics of accretion and ejection around compact objects. For a summary, we refer to the paper.
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-wavelength analysis of the young massive cluster VVV CL077 is presented for the first time. Our Chandra survey of this region enabled the detection of three X-ray emitting stellar members of the cluster, as well as a possible diffuse X-ray component that extends a few arcseconds from the cluster core with an intrinsic flux of (9+/-3)x10^-14 erg cm^-2 s^-1 in the 0.5-10 keV band. Infrared spectra we obtained for two of these X-ray point sources show absorption lines typical of the atmospheres of massive O stars. The X-ray spectrum from the visible extent of VVV CL077 i.e., a 15"-radius around the cluster, can be modeled with an absorbed power law with nH = (6+/-4)x10^22 cm^-2 and gamma = 2+/-1. In addition, the X-ray core of VVV CL077 coincides with diffuse emission seen in the infrared band and with a local maximum in the radio continuum map. A possible association with a neighboring H II region would place VVV CL077 at a distance of around 11 kpc; on the far side of the Norma Arm. At this distance, the cluster is 0.8 pc wide with a mass density of (1-4)x10^3 Msol pc^-3.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 801(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/801/1/49 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star low mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was $6\times 10^{34}$ erg~s$^{-1}$ on 2013 July 31, and $5\times 10^{35}$ erg~s$^{-1}$ in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800-s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, a H mass fraction $X=0.7$ in the atmosphere, and a neutron star mass $M=1.4 M_{\odot}$, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of $6.3 \pm 0.5$ kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the neutron star, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6\% confidence level (1.7 $\sigma$), a narrow absorption line at $5.46\pm0.10$ keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. (1984). We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the neutron star by a resonant K$\alpha$ transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor $1+z=1.09$, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0 -- 41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4 -- 2.0 $M_{\odot}$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/123 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising "low/hard" state, at a flux of ~0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray "corona". Two models that explicitly assume a "lamppost" corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h = 5 (+7, -2) GM/c^2 and h = 18 +/-4 GM/c^2 (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a "lamppost" return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739-278 find that the accretion disk extends very close to the black hole - the least stringent constraint is r = 5 (+3,-4) GM/c^2. Only two of the models deliver meaningful spin constraints, but a = 0.8 +/-0.2 is consistent with all of the fits. Overall, the data provide especially compelling evidence of an association between compact hard X-ray coronae and the base of relativistic radio jets in black holes.
    11/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/799/1/L6
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    ABSTRACT: We use a 43-ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to $\approx$45 keV and the blazar beyond.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/24 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of ultraluminous X-ray sources are point sources that are spatially offset from the nuclei of nearby galaxies and whose X-ray luminosities exceed the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their X-ray luminosities in the 0.5-10 kiloelectronvolt energy band range from 10(39) to 10(41) ergs per second. Because higher masses imply less extreme ratios of the luminosity to the isotropic Eddington limit, theoretical models have focused on black hole rather than neutron star systems. The most challenging sources to explain are those at the luminous end of the range (more than 10(40) ergs per second), which require black hole masses of 50-100 times the solar value or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries, or both. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82 that reveal pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds and a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to an X-ray luminosity in the 3-30 kiloelectronvolt range of 4.9 × 10(39) ergs per second. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable source that can reach an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt range of 1.8 × 10(40) ergs per second. This association implies a luminosity of about 100 times the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects.
    Nature 10/2014; 514(7521):202-4. DOI:10.1038/nature13791 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of PSR J1101-6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014-6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A at v>1000 km/s. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity E_dot = 1.36e36 erg/s, characteristic age Tau_c = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength B_s = 7.4e11 G. In comparison to Tau_c, the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11-61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 < P_0 < 60 ms. PSR J1101-6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's E-dot. However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2014; 795(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/795/2/L27 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new way of describing the flares occurring from Sgr A* within a single zone with a self-consistent calculation of the particle distribution. The results allow us to give an interpretation to the flaring events generated very close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) without assuming a specific particle distribution. We conclude that the flare data are more likely generated by a weakly magnetized plasma in which the particles flow in and out as expected from an accretion flow. Such a plasma, with prescription for non-thermal acceleration, injection, escape, and cooling losses, gives a spectrum with a break between the infra-red and the X-ray, allowing a better simultaneous match in the different wavelengths. The parameters favor the non-thermal synchrotron spectrum, and a decrease/increase of the magnetic field and plasma density are not favored for producing the flare event, but particle acceleration must be happening by other means. We show that under certain conditions, the real particle distribution can differ significantly from the standard distributions used in such studies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 10/2014; 9(S303):293-297. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314000763
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\geq3\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic CVs dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars (IPs) and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to $f_X\approx10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 796(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/796/2/105 · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
990.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1997–2014
    • Columbia University
      • • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      • • Department of Physics
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2001–2013
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      Лос-Аламос, California, United States
  • 2009
    • SSL
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2008
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2001–2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands