Magdalena Malec

University of Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (7)18.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Short term hyperglycemia has previously been shown to induce a blood flow increase in the retina. The mechanism behind this effect is poorly understood. We set out to investigate whether exercise-induced hyperlactatemia may alter the response of retinal blood flow to hyperglycemia. We performed a randomized, controlled two-way cross over study comprising 12 healthy subjects, performed a 6-minutes period of dynamic exercise during an euglcaemic or hyperglycaemic insulin clamp. Retinal blood flow was assessed by combined vessel size measurement with the Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer and measurement of red blood cell velocities using bi-directional laser Doppler velocimetry. Retinal and systemic hemodynamic parameters were measured before, immediately after and 10 and 20 minutes after isometric exercise. On the euglycemic study day retinal blood flow increased after dynamic exercise. The maximum increase in retinal blood flow was observed 10 minutes after the end of exercise when lactate plasma concentration peaked. Hyperglycemia increased retinal blood flow under basal conditions, but had no incremental effect during exercise induced hyperlactatemia. Our results indicate that both lactate and glucose induce an increase in retinal blood flow in healthy humans. This may indicate a common pathway between glucose and lactate induced blood flow changes in the human retina.
    Current Eye Research 06/2004; 28(5):351-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has recently been reported that light/dark transitions lead to changes in choroidal blood flow. Several observations indicate that these changes in choroidal perfusion are triggered at least in part by neural mechanisms. In the present study we hypothesised that the choroidal blood flow response to changes in retinal illumination may be modified by either the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine or by the beta-receptor antagonist propranolol. In 15 healthy subjects the response of choroidal perfusion was studied in a randomised placebo-controlled three way cross-over study using laser Doppler flowmetry and laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation amplitude. Before drug administration a transition from light to dark reduced both choroidal haemodynamic parameters by 8%-12%. Neither propranolol nor atropine altered basal choroidal blood flow or choroidal blood flow responses to light/dark transitions. Our data indicate that neither muscarinic nor beta-receptors are involved in the choroidal blood flow response to changes in retinal illumination. Further studies are required to elucidate which mechanisms contribute to this blood flow behaviour of the choroid.
    Vision Research 10/2003; 43(20):2185-90. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that the choroid has some autoregulatory capacity in response to changes in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). The mediators of this response are hitherto unidentified. The hypothesis for the current study was that endothelin (ET)-1 and/or angiotensin (ANF)-II may be involved in choroidal vasoconstriction during an increase in OPP. To test this hypothesis a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three way crossover study was performed in 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received on different study days intravenous infusions of the specific ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril or placebo. During these infusion periods subjects were asked to squat for 6 minutes. Choroidal blood flow was measured using a confocal laser Doppler flowmeter and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure. BQ-123 and enalapril had no effect on basal blood pressure, pulse rate, intraocular pressure, or choroidal blood flow. During isometric exercise, a pronounced increase in mean arterial pressure paralleled by an increase in OPP was observed. Although choroidal blood flow slightly increased during squatting, the increase was much less pronounced than the increase in OPP, indicating some regulatory potential of the choroid. Enalapril did not alter the choroidal pressure-flow relationship during isometric exercise, but BQ-123 induced a significant leftward shift of the pressure-flow curve (P < 0.001). The present data indicate that ET-1, but not ANG II, plays a role in choroidal blood flow regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans. Hence, impaired choroidal autoregulation in patients with ocular vascular diseases may arise from an altered endothelin system. Further studies in such patients are warranted to verify this hypothesis.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 02/2003; 44(2):728-33. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although rofecoxib has very high selectivity for cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), supratherapeutic rofecoxib concentrations (> 1000 mg) inhibit purified human COX-1 in vitro and TXB2 formation in vivo. It is therefore possible that higher doses of rofecoxib may affect platelet function. This could be important if rofecoxib is given to thrombocytopenic patients. In these cases, already moderate inhibition of platelet function could precipitate bleeding complications. We therefore set out to investigate the influence of rofecoxib on platelet function in healthy volunteers. We set up a balanced-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two way cross-over study. Peripheral blood was withdrawn from 42 healthy volunteers before and 3 hours after intake of 50, 250, 500 mg of rofecoxib or placebo (n = 14 per group). Platelet function was assessed by a platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) which measures collagen-epinephrine induced closure time (CEPI-CT) under shear stress. CEPI-CT increased by 14% (p = 0.002) and 11% (p = 0.003) three hours after intake of placebo and rofecoxib at dosages of up to 500 mg, respectively. The increase in CEPI-CT versus baseline was not significantly different in the placebo period compared with the active treatment periods (n = 42, p > 0.05). Rofecoxib does not impair platelet function. Thus, rofecoxib appears to be a valuable analgetic and antipyretic agent in the therapy of patients at risk for bleeding.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2003; 21(2):229-31. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The blue-field entoptic technique was introduced more than 20 years ago to quantify perimacular white blood cell flux. However, a final confirmation that the perceived corpuscles represent leukocytes is still unavailable. The study design was randomized, placebo-controlled, and double masked with two parallel groups. Fifteen healthy male subjects received a single dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, 300 microg) and 15 other subjects received placebo. The following parameters were assessed at baseline and at 12 minutes and 8 hours after administration: retinal white blood cell flux, with the blue-field entoptic technique; retinal blood velocities, with bidirectional laser Doppler velocimetry; retinal venous diameter determined with a retinal vessel analyzer; and blood pressure and pulse rate determined by automated oscillometry and pulse oxymetry, respectively. After 12 minutes, G-CSF reduced total leukocyte count from 5.5 +/- 1.4 10(9)/L at baseline to 1.9 +/- 0.4 10(9)/L. This was paralleled by a 35% +/- 11% decrease in retinal white blood cell density. After 8 hours G-CSF increased total leukocyte counts to 20.0 +/- 4.4 10(9)/L. Again, this increase in circulating leukocytes was reflected by an increase in retinal white blood cell density (110% +/- 48%). All effects were significant at P < 0.001. By contrast, none of the other hemodynamic parameters was changed by administration of G-CSF. The results clearly indicate that the blue-field entoptic technique assesses leukocyte movement in the perimacular capillaries of the retina. Moreover, white blood cell density appears to adequately reflect the number of circulating leukocytes within the retinal microvasculature. Hence, an increase in retinal white blood cell density does not necessarily reflect retinal vasodilatation.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 05/2002; 43(5):1520-4. · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology 01/2002; 19(3):208-209. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is recent evidence that the perfusion of the choroid changes during dark-light transitions. We set out to investigate this response in more detail and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in this process. For this purpose, the effect of dark-light transitions on choroidal perfusion was studied in healthy subjects. Choroidal blood flow and ocular fundus pulsation amplitude were measured as indices of choroidal perfusion during dark-light transitions using laser Doppler flowmetry and laser interferometry, respectively. In the first experiment, subjects were first kept in room light for 20 min, then light conditions were changed to darkness for 20 min, and thereafter, subjects were exposed to room light again. Both choroidal parameters decreased (-12% to -14%) during darkness but returned to baseline after the final room light period. In the second experiment, the index eye underwent the same procedure, whereas the contralateral eye was kept in light throughout the experiment. Choroidal haemodynamic parameters in the index eye reacted in a way comparable to that seen in the first experiment. The eye that was kept in light also reacted, but the effect tended to be less pronounced than that seen in the index eye (-8% to -10%). The observation that choroidal blood flow in both eyes reacts during unilateral light-dark transitions indicates that choroidal perfusion rate is adapted to retinal illumination conditions by neural control mechanisms.
    Vision Research 11/2001; 41(22):2919-24. · 2.14 Impact Factor