[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the central issues in developmental neurobiology is how the forebrain is organized ontogenetically. The traditional view is that the anterior neuroectoderm first develops into mesencephalic and prosencephalic vesicles; the latter vesicle subsequently develops into the diencephalon and secondary prosencephalon, of which dorsal parts protrude to generate the telencephalon. The diencephalon yields the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus, and the telencephalon produces the archipallium, neopallium, and ganglionic eminences. By identifying cell descendants that once expressed Emx2 with use of the Cre knock-in mutant into the Emx2 locus and analyzing phenotypes of double mutants between Emx2 and Otx2/Otx1 and between Emx2 and Pax6, we propose that at the 3-6 somite stage, the anterior neuroectoderm develops into three primordia: midbrain, caudal forebrain, and rostral forebrain. The caudal forebrain primordium generates not only the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus but also the archipallium, cortical hem, choroid plexus, choroidal roof, and eminentia thalami. The primordium corresponds to the Emx2- or Pax6-positive region at the 3-6 somite stage that most probably does not include the future neopallium or commissural plate. Otx2 and Otx1 that are expressed in the entire future forebrain and midbrain cooperate with this Emx2 and Pax6 expression in the development of the caudal forebrain primordium; Emx2 and Pax6 functions are redundant. In the embryonic day 9.5 Emx2-/-Pax6-/- double mutant, the caudal forebrain remained unspecified and subsequently transformed into tectum in a mirror image of the endogenous one.
Journal of Neuroscience 06/2005; 25(21):5097-108. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel gene, cfm, that is expressed uniquely during early forebrain and midbrain development was isolated, and its null mutant was generated. cfm does not have any known functional domains, but is conserved in human, chick, Xenopus and zebrafish; a site of phosphorylation by MAP kinase exists in one of the domains conserved among them. Its expression was initially found at the 5-somite stage in the future midbrain and caudal forebrain region. The expression in mesencephalon subsequently decreased, was found in a stripe in the mid mesencephalon at E9.0. The expression in diencephalon was restricted to the dorsal thalamic region by E9.5 and to epiphysis at E12.5. In mouse a cognate, cfm2, exists that is expressed uniquely in the somite just formed and the presomite to be segmented, but not in forebrain or midbrain during early development. However, the cfm null mutant was live-born without any apparent defects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To find genes that play roles in initial regionalization of anterior neuroectoderm, 15 novel genes were isolated that are expressed in anterior neuroectoderm at E8.0-E8.5. Moreover, to assess their functions by generation of mutant mice a conventional targeting strategy was designed, exploiting the availability of accurate long amplification PCR and BAC library that is coupled with genome information, in C57BL/6 strain. The ang is one of such genes; it has no known functional domains or no cognates, but is conserved not only in vertebrates, but also in Drosophila. Its expression was initially found throughout neuroectoderm at E7.5; subsequently the expression became high in rostral brain and caudal neuropore regions and low in hindbrain and spinal cord regions. At E12.5 the expression was found in undifferentiated neuroepithelium in ventricular zone, dorsal root ganglia and several non-neural tissues. However, ang null mutant was live-born without any apparent defects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emx1 and Emx2 are mouse cognates of the Drosophila head gap gene, ems. Previously we have reported that the dentate gyrus is affected in Emx2 single mutants, and defects are subtle in Emx1 single mutants. In most of the cortical region Emx1 and Emx2 functions would be redundant. To test this assumption here we examined the Emx1 and Emx2 double mutant phenotype. In the double mutants the archipallium was transformed into the roof without establishing the signaling center at the cortical hem and without developing the choroid plexus. We propose that Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate in generation of the boundary between the roof and archipallium; these genes develop the archipallium against the roof. This process probably occurs immediately after the neural tube closure concomitant with the Emx1 expression.
Mechanisms of Development 06/2004; 121(5):475-89. · 2.38 Impact Factor